Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, August 20, 1919, Page 4, Image 4

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    4
TIIE MORNING OREGONIAN, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 20x 1919.
PflESIDEWT PLEADS
E
Senators Hold Conference at
White House.
FULL REPORT IS TAKEN
Wilson Tells Committee He Thinks
Japan Will Get Ont of
Shamans.
fror,rrnod Trim nrrt Pace.)
position of the German Pacific island
cessities of the nations of the old
we rid."
I do not understand that we do sur
render. rep; led tha president.
"Would you not understand a decree
by the council to bs a suggestion of
this moral obligation?
"Certainly I would, but wo would
nave to concur In that before it bad
acy force of any kind."
"Then what permanent Talue la there
to this cnmpactr
"The great permanent value is the
point th.it I have raised. We are as-
sumlng that the United States will not
cor.rur In the greatest moral judgment
of the world. In my opinion she gen
erally will
Oae Vote for Waste Kaaplre.
Asked whether all the British do
minions would be barred from voting
on any question affecting the British
empire, the president said that In such
a case the entire empire would have
but one vote.
Referring to the clause In the special
defensUe treaty with France which
provides that it csn come into force
draft had been constituted the basis.
I thought afterward that that was
misleading and I am very glad to tell
the committee just what I meant.
"Some months before the conference
assembled a plan for the league of na
tions had been drawn up by a Britlah
committee at the head of which was
Mr. Fillemore I believe the Mr.
Fillemore who was known as the au
thority on international law. A copy
of that document was sent to me, and
I built upon that a redraft. I will not
now say whether I thought . it was
better or not an improvement; but I
built on that a draft which was quite
different, inasmuch as I put definite
ness where there had been what seemed
lndeflniteness in the Fillemore sug
gestion. Then, between that time and
the time of the formation of the com
mission of the league of nations, I
had the advantage of seeing a paper
by General Smuts of South Africa, who
seemed to me to have done some very
clear thinking, particularly with re
gard to what was to be done with the
pieces of the dismembered empire.
Smuts Ideas Embodied.
only if approved by the league, Mr.
Biandegee asked whether it was con-1 , . . , .
sjltutlonallv Dror for the n.i. to "Before I got to Paris, therefore, I
approve a treaty with the decision of rewrote the document to which I have
Its validity left to a body not yet or- alluded and you may have noticed that
gai.xied. The president said he saw no I It consists of a series of articles and
objection. I then supplementary agreements. It
"It la true. Is it not. Asked Senator I . ... .
Of Yap on . suggestion that it was Brandegee. "that if difficulties arise 'ft I em bod ied the ad d i t io na 1 ideas
needed for an American naval station. I" construction of any provision that had come to me not only from
5om. of th. ..nator n,iPrtinn the L lr. """""" ""r we General Smuts" paper, but from other
Some of the senators questions the . have passed from the scene, what we dl,CU8sions. Tht vis 'tne fuU 8tory of
;.uuB..i ... Vry ....,. moan i m mil how the pan which I sent to the com-
poeriui in tne construction mittee was built up.
in ue piacca upon it Dy mose I ge
wno inen nave to determine wnat It that the General Smuts
"The vote of the United States will
be essential." Mr. Wilson replied.
president declined to answer on the
ground of international policy. How
the American delegates voted on
Japan's proposal for a racial equality
clause in the league covenant he said
he could not disclose "in the interest
of international good understanding,"
and for the same reason he said he
could not go into the negotiations over
the French frontier or give the com
mittee a copy of the record of Japan's
Shantung promise.
Early action on the treaty was urged
In a statement by the president at the
outset of the conference. This was
necessary, he held, so that a peace
basis might be reacned. and the other
trestle under negotiation now at
Versailles were being delayed until the
world learned what would happen to
the treaty with Germany. He said
he saw no reasonable objection to sen
ate reservations, but thought it unwise
to incorporate them in the ratifica
tion itself.
Moral Obllgarloa" Explalard.
In reply to a long series of ques
tions by Senstor Brandegee. republi
can, Connecticut, the president was led
into an exhaustive discussion of the
commingling of moral and legal obli
gations In treaties.
"A moral obligation." said Mr. Wil
son, "is of course, superior to a legal
obligation, and if I may say ao, has a
greater binding force. In every moral
obligation there Is an element of judg
ment: in a legal obligation there is
no element of Judgment."
Senator Brandegee suggested there
was no Important distinction "because
we are obligated in any event."
"I think it is of the greatest import
ance." replied the president, "because
of the element of judgment that en
ters into It."
"But 1 am assuming." returned Mr.
Brandegee. "if the aouncil should ad
vise us to do a certain thing and
congress refused to do It. and if every
other nation's representative assembly
ran do the same thing, it seems to be
like a rope of sand and not an effec
tive tribunal which would result in
promoting peace.
Senator Lodge: "Then It Is obvious
plan was
used."
The president: "Tea."
fi nat-or Irin' "Than (hm waa a
'I do not mean that. The fact that I ,,.!,,. Att i nation m tha
you think now that everything in the I .,.. t . ... v,.
treaty Is plain, and the fact that I think I redraft. That was "not submitted to
mere is grave oouDt aoout some of tne I tna r-ommittee "
provisions, will it not seriously affect
tne opinion or the council?"
Warding of Treaty Plata.
"No. but the Plain wording of the I commission?
treaty will have a great deal to do. The president
and the meaning of the wording Is
plain.
"That is simply another way of stat
ing. is it not. that you are clear in
your opinion?" Queried the senator.
"No. sir: it is a Question of heine I Son said he bad
confident what language means, not I penoeni.
confident of an opinion.
'But the language is In dispute now
between you and certain lawyers of the
country and certain senators as to its
meaning.
Senator Brandegee added that with
regard to article 10 his own understand
Ing of the language was quite clear,
The president: "No, that was private
ly my own."
Senator Lodge: Was it before our
No, It was not."
The president said a draft of article
10, which Senator Johnson had pre
sented to the committee, was "part of
the draft which preceded the draft
which was sent to you." Senator John-
it from the Inde-
Presldeat'e Memory Refreshed
The president: "I had forgotten it.
but I recognized it as soon as I read
it."
Senator Johnson. "It was the original
plan?"
The president: "It was the original
continuing that the provision was "an form of article 10, yes."
obligation in a contract, and I know I Senator Lodge said he had been
of but one way to perform an obliga- about to ask whether article 10 in
its present form had been in tne
British plan, but If there were no
definite drafts of these plans, of course.
the committee could not get them.
Asked by Senator Lodge whether he
had seen the resolutions for a league
submitted by Secretary Lansing, the
president replied:
Yes."
Senator Lodge: 'Ho specific action
tion that you have contracted to per
form, and that Is to perform it.
Thepresident then made this state
ment of his understanding of the obli
gation under that article to follow the
advice of the council:
Natloa Free to I'se Jndgmeat.
"I take it for granted that in prac
tically every case the United States
would respond. I quite agree with wa8 taken upon themr
"Not In
formal
The president
way.
Senator Lodge then asked whether
the United States would receive any
Refamal Held lallkely.
"The reason I" do not agree with
you." Mr. Wilson replied, "is that I
do not think aucb a refusal would
likely often occur. I believe it would
t only upon the gravest grounds and
In esse congress is right. I am Indif
ferent to foreiKn criticism."
Senator Harding, republican. Ohio,
suggested there was no necessity of
a "written compart for this republic
to fulfill Its moral obligations to civil
isation." to which the president re
joined: "But it steadies the whole world by
its promise beforehand that it will
stand with other nations of similar
Judgment to maintain right in the
world.'
When Senator Brandegee asked the
president's opinion on tbe concrete case
of the present trouble between Rou
mania and Hungary, the president said
he rould not answer because that
would Involve passing judgment on a
foreign political question In a way he
considered Inadvisable.
lateraatlaaal Law K inert a Differ.
Senator Brandegee also called at
tention that many authorities on inter
national law had differed as to the
meaning of various provisions of the
treaty and that Charles K. Hughes.
William Howard Taft and Kllhu Koot
had suggested reservations, but the
president insisted that he thought it
perfectly safe to leave the present
language to the Interpretation of
r-nure statesmen without fear that the
Inited States would suffer by their
construction.
When Senator Fall, republican. New
Jiexico, suggested that any amend
ments to the league covenant would no
vtjuiie nrrmany i assent, as she was
not a member of the league, the Dresi
dent replied he never had thought of
mat leature. He disagreed with .Sen
ators Brandegee and Knox, republican
Pennsylvania, who asserted that the
treaty would come into force among
an tne signatories as soon as three
Had fanned it.
Tare Honrs of Qaeatloaa.
For more than three hours the com
mittee members questioned the presi
nent and afterward they stayed for
luncneon at tne bite House. W hen
the recess was taken there had been
no discussion whether the meeting was
to re resumed during the afternoon,
but later It was decided not to do so.
There was no intimation tonight
whether the committee would seek a
further conference. Tomorrow it will
resume its open hearings at the capitol.
Senator Fall left with Mr. Wilson a
list of questions which the latter saJd
he would reply to at length later. They
concern the powers of the president or
congress to declare a state of peace
details of tbe resumption of trade and
diplomatic relations with Germany,
what deposition is to te made of the
German colonies and the need for
.American ' representation on various
turope reconstruction commissions.
The president s declaration of a com
pelling moral obligation under the
league was emphasised in a statement
Issued Jointly foment by Senators
Borah. Idaho, and Johnson. California.
republican members of the committee
and two of the bitterest opponents to
th tresty In Its present form. They
declared the day's testimony had borne
out their claim that the league would
lead to interminable foreign complies
tions. They also pointed out that Sen
ator Johnson had developed in the
day meeting that a good part of the
territorial settlement resulting from
the war was yet to be determined.
haafaae; Deal Hara nnswi.
The president in his statement at the
opening of the conference said he be
lieved only the meaning of certain
parts of the league covenant stood in
the way of the ratification of the
treaty. Later Senstor Brandegee told
Mm he had been wrongly informed, as
there was much serious opposition in
tha senate to the Shantung provisions
and other features.
When the question of moral obliga
tion was raised Senator Harding sug
gested thsl the covenant provisions
might amount to "surrendering the
suggestion of "a moral obligation for
this republic to the prejudices and ne-
you that a moral obligation is to be
fulfilled and I am confident that our
nation will fulfill it, but that does not
remove from each individual case the
element of Judgment which we are free part o( the German reparation fund.
c e J." - l"s-ea. I The president: "I left that question
We are first free to exercise It in i nn. .., .... r ,
the vote of our representative on the that'i had any final rient to decide
council, who will of course act under it. upon the basis that was set up
...... .! Kuvcm-Mn the reparation clauses the portion
ment. and in the second place we are that the United States would receive
iuk n wnen tne president, act- would be very small at best. My own
tlllg upon the action Of the COUncil. I InHa-ment u-na frnnntlv tirH
makes hia recommendation to congress. I not as a decision, but as a judgment.
men congress. Mr. Wilson added, that we should claim nothing under
Is to exercise its judgment as to these general clauses. I did that he.
anetner tne instructions Of the execU- I ranee I rnveled the moral advantage
tive to our member of the council were that that would give us In the counsels
wen lounaea or not ana wnetner mis 13 I of the world.
a case or distinct moral obligation." Senator McCumber: "Did that mean
"Sited by senator Johnson whether I we would claim nothing for the sink
tne oougations assumed under the ling of the LusitaniaT
treaty - go to the extent of compelling I The president: "Oh. no. That did
us to maintain American troops in I not cover questions of that sort at all.
burope. Mr. Wilson replied: - I The president added that pre-war
"Such small bodies as are necessary I claims not covered by the reparations
to me carrying out or the treaty. 1 1 clause, the reparation Committee would
think." I decide. He repeated that the American
TnMipe' Stay Be Short. position in the reparations remained
"And will those troons have to be I to be decided.
maintained under the various treaties I Senator Lodge: "By the commission?"
of peace until the ultimate consumma
tion of the terms of those treaties?"
persisted Mr. Johnson.
Jes. bur that is not long. In no
f '"'h i- f 'Xi
!
4--rt-ifr.WlrtpwH fV' 'JfcJ-W''l-MJa lMIlT-W.'.---fflW
STARTS TODAY
ALL BRAND NEW
RUNS 3 DAYS
THE FEATURE
THE FILLERS
1. An Outing-Chester
showing thril)ing
hunting scenes in
Africa a lion pulls
down a native; buf
faloes and rhinos
charging the camera
man, etc.
2. The Screen Magazine
shows some new
stunts and is chock
full of interest from
start to finish.
O LIVE
THOMAS
in
LOVE'S
PRISONER
In describing "L o v e's
Prisoner," we are not
going to throw a typo
graphical fit; the pic
ture doesn't need it. The
star, the unique story
and the picture are all
that you expect and
quite a bit more. We
are turning it loose on
its merits. Incidentally,
the last Olive Thomas
picture we had "The
Girl From Paris" was
proclaimed one of the
best pictures ever shown
at the Columbia.
The president: "By the commission
Senator Lodge asked If there had
been any recommendations by Amer
lean naval authorities as to whether
case, as I remember, does that exceed I the United States should have one of
18 months.'
I was rather under the Impression
that the occupation of Germany was
to be i years.
the Ladrone or Caroline islands for
naval purposes.'
Prealdent Hears About Yap.
The president: "There was a paper
Along the Rhine, yes. I was think, I ...
Inr f n.,.e SII..I. . , I '" """J"", ii, -,..11-.. ua
where plebiscite, are to h. e,rei.ri ... been Published. I only partially re
It is the understanding wtth the other raemt,w u- 11 was a paper laying out
governments that we are to retain the general necensities of our naval
only enough troops there to keep our policy In the Pacific, and the necessity
nag there. I of navtng some base for communtca
"Will we be maintaining American I tion upon those islands was mentioned.
troops upon the Rhine for the next 15 f Juflt in what form I do not remember,
years?" I But let me say this: There is a little
"That Is entirely within our choice: island which I must admit I had not
but I suppose we will." I heard of before.'
President Wilson, a'fter his opening
statement, answered the senators'
questions on the status of the various
league questions.
Prealdeat Qulaaed by Senators,
Senator Williams: "The island of
Tap
The president: "Yap. It is one of
the bases and centers of cable and
radio communication on the Pacific
and I made the point that the control
After the president had delivered his I of that island should be reserved for
statement. Senator Lodge said: I the general conference, which is to be
"Mr. President: We have no thoueht held In regard to the ownership and
of entering upon arguments as to in-
operation of the cables. That subject
terpretations. but the committee was
very desirous of getting Information ferenc'e is to be held
is mentioned and disposed of in this
treaty, and that general cable con-
on certain points which they thought
would be of value in consideration of
tbe treaty, which they desire to hasten
in every possible way.
"If we have to restore peace to the
world it is necessary that there should
be treaties with Austria. Hungary
Turkey and Bulgaria. Those treaties
are all more or less connected with the
treaty with Germany. The question I
should like to ask is what the prospect
is of receiving those treaties for ac
tion"
The president: "I think It Is very
good. sir. and so far as I can judge
from the contents of the dispatches
from my colleagues on the other side
of the wter. the chief delay is due to
the uncertainty as to what is going to
happen to this treaty. This treaty is
a model of the others.
Senator Lodge: "They are not re
garded as essential to the consideration
of this treaty?"
The president: "They are not regard
ed as such, no sir; they follow this
treaty."
Treaty With Polaad Sigaed.
Senator Lodge: "I do not know about
the other treaties: bui the treaty with
Poland, for example, has been com
pleted?"
The president: "Yes, and signed; but
it Is dependent upon this treaty. My
thought was to submit it upon the ac
tion on this treaty."
Senator Lodge then asked whether
the president could show the commit
tee the tentative league of nations
drafts submitted by Great Britain,
France and Italy.
The president: "I would have sent
them to the committee with pleasure.
Senator. If I had them. 1 took it for
granted that 1 had them: but the pa
pers that remain In my hands remain
here in a haphazard way. I can tell
you the character of the other drafts.
The British draft was the only one. as
I remember, that was In the form of a
definite cpnstitution of a league. The
rrencn and Italian drarts were in tne
form of a series of propositions laying
down general rules and assuming that
he commission, or whatever body made
the final formulations, would build
upon those principles If they were
adopted. They were principles quite
consistent with the final action.
British Draft Made Baals.
I remember saying to therommit-
tee when I was here In . March some
thins -to the effect that the British
Senator Lodge: "I had understood
that our general board of the navy de
partment, our chief of operations, had
recommended that we should have a
footing there, primarily in order to
secure cable communication."
The president: "I think you are right,
sir."
Shaatung Deal Brought I p.
Senator Lodge referred to the secret
treaty between Great Britain and
Japan regarding Shantung and said
that in the correspondence relating to
the treaty, it was said that Great
Britain should have the German islands
south of the equator and Japan those
north of the equator.
Senator Lodge: "If it should seem
necessary for the safety of communica
tion for this country that we should
have a cable station there, would that
secret treaty interfere with it?"
The president: "I think not. sir. in
view of the stipulation that I made
with regard to the question of con
struction by this cable convention.
That note of the British ambassador
regarding the German islands was a
part of the diplomatic correspondence
covering that subject."
Senator Lodge: "That was what I
understood."
Senator Moses: "Was the stipulation
that that should be reserved for the,
consideration of the cable convention
a formally signed protocol?"
Tbe president: No. it was not a for
mally signed protocol, but we had a
prolonged and Interesting discussion
on the subject, and nobody has any
doubts as to what was agreed upon.
Senator Lodge said that It seemed
that the treaty would give the five
principal allied and associated powers
the authority to make such disposi
tions as they saw fit of those islands.
tiuestloa of Withdrawal Arises.
Senator Borah then asked who would
pass on the question, under the with
drawal clause of the league covenant,
whether a nation had fulfilled its in
ternational obligations.
The president: "Nobody."
Senator Borah: ''Does this council
have anything to say about it?"
The president: "Nothing, whatever."
Senator Borah: "Then if a country
should give notice of withdrawal, it
would be the sole judge of whether or
not it had fulfilled its international
obligations, its covenants to the
league?"
The president: "This is as I under
stand it- Tha only restraining loilu-
H II
COMING SATURDAY
JACK PICKFORD
BILL APPERSON'S BOY
When we say "Portland's Coolest Theater" we
mean exactly that else you would not see it
in a Columbia ad.
ence would be the public opinion of the
Senator Borah then asked whether if
notice had been given, the right to
withdraw would be unconditional.
The president: "Well, when the no
tice is given, it is conditional on the
face of the consciousness of the with
drawing nation at the close of the two-
vear Deriod.
Senator Borah: "Precisely, but it is
unconditional so far as the legal right
or the moral right is concerned.
The president: "That is my interpre
tation."
No Moral Obligation on U. S.
Senator Borah: "There is no moral
obligation on the part of the United
States to observe any suggestion maae
by the council.
un, no.
"With reference to
The president:
Senator Borah:
withdrawing?"
The president:
moral obligation
"There might be a
if that suggestion
had weight, senator, but there is no
other obligation.
Senator Borah: "Any moral obliga
tion which the United States could feel
would be one arising ironi us own
sense of obligations?
The president: un, certainly. -
Senator Borah asked whether the
uggestion that the council Vould pass
noon such an obligation was erroneous.
and the Dresident replied: "Yes, cer
tainly."
Senator Borah asked whether the
president was expressing tne view neid
by the commission which drafted the
league.
The president: i am comment inai
that was the view. That view was not
formulated, you understand, but I am
confident that that was the view."
Mistake to Embody Interpretations.
In redv to Senator McCumber. the
president repeated that he felt it would
be a mistake to embody interpretations
in the resolution of ratification, say
ing: "We can interpret only a moral
obligation. The legal obligation can
be enforced by such machinery as
there is to enforce it. Wre are there
fore at liberty to interpret the sense
which we undertake a moral obliga
tion.
Senator McCumber asked wnetner
the other nations could not accept in
terpretations by the senate "by acquiescence."
The president: "My experience as
a lawyer was not very long; but that
experience would teach me that the
language of a contract is always part
of the debatable matter, and in our
discussions in the commission on the
league of nations we did not' discuss
ideas half as much as we discussed
phraseology."
The president said if reservations
were embodied in tne ratmcation
"there would have to be either explicit
acquiescence or the elapsing of enough
time for us to know whether they (the
other governments) were implicitly
acquiescing or not."
Nations' Conscience Appealed To.
Senator Harding: "Mr. President, as
suming that your construction of the
withdrawal clause is the understanding
of the formulating commission, why is
the language making the proviso for
the fulfilment of covenants put Into the
article?"
The president: "Merely as an argu
ment to the conscience of the nations"
Senator Harding said if that were
true the language seemed "rather a
far-fetched provision."
Senator Pittman asked whether Ger
many put the same construction on
articles of the treaty as did the allied
governments.
The president: "I have no means of
knowing."
The president acquiesced in a sug
gestion by Senator Pittman that any
change would require resubmission to
Germany. I
Senator Lodge: "I take it there is.
no question whatever under interna
tional law that an amendment to the
text of the treaty must be submited
to every signatory and must receive
either their assent or their dissent. I
had supposed it had been the general
.diplomatic practice with regard to res
ervations which apply only to the re
serving power, and not to all the signa
tories, of course that silence was re
garded as acceptance and acquiesence;
that there was that distinction between
textual amendments which change the
treaty for every signatory, and a reser
vation which changes it only for the
reserving power."
The president: "There is some dif
ference of opinion among the authori
ties, I am informed. I have not had
time to look them up myself about
that, but it is clear to me that in a
treaty which involves so many signa
tories, a series of reservations which
would ensue undoubtedly would very
much obscure our confident opinion as
to how the treaty was going to work.
Senator Williams: "Mr. President,
suppose that we adopted a reservation
and that Germany did nothing about
it at all, and afterward contended that
so far as that was concerned, it was
new matter, to which she was never a
party. Could her position be juatifi
ably disputed?"
The president: "No."
Senator Borah quoted article 10 under
which the league members undertake
to "respect and preserve as against ex
ternal aggression the territorial in
tegrity and existing political independ
ence of all members of. the league,
and asked if this was simply a moral
obligation.
The president: Yes, sir, inasmuch
as there is no sanction in the treaty.
Senator Borah: "But there would be
a legal, obligation so far as the United
States is concerned, if it should enter
into it; would there not"
-Attitude of Comradeship."
The president: "I would not interpret
that way, because there is involved the
element of judgment as to whether the
territorial integrity of existing politi
cal independence is invaded or impaired.
It is an attitude of comradeship and
protection among the members of the
league which in its very nature is
moral and not legal."
Senator Borah: "If, however, the
actual fact of invasion were beyond
dispute, then the legal obligation, it
seems to me, would immediately arise."
The president: "The legal obligation
to apply the automatic punishment of
the covenant undoubtedly, but not the
legal obligation to go to arms and
actually to make war. There might be
a very strong moral obligation."
Replying to Senator McCumber, the
president said: "We would have com
plete freedom of choice as to the ap
plication of force."
No Choice in Case of Boycott,
Asked whether there would be the
same freedom as to application of a
boycott, the president replied:
"The breach of certain articles of
the covenant does bring on what I
have designated as an automatic boy
cott and in that we would have no.
choice."
Senator Knox: "Suppose that it is
accepted that there is -an external ag
gression against some power and that
it cannot be repelled except by force
of arms, would we be under any legal
obligation to participate?"
The president: "No. sir, but we
should be under an absolutely com
pelling moral obligation."
Discussing the question of reserva
tions with Senator. McCumber, the
president said:
"We differ only as to the form of
action. I think it would .be a very
serious practical mistake to put it in
the resolution of ratification, but I do
hope that we are at liberty, contem
poraneously with our acceptance of the I
treaty, to interpret our moral obliga
tions under that article.
Exchange of Notes UansnaJ.
Senator. Knox: "Is it not true that
such matters are ordinarily covered by
a mere exchange of notes betwee
powers?
The president: "Yes, sir, ordinarily.1
Senator Knox: rhat would be
matter that would require very little
time to communicate if these construe.
tions have already been placed upon it
in their conversations with you. '
The president: "But an exchange o
notes is quite a different matter from
having it embodied in the resolutio
of ratification."
Senator Knox: "If we embody in ou
resolution of ratification a statement
that we understood section 10 in
particular sense and this governmen
through its foreign department trans
fers the proposed form of ratification
to the chancellors of the other nations
that are concerned and If these inter
pretattons are the same as you have
agreed upon with them in your con
versations, I do not see how we would
need anything more than a mere reply
to that effect."
Confirmation Held Needed.
The president: "It would need con
firmation."
Senator Knox: "Yes, it would need
confirmation in that sense."
The president: "My judgment is.
that the embodying of that ' in th
terms of the resolution of ratification
would be acquiescence not only in the
interpretation but in the very phrase-
ology of the interpretation, because it
would form a part of the contract'
Senator Knox: "It might with us.
because we have so much machinery
for dealing with treaties, but in other
countries where it is much more sim
ple, I should think it would not be."
Senator Fall suggested that reserva
tions to the league covenant could be
met, so far as Germany was concerned,
by her decision later as to whether she
would join the league.
The president: "I differ with you
there, senator. One of the reasons for
putting the league in the treaty was
that Germany was not going to be ad
mitted to the league immediately, and
we felt that it was very necessary that
we should get her acknowledgment
acceptance of the league as an interna
tional authority, partly because we
were excluding her so that she would
thereafter have no ground for ques
tioning such authority as the league
might exercise under its covenants.
Fall Gives President Idea.
Senator Fall: "Germany is out of
the league. Any amendment proposed
by the other members of the league
prior to her coming into the league
would not be submitted to her. would
it, she not being a member?"
The president: I will admit that
that point had not occurred to me. No,
she would not."
Senator Fall: "Then, so far as we
are concerned, we could make a rec
ommendation , in the nature of an
amendment?"
Senator Hitchcock: "Did I under
stand your first reply to Senator Fall
to be that Germany under this treaty
already had a relationship to the
league by reason of its international
character?"
The president: "Yes.
Senator Hitchcock: "It has a rela-
tionship to the league of nations even
before the time that it may apply for
membership.
The president: "Yes."
Article 11 Interpreted.
In reply to Senator Borah, the presi
dent said his interpretations of the ob
ligations of article 11 was the same as
for Article 10.
Senator Harding: "If there is noth
ing more than a moral obligation on
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A
GRIPPING pictured
the frozen North, writ
ten by the famous author,
James Oliver Curwood and
staged regardless of expense
amid marvellous mountain
scenery. The dramatic story
of a girl who was snowed in
at a lawless mining camp and
had to make a great decision.
Played by the dazzling star
of "The Heart of Humanity"
in a way you'll never forget
Coming Sun.
WM.
FARNUM
in
"The Lone
Star
Ranger"
P.