Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
VOL. VI.I. NO. 17,422.
PORTLAND, OREGON, SATURDAY, " . SEPTE3IBER 23. 1916.
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
STRIKE OF 600,000
SHIP TO AMERICA
HUGHES HAS GREAT
IN CAR SHORTAGE
AUSTRIA MAY SEND
H. N. FORD IS FOUND
GDILTY OF FORGERY
NORSEMEN" BRING FIRST VESSEL
SINCE YEAR 1000.
WILLAMETTE FACULTY ALSO OB
JECTS TO MIDWEEK DATES.
QTTESTION" OF FILLING VACANT
POST IS RAISED.
80 New York Unions
CONTRACTS TO BE IGNORED
Employers Told They Must
CARLINES ARE BOYCOTTED
federation-Official Says . M en Will
ot "Risk Iiives" by Riding on
Railways -Operated by
NEW TORE, Sept. 23. Organized
workers In virtually every industry in
Greater New Tork were formally called
upon ' late today to cease work at 8
o'clock next Wednesday morning in
sympathy with striking traction em
ployes. Labor leaders assert that ap
proximately 600,000 mem and women
The call was embodied in resolutions
adopted at a conference of labor lead
ers representing the federated bodies
in all the boroughs of the city, as well
as many National and ' international
unions. Of the 80 unions In the city
represented. It was 'said, some already
had voted In favor of a strike.
Call Extended to Other Cities.
The call, it was said, would be Issued
not only to organized workers In New
Tork, but also to those In Westchester
County, In ; which the cities of Yonk
ers. New Hochelle. and Mount. Vernon
are situated, and would extend
throughout a wide range of industries.
Hugh Frayne. New York State or
ganizer for the " American Federation
of Labor, announced the determination
to call the smypathetlc walkout in the
following statement: . -
"It was decided by unanimous vote of
representatives of 80 unions of Greater
New Tork and vicinity that there sha.Il
be a general suspension of all work In
all trades and industries in greater
New Tork and vicinity, the same to
omihehc Wednesday. September 27. at
Sa. M." -
Men Refuse to Ride on Cars.
The call Is based on the proposition
that union men "cannot maintain their
self-respect" if they ride upon cars
operated by strikebreakers, according
to-a statement Issued tonight by Ernest
Eohra. secretary of the Central Feder
ated Union. In cases where contracts
exist. Bohm said, the employes will be
notified ' that the workers have no
means of transportation, and if the
employers cannot provide transporta
tion the workers must remain at their
-Union employes will not risk their
lives by riding on cars operated by
green motormen and protected by po
licemen." Mr. Bohm said.- "Neither can
they ride on such cars and retaia their
eeii-respeci as union men.
"The general tie-up will come be
cause employers of union labor will
not provide their employes with means
of transportation to and from work to
enable them to stay off the dangerous
strikebreaking cars of the several trac
Sfconts Will Not Meet Strikers.
Theodore P. Shonts. president of the
Interborough Rapid Transit Company
and the New Tork Hallways Company,
.reiterated his determination not to
, meet representatives of the striking
"If I did so the loyal men in the
interborough brptherhood would have
good cause to strike." he said. "Be-
sides, there is no reason for negotia
tions. There is no strike. We are
carrying more people in the subway, on
the elevated and in the Steinway tubes
than ever before. Yesterday we carried
2,208.257 passengers, or 387.639 more
. than on the same day last year. The
service on surface car lines is 70.5
per cent normal."
' Vote to Strike Unanimous.
The vote of the delegates to the Cen
irai .reoeratea union representing
125,000 workers in allied trades to
ratify the strike called for next
Wednesday by union labor leaders was
unanimous. This action followed a
similar step taken several days ago
By the representatives of 200.000 mem
bers of the United Hebrew Trades.
The vote was taken after the dele
gates had heard a report from the con
ference of labor leavlers which author
ized the call and speeches in favor of
a general suspension of work.
Among the trades represented at the
meeting were bakers, milk wagon
drivers and several branches of the
garment industry. It was announced
that the cutters in the ladles' tailoring
business authorized their officers to
call them out. This will mean, it is
said, that 60.000 dressmakers and
ladles' tailors will be unable to work
because of the lack of cutters. Many
women from the garment industries
were present and took part in the
speeches and in the vote.
Ernest. Bohm, "secretary of the Cen-.
tral Federated Union, one of the speak
ers, criticised the action of the police,
the attitude of Mayor Mitchel and the
Public Service Commission.
"We must take up the cudgels with
these men." Bohm said. "We are fight
ing a fight that Is not, merely local or
state, but one which is a National
fight for trade unionism and the right
Trail of Jjeif the Lucky Followed
by Trader, Who ays War Is
- ' Making Millionaires.
NEW YORK, Sept. 22. The Gullfoss,
said to be one of the first Icelandic
ships to visit the shores of the West
ern Hemisphere since the days of Leif.
the Lucky, tied up in the harbor here
today with a cargo of herring. .
. Aboard the Gullfoss, a little steamer
of 886 tons, is a 'crew of Icelandic
sailors, officered by Icelandic navi
gators and speaking virtually the
same language that Leif, son of Erie
the Red. spoke when he landed at
Cape Cod about the year 1000.
The Gullfoss brought to New York
20 passengers, mostly merchants from
Reikjavlk, who came to buy goods in
American markets. With its return
the first of next month, the Gullfoss
will pass its sister ship, the Gotha
loss, bound for New York with a cargo
of fish. Captain Pjeturson said he
hoped to see established a regular
trade with the United States.
Amazingly high prices for the prod
ucts of the Island have brought pros
perity in the last two years, the cap
tain said. The war created the first
millionaires in Iceland, he declared,
and also gave the island Its first ex
perience with labor toubles and other
disorders of modern civilization. A
strike of the' flshermen'sunlon In the
island lasted throughout last Summer,
the captain said.
PASTOR'S WORDS RESENTED
Soldiers Are Not "Lost," Declares
General . Funston
SAN ANTONIO, Sept. 23. General
Funston today explained an announce
ment by Dr. J. B. GambrelL correspond
ing secretary of the Baptist general
conference ot Texas, . at. Dallas, last
night, quoting General Funston as or
dering that Baptist preachers might
preach to the soldiers, providing that
they did not tell them they were
General Funston said he had no de
sire to dictate to -ministers -what they(
(should preach to Army men, but he
objected to revivals betng held In the
camps and found particularly obnoxi
ous any, supposition - that Army men
needed to be special objects for evan
gelization. "We have a fine lot olnen, equal to
any other "'class' of. men in the coun
try," he said. "I don't believe they
should be considered as being "lost." -
DRAW SPAN TO BE MOVED
Section of Interstate Bridge Is' Ont
of Line One Inch.
VANCOUVER. Wash- Sept. 22. (Spe
cial.) The huge drawspan of the In
terstate bridge, placed on the piers last
April, will be raised tomorrow and
moved south one inch.
When the span was floated from the
erection ways to the piers a sudden
storm arose and the span nearly top
pled from the false work into the river
after It had apparently been placed.
Only heroic work averted disaster at
that time and. when the span was
hurriedly lowered, it was not noticed
in the dark that It wu not exactly in
SOCIALISTS FAVOR LOAN
Only - Three Will Oppose Support
for Loan by France.
PARIS. Sept. 22 The Socialist party
with the exception of the three "Kien
thalists," Deputies Blanc, Raffln-
Dugens and Brizon, resolved unani
mausly at a special meeting today to
vote for the war credits, amounting to
8,838,000,000 francs for the rest of the
year, demanded by Finance Minister
The resolution, while rejecting "any
policy of prolonging the war for the
sake of- conquest," adds that "we are
ready to make every effort to insure
the territorial integrity of a France
which includes Alsace-Lorraine."
BATTLESHIP GUN BURSTS
Michigan Injured by Explosion at
Practice and One Is Hurt.
NORFOLK, Va.. Sept. 22. The battle
ship Michigan, damaged by the ex
plosion of the muzzle of one of her 12
inch guns at target practice on the
southern drill grounds, reached Hamp
ton Roads today and later sailed for
Philadelphia to undergo repairs. Yeo
man Robert W. Cooper, whose arm was
fractured in the explosion, was brought
to the naval hospital here.
Eighteen feet of the gun's muzzle was
blown away, and it is reported the
foremast and crew's galley were dam
aged. EDUCT0R PURCHASE URGED
Mr. Daly Would Have City Buy Ma
chine to Supplant Men.
City Commissioner Daly wants the
city to buy an Otterson auto catch
basin eductor to supplant the force of
men now used in cleaning catch basins.
He recommended the purchase yester
day at a price of $6337.
, Investigations show, Mr. Daly , says,
that the present system of cleaning
catch basins costs $12,400 a year, while
the machine will do it for 5400. This
does not include the , cost of the ma
chine. . .
ENTHUSIASM IS TREMENDOUS
Recaption Is Reminder of 0!d
PEOPLE BURN RED FIRE
Torchlight Clnbs , Turn . Ont and
Ilooslers Are Aroused to High
Pitch Mr. Hughes' Throat
Affected by Strain.'
SOUTH BEND, Ind.. Sept. 22.
Charles E. Hughes reached South Bend
tonight at the fag end of his busiest
day, almost minus his voice. He spent
It In 12 speeches along the way and
talked to his audience here tonight at
times in a hoarse whisper. Utterly
wearied, travel-stained, worn by the
day's exactions, the nominee faced a
large audience here and made his
chief speech of the day.
Mr. . Hughes had a "hundred thou
sand" day today, though he did not
visit the big cities. His receptions
were universally enthusiastic to the
highest degree. The series of ovations
tendered him were by far the
greatest In the experience of any candi
date since the "old McKinley days."
Nominee's Throat Skowi Strain.
During the day he took the pro
gramme into his own hands and fash
ioned it anew to make It include a
speech at every stopping place. At
most of these places it had been ar
ranged that he would say only a few
words, but the big crowds that
greeted him with cheers and applause
every few miles heartened him as he
His doctor stood beside him at
almost every station and applied
throat .sprays freely between talks,
but his voice was frayed and ragged
long before he reached South' Bend.
Once. - at Mrs. Hughes' suggestion.
Charles W. Farnum, manager of the
tour, tugged at the nominee's coat to
signal him to stop, but Mr. Hughes,
with, an . emphatio gesture, signified
that he Intended to finish his address.
Committees Besiege Car.
The nominee's private car was be
seiged all day by local reception com
mittees. They came by the hundred
to ride a station or two and then drop
off, and, of ' course, to meet Mr.
In his speech here, Mr. Hughes dis
cussed the Adamson law, the Mexican
situation, the protective tariff policy;
preparedness, Americanism, protection
of American rights, and extravagance
of administrative methods.
Money Wasted by Confirraa.
"The Sixty-fourth Congress," he said,
"already has appropriated . 81,858,384,-
(Concluded on Page 2, Column. 4.)
"l" X$ZjgS ( WHY OP )
. villa is-OEoX RlL ' -1-BEJLIEVe
lOfiCrJLivi? ( $iWPi!Wsw. V VOU )
Tobacco Will . Be Frowned On and
Drinking Not Tolerated This
Year, Edict Announces. .
SALEM.' Or.. SeDt. ' 22. (Special.)
"Blue laws," placing a ban on tobacco.
cigarettes and -dancing, were promul
gated by: the faculty of Willamette Uni
versity today. The new rules are al
most the sole topic of discussion on
The faculty's edict - governing .stu
dent activities Is much more severe
than any enforced, in past years and
declares that all social activities must
be subordinated "to conserve health
and to promote scholarship." Midweek
dates are to be avoided.
Whereas dally attendance at chapel
was semi-compulsory last year, this
year all students will be' required to
attend, and the edict advises that "per
sons not fully approving this require
ment are requested not to matriculate."
Eight absences from chapel will mean
automatlo expulsion from the univer
sity. . Among;, the regulations ' which have
been printed and distributed among the
students are the following:
"A student who uses intoxicants or
cigarettes - severs his relation to the
"The .use of tobacco is discouraged
and will be looked upon with disfavor.
"Students are forbidden to hold
dances and are requested and advised
not to dance anywhere."
SHIP, LONG IN SAND, MOVED
Seostrls, Grounded 13 Tears, Wm Be
in Fort Soon.
SAN DIEGO, Cal., Sept. 22. Within
60 days the former Kosmos liner
Seostris, for 13 years imbedded in the
sands of Ocos. Nicaragua, will be in
San Diego harbor, according to a let
ter received here yesterday from Cap
tain R. Ridley, of the salvage tug
The work of clearing away 'the sand
and drawing the Seostrls 100 yards or
more Into deep water Is progressing
rapidly. The men are taking huge
quinine pills dally to offset the Nic
araguan dengue fever.
10 U. S. PLANES IN FLIGHT
Army Student Airmen In Record Num
ber Up Together. '" -
SAN DIEGO, Sept. 22 Ten mili
tary aeroplanes, the ' greatest number
that have flown simultaneously in
America In the history f aviation, flew
above the aviation camp at North
Island today. The greatest number in
simultaneous flight heretofore has
All were piloted by Army student
BRITAIN TO FREE CAPTIVES
Regret Expressed for Taking Teu
tons on American Steamer.
WASHINGTON, Sept. 22. The Ger
man and Austrian civilians taken off
the American steamer China by a Brit
ish war vessel will be returned to
Shanghai, September 28. the State De
partment was advised today.
.The British government expressed re
gret at the seizures.
DOES FUNSTON KNOW ABOUT
Mr. Sprtfule Says No
Time Will Be Lost.
LIVELY HEARING IS CONCLUDED
Southern Pacific Will Remedy
Evils Reported by Mills.
MR.' DIXON STAR WITNESS
Requests for Cars Are Ignored and
Plants Are Forced to Close or Or
ders Are Lost Because of
Service,. Say Managers.
Immediate Improvement In the South
ern Pacific's car distributing system
will "result from an Investigation of the
subject concluded yesterday by the
Oregon Public Service Commission.
This assurance was given the. Com
mission and the lumber shippers of the
Willamette Valley yesterday t morning
by William Sproule. president of the
Southern Pacific, who. with W. R. Scott,
operating vice-president: J. H. Dyer,
assistant general manager, and other
officials, attended the three-day ses
sion in person.
Skippers Are Satisfied.
The shippers have every confidence
in Mr. Sproule's personal promises and
left for their homes last night feeling
that the inquiry, which had been In
stituted on the Commission's motion,
had been well worth while.
While the inquiry covered thoroughly
the ground of interstate traffic, ship
ments within the state were not fully
dealt with, so a further hearing will be
held at Salem next Wednesday, Sep
tember 27, for the express purpose of
taking the testimony of lo'cal shippers.
It is presumed that the Commission,
after due deliberation, will issue a for
mal order or offer an official sugges
tion calculated to relieve the shortage,
but In the meantime it is safe to say
the Southern Pacific will make drastic
readjustment in Its car service.
Preic.ee ef President Helps.
Lumber men and other shippers be
lieve that the presence of Mr. Sproule
and the other officials has had a better
effect on the situation than any order
that the Commission possibly can Issue.
J. N. Teal, attorney, for the shippers,
called public attention to the fact that
Mr. Sproule is,, the first railway presl
dent who, to his knowledge, has volun
tarily attended an inquiry of this Kind,
and the only one who has attended in
other than a belligerent attitude.
It is probable that Mr. Sproule did
not realize, previous to the hearing,
the utter inadequacy of the car serv
ice at the command of the Oregon
shippers or the Inefficiency of such
service as they have.
Company Asks Ce-Operatlom.
He Implied as much In an Informal
address at the close of the morning
session. At the' same time he besought
(Concluded on Page 16. Column 3.)
Hint by United States That It Would
Be Pleased to See Dual Mon
archy Represented Reported.
AMSTERDAM, via London. Sept. 23.
Premier Tisza, replying to the Hungar
ian House of Deputies to a question
concerning the vacancy in the post of
Austro-Hungarlan Ambassador to the
United States, according to dispatches
received here from Budapest, replied:
"I can assure the House that all com
petent authorities In the monarchy set
great value on the relations with the
United States. In due time we shall
find a way for an 'appropriate settle
ment of the matter."
LONDON. Sept. 23. Count Albert Ap
ponyl, one of the leaders of the oppo
sition in the Hungarian Parliament, ac
cording to advices from Budapest to
the Mail. Is a receptive candidate for
the post of Austro-Hungarian Ambas
sador to the United States. He Is well
known In America and It was urged In
the lobby of the Hungarian House of
Deputies that his appointment would be
received equally well in Hungary and
the United States.
Count Apponyi a few days ago re
ferred to the vacant Ambassadorship in
& speech in the House of Deputies, in
which he said:
"We all expect that a suggestion of
peace will come eventually from across
the ocean. When that time arrives. It
will be unfortunate If we do not -find
ourselves represented there. Certain
steps already have been taken by the
American Administration, hinting that
It would be pleased to see the monarchy
again represented In Washington.
"How does the Foreign Office expect
to solve this problem? And does it not
find it awkward that in times like these
we are not represented, adequately in
the greatest neutral country?"
BURGLAR AWAKENS WOMAN
Miss Bertha Wolfman Screams as
Robber Grips Her Wrist.
. Screams of Miss Bertha Wolfman. 18.
early this morning, frightened a bur
glar, whose grip on her wrist awakened
her and who leaped out of a window
and made his escape after arousing
nearly the entire' neighborhood.
Miss Wolfman is the daughter of A.
Wolfman, 155 Grover street. The bur
glar, left so hurriedly that be abandoned
his bicycle on the lawn. Patrolman
Holms took it to the station.
Dutch and Berlin Agree.
BERLIN. Sept 22. (By wireless to
Sayvllle. N. T. The German and
Dutch governments have come to an
agreement to submit to an international
committee of Investigation after the
end of the war the question involved
in the sinking of the Dutch steamship
"This decision." says the Overseas
News Agency announcement. "was
taken In the Interest of friendly,
INDEX OF TODAY'S NEWS
YICPTT;RTAYS Miilmum temperature, 67
degrees;, minimum. 57 degrees.
TODAY'S Fair: northwesterly winds.
Aid riven te Canadians by British "land
hips" described. Pua 4.
Austrian seaplane sinks French submarine.
Canadians recall Incidents of fighting at
Somme. Page 4.
Austria may fill vacancy tn embassy at
Washington. Page 1.
Indiana ffive. rousing reception to Mr.
liugbea. Pago. 1.
President confers with Ambassador. Pa go A.
Blackmail syndicate's operations declared
more extensive than supposed. Pag 3.
Battery A expects target practice soon.
Strike of 600.000 men In New Tork sot for
Wednesday. Pago 1.
Dutch rlrl seeks American aid for Belgian
orphans. Page 2.
Prosecution does not ask death penalty tn
Ban Francisco bomb case. Page 16.
Icelanders send first ship to America sines
year 10OO. Pare 1.
Portland man. victim of aphasia, put under
X-ray. without result. Page 2.
Pacific Coast feague results Portland 4.
Oakland 1: T-o Angeles 4. Pin Francisco
2: Vernon 10. Salt Lake 8. Pago 12.
Freddie Welih. lightweight champion, wins
close decision over Harry Anderson at
Seattle. Page 13.
Red Sox maintain their upward pace.
Robins and Phils continue to win. Psge IX
Seattle golfers to play Waverley Club to
day. Pago 13.
Pendleton Round-up thrills begin with bang.
Sixty recruits at Clackamas choose to go to
regiments on bqrder. Page 11.
Benton County Fair opens with big attend
ance. Paga 6. .
Hood River Fruit Corporation faces probe.
Willamette Vnlverslty forbids dancing, but
requirt-s attendance at chapel. Page 1.
Commercial end Marine.
State and district offices attract 310 candi
dates. Page S.
Blr hop trade In Coast states at strong
prices. Page IT.
Chicago wheat advances on heavy buying for
shipment to France. Page IT.
Steel stock scores nearly 5-polnt gain In
excited market. Paga IT.
Portland shipbuilding company is busy, too.
Portland and Vicinity.
Homer N. Ford is found guilty of forgery.
Southern Pacific president promises Imme
diate relief. Pago 1.
Opinion of realty men differ on highway
building. Page 16.
Rev. Mark A. Matthews, of Seattle, de
nounces brewers' amendment. Page T.
City and Chamber of Commerce to find
Jobs for guardsmen. Page 9.
Eva Gibson freed after Nelson Inquest.
Democratic rally held. Page 11.
Circus manager arrested on charge of false
advertising. Page 11.
Weather report, data and forecast. Psge IT.
Aman Moore is under fire In hearing ot
big cement suit. Page 5.
South Portland park proposed. Page T.
Jury Is Out Only 65
FRAUD INTENT HELD PROYED
Prosecutors Score Man Who
Repudiates Contract Wife.
OTHER WOMAN'S TRIAL SET
Sentence Will Be Pronounced Next
Week Penalty Is From Two to
20 Years In Penitentiary.
Mrs. Ford Collapses.
Homer X. Ford, whoso -wife for 10
years nnder the common law, and
mother of his 12-year-old daughter,
was repudiated when he was attracted
by another woman, was found guilty
of forgery by a jury In the Circuit
Court last night, after 65 minutes de
liberation of the evidence In the trial
which has occupied five days.
Sentence will be pronounced by Cir
cuit Judge Georse N. Davis next week.
The penalty Is from two to 20 years
In the penitentiary. The forgery con
sisted of signing: with the second
woman, who posed as his true wife,
a deed to Portland property on Lincoln
Fraad latent Only Qaestlom.
But one essential thing was before
the 13 Jurors when they retired at
4:65 yesterday afternoon. That was
whether or not there was any Intent
to defraud when Ford persuaded EIlis
beth G. Frary to sign the deed as Eliza
beth G. Ford.
This was made clear by Circuit Judge
Davis In his Instructions to the Jury.
It mattered not whether or not Caro
line Ford, wife under the Alaskan eon
tract marriage, had a dower in the
property conveyed, as long as the jury
was convinced that Ford had signed
the deed wRh Miss Frary with fradu
Sis-nature Proved lavalla.
Days of testimony touching on the
contract marriage of Ford, and Miss
Voght. and his relations with this wom
an, who was accepted by the world as
his wife, who bore his children, and
who la his wife by ruling of Judge
Davis In Interpreting the Oregon law
as It existed in .Alaska at the time of
the ceremony bore only this relevancy
to the case: that it proved that Eliza
beth Frary had no legal right to sign
the 3eed as wife of Ford.
The state made the contention that
Ford did not know Mrs. Ford may have
had no dower rights in his property be
cause she was a non-resident in the
state when he transferred it. and that
there was an Intent to defraud his true
wife. Further, the prosecution held that
the person to whom the deed was con
veyed was injured, because he suffered
from a lawsuit in the attempt of Mrs.
Ford to secure what she believed to
be her interest In the property.
The defense denied there was any
fraud perpetrated, or any intention of
fraud, and held that Ford acted in good
faith In believing that the Frary wom
an, whom he had "married" by a con
tract he drew up himself without the
formality of a divorce from Mrs. Caro
line Ford. had. a right to sign as hla
Mlas) frary Be Tried.
Miss . Frary did not testify In the
case. Her trial for forgery tehe was
indicted jointly with Ford, and ex
tradited from Winnipeg. Canada, where
she was living as his wife) Is scheduled
before Judge Davis Monday.
Testimony in the Ford case was Con
cluded shortly before noon, and argu
ments " consumed all the afternoos.
Charles C. Hindman, Deputy District
Attorney, made the opening argument
for the state; John C McCue argued
for the defense; John A. Collier. Deputy
District Attorney, closed for the prose
cution. Shortly after leaving- the stand ' In
the morning Mrs. Ford collapsed. She
had been on the verge of a nervous
breakdown for some time, and the
strain of the long trial had taxed her
strength too far.
"This woman Is a wreck today, be
ing killed by Inches by the man who
stands before the bar," declared Prose
cutor Collier In his argument. "Her
heart has been torn, her life crushed
by the desertion of the man who had
called her 'wife' for 10 years and now
Ford was scored by the prosecution.
"A more completely selfish man never
lived." said Deputy Hindman, "I have
never in my life tried a man so devoid
of moral sense as this man," asserted
Deputy Collier. .
As has been the case every day of the
trlali a large crowd thronged the court
room, many standing at the rear and
about the walla . Popular sympathy
was with the repudiated wife, and
murmurs of applause -followed tellies
shots of the prosecution.
"Wedding Ring" In Evidence.
A, plain, narrow band of gold bear
ing an Inscription Inside, "1L X. F. to
C. C. S. V., 12-24-98." was given by Ford
as a wedding ring to the woman he
married by common law In Alaska, on
their first trip to the States after the
marriage. ' It was an unexpected bit
of evidence, produced by the prosecu
tion during the cross-examination of
"I may have purchased that ring.
on Pago 3. Column X- i