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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 1, 1916)
THE SrORXING OREGOXIAX. SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1916. 5
bv Portland Municioal Dock Commission ire mg
Two New Wharves
Now in Operation
aj h sap cat j-
Dark U iZ ti Lswfta Bf
4V. Ml. .. -
4 in null
AT th cloo t IB . WBeaiWW
f ruaiw rack k4 mBlt4
u4 ta p-ertio l-ie ho t
Ua-tia at is fool f ' stre4. a 4
Ike lrt eait. ee tfc awihlr 441 '"
f XlKIOMl tck I. Ik
weal al t af ! Ur. At
fi Ilea caatracta war At I fee
f ( !. oip!:oa of Muaictoal !
N t It ; lnt f ft.
b4 9 4k n.lrr
r!loiM l Ike ' ef t'oek X I.
wiefc ir4rr lra". t h eoaatrae-
ei,a W .i -lDKl tr N t, t
t 'W f in rlr. a4 tf Coa
lface ( Kiaar rm ofl4r
llaala llel all 4 aoa "k
: i.i j l t i N.
t for ! bort.ua af ia anal tfc
d:ecfcare ef Btri m d-4 sot ra--ire
rs aaelar eaaor. ta Ca
mtia fat tkal f faeuit: f la
ert cal4 t g-r.allv Iuwm If a
Iraaatt ek4 a werfcoe we ca
eractael . Ik dock, wklck
co-aid a b for !' . etorta
aa4 aeaomkilner ef earl cars II
a. l5rfor. dc!4,i prevtdo S
waraaeoae or tr: N4
Uaatt r Ji (t 4 4pek ( !
r t T' l Commla-
in ka 111 aiHtr co wjral to la
Bitir a f mdt h'miI
l-r fr l It (" 4
Vlrinc fjr... tl k4 laol
IhAl ISi ronUI k do. alttr Bl 4xk
Nx I r dork j. J. kul oli I l
UHal apc r'lr4 1 Ik l
nif ik tiw ( kaln I
eidrn!l d't- from Ik
kuai ctr ( Ik 'HT la lrr
la Imimm allk Ik rmiMI, Ikl
wftarc klo4. arvd tt au
Bllr d- 44 I ktt"4 Ik rtira t
lu CoUaa a t! lrJT
trt' t4 alaf-ol Un!il( l li loot
( fut nml r M b44.Uo ef a
rarilllba n A ..
It ha l-e4 ISBt stl f Ik C
fracCi work f IS Ummlmot oar
aolar aoBtrBrl ' I k foliy compli4
l ISl . Bl H'.-fc lim Ik fol
lo.ht 4-"k J tkr aratarfrsal
f.-ijir..a will fc ) roll4
. a Buior-koi Ub4.. arltk k.-(a
ftoal. I ili ratrooa aaa)
ik far-can fort ttloa Bl tfc foot C
Jitark 'r- oa Ik aid of Ik
r'aar. X B4atorv Bdi.koa) I tk
nator kMl Udm tMl f
fta f is t'oamtMin. wkick far
. sr aaool U" ua
fa isat irpo. Tk Bolr-bol
UaiK. a w.il sa Ika ttw. r f
S. At is t f awl S I. ka
rirt"n" and i:ikiat airt n in
.. al l a I a rla !
Channel Improvement Work Puts Portland on Map
StntjRJ of Citr's Eorfy RutHrrs to Opn Hirer to Dftp-Sfa Shipping, Taken Up on CiganUc
SoJ I-ater, Results In Great AchieTement for Tort.
w . W. TSrkaM. ai.a.ral wiansii Fwl
TX TMAJIsrOHMtXO tb .
crookaO. t:-foo ckaaoal whu- a
X faw dai-ada frr4 loiila'
aaly Htt:l la Ik 14" Bvorkata. lata
a w hi. ataa ckaaaai with a mlalaaui
dapta f 34 fet. Ik aot f Tort-
Un.t a follow al al all is a o!lcj
f (ralatiiaa a4 Bl af mraaaloa.
Tk rtsbt af tfcr nil a4 low aa I
bai ikaaal boa avr ka .
I.oaani. at loval f-rt!a4 fcaa alway
'bad for rTtUaa4.
II w aa tki rpini tkal Ia4ac4 Cof-
f. ik t.aall. t'j(ial an4 a fa
ibar rrtladr. w av4 klatary la
Ik aarly af Oo. lo awevr la
staaraar :Mktf for tfc I"rttsa4
an4 J rraaclac rvola. bcaa la
war f tk toaT at a a roar. I-t
VMteoa. ri41a la lb Ursar City
f Milwaaktav frikr lb rtr. r
fuaoaj Iaa4 Ikair taaav al I"ort
Ua4 bll aa nnltr trip klra
atilwsaki aa4 Aa tor law
Tki aaoa glorl l4-tlm Portland
Spirit asaia aart4 It! a faw
yaar later wfcaa lb Pacific bfall
laaaai Capar Bttaaaptad I allaaH
aat f-tlaa4 fro Ik wMtim map
af Ik rl4 br avakin St. Hal. a lb
b4 4'tartara for Ibalr las I'raaclsc
staaxaara. TV (oaapaay bulll ila
i dark at St Italaa aad for
aral aaoa is a4avar4 I aala that
p-rt tfc bid a port of Ik Colombia
Miaar.. Vat lb rrtlaa4ra ka4 aa
bctaal rrtlaa4 aa4 lfcr r loyal
t taair lctii. Tkay cr4 tfc
taaaar rrloaia I raa la farlUai
an4 tt Bp suck a warns ftbl tkal tka
bi aoanpaor waa gla4 ratara witk
a aaar a ra-iif aoralc a lb bars
all tk war traak lortload la tfc aa
w au4 adroit.
.awaa Tvaat aa fca tT
Tb artr " saar lb baslnalag af
Ik era. a Ira4. a trad Ikal waa lb
orrtaa fraoa wkKk s.i of pari
load a aaarttlra) prita w aa baildaal
and II wa a aarra. aaallow aad lor
tuotia rkaanal. tkroasb wkKk tk skip
wriactoal tklr war I Portlaa) aad
baca I Ik aaa. Tfc acla war
m arua thai la 11 aatkr al
laaipl wa ma J ta diaart tk ablp
pa fraaa Pwrtlaad. l:taalv dock
jr ko Lit al Aatoria aa4 lowar-rtaar
eastlallat fcalll a boat aad bars Una
lo rwtrr-9 wkoal frvna Ik H tUrntl
Vatiar ! Aatoria. Hal tk rort Isad
ora aftawad a asora lacliaatloa t anoa
Ik aklpplo kuaiaaa Aalarua tkaa
inr k4 ruo.r d.apiayd wha
kl.lwavikv aad L llaloa war Ik
4lata Btct4. ttlaor ckaaa! laa
proaarooal wa tka aa with aa a
Ifcaaiaaak Ikal baa l stac ba ar
bb f M ! la wan, tr'taoa drodfa wr
tat Ba.ai al Ikal tieaa. kal by
Blalcla wtta aeoaaaakla propllr.
4f-cttf barrowa arraaj lb bar a4
tkar cr4a atkola I'rtlaa4 aooa -ur4
a cbaal of attfflclant d'plfc I
aaak It caicl for aktpa la raaa
fcr l la I. ana kar awalta a a -ki
k a sibc aoa a artsiy caa-
II la eair (( back I Ika rtr
r.oaja ( tk ,cit ikal w a raa fl!r
apraual laa aluaaaaaaa laak tkal
fca k acvom p : a -4 la baiM.a? a
rltixl trvra Portia- la lb aaa.
f..:.ai arfaaua'ioa wita taa-lvylas
twr la aot fj'la II ar af as
T is "itv IxrttBBd. wake a aaa
laa ca'4 s?prpria(l t larvw) tk
port f Part as t. rtvar lar
aaaal arl 4a yaars asa aa alast m
ar'T Ika naa liaa a a r iaa fol
hi o-4 r Ika praaarat Part af Part
Ian4. raw4 taa.aa BalH fca laa.
T faal tattltmaal aafH br lb
01 raatiofB tkal waa a fraaar af
t prooont Prl f Pr:ai wa a
aa&4ia 4rf 4xl baUl br imukI
t ,- .till' 11 . - . .v - . , v-- i-' -jX
r::- JI' li :-'
V X7-) . S - ------ 4i:.ti - t-f ?-r T ',TT VlS '
No. b aar 4ck 1 faal la Ivartfc.
1 fal of afchrk k ! Il- Tkla
dork l caar4 aritk a traaalt a ft ad
li fal la lii( s4 1 f-t la widlk:
l Ik aorik s4 of Ik dock, a Blip 134
fat la aruttk a&4 l fat la flapis.
Uk aa op.a dvk aloa Ha aouik
1 1 a. ta4iBs' from !. (r of Ifia
quar dnrfe la rrool (rl. . a '
taac of tli fL t'f dautar Ik
opa 4ok ka a wMta of tt tar
j:i fl and alone Ik norta n4 of
Ik auay dork, or U fl. a arldtk of
31 fi: aantoun -A." la rar of Ik
u alack at Ik sutk and.
alcrr iratlur 1 fal br ft:
a Son In roo'h a4 af h opa-do-k
atnMaM U. a !-lorr Iranall
M4 J! fl la iaectk aad IT f.aC
Tsi (ompl'U laa!fi:t'oa furnlahaa
a rr r compact urnuoal adaioalair
r rail Irackac facUillaa. al
itkt It la-foot car can to
al on Itma. Tk Ironlas b
Ik ui dock and Ik alio affurda
tartkiBS apar al cot lima or turao
aaaaata. on a foal and 10 of M
faat la lB(tb.
. Maoicipal Dock Xo. t. a tM rt
Ma f Ik rllar oatara YmX. Waak
laatoa aad K! tk airai a lo-
laaal aaar dock. .- tal la laoth.
car4 ail-k a Iraaalt akad 1 ft
la wtdtk. Ik fvitl taoctk of Ik dock.
Tkl dock In diroct rail coanaclloa
ollk tk lioBlfc-ra I'acitie buaafa la
Eaat airaal. from Kaat Oak
atroal. Tk 10 track la rr of tk
dock fcara a p:acmal of Id It-foot
4. Municipal Pock No. 1. oa Ik aaf
aid of Ik rlaar. kctoaaa flltabur
and Tacoma t(rla a aaar dock, al
fat In latictk. of okKk foal la alapt 4
aad ) faal la laaIS ka taro !!.
Tkl dock I coraj tits a irana i
kl i faal la laactk and 14 fl
la wldia. Ilnal a apac or in rai
la till at a ccl f f :i.4. Tukd for
apocallna tbla dr4 wr aocorad b
ukaaripnoa. b'-l la March. It?, tk
Common Coaactl paaaod aa ordlnanc
mpawr1a lb Malar lo lndr la th
Initaal ti OornmBl tA aa of
ika drada DroaWln It aouM D aapi
la rapair and aert4 ea l-iand
kar aad at tb moutfc of lb 1:1
s-natt Rir. Prior lo lhl dal. tb
taovaraai.al bad (4 kul lull atfea
naa lo l-ort.aad a cbaanal la lb a.
tk pad turoa frwr hla aoarr for
tk ftacal ar !-. for iaa ui
snall aad luaikla lllrr blow
Portland aoaoonilnc la but lt:i . Tb
flold for dvlopmal. hawtrtf. anaal
lata bU attractioaa. for la lb -
nr- r.Dorl for IKT-41 It I Btat4
tbal "tka amaaat af rommrrca and aav
Laatloa la b bafn4 br Ibl Ira
proaamant la Ursa, aimr 4rawiBg
it r.ot af walar. rvaalna frora naa
rraaclac a la Portland raaolarlr Ihr
lira a aaoa-h. c.pt wbaa a topped
br siraBa law walar oa tb bar to
Tri IVoaarariaanl arcpt4 lb offar
of lb Cltr of Porllaad an4 oprat4
oar firal drd( from Wptarnbr 14 la
Novnbr I. - Al Kwaa laland.
Ik worst pUca ea lb rlr. a cot wa
saada for a diataaca of 4 ft, with
a width ef ! faal aad a s-ro dWptb
of la f-V Oa aem of th rloa
whr tkl cut wa mad I kar waa
oalr II ft f waiar. and lo car Ik
ttae ckaaat rntiood rulr4 lb
ascavatioa ef t-l4 yard of malarial
r aboat lwo-lbirla the amoaal wbicb
ear oa of tb thro big- dradcae bow
wo4 br Ik City f PortUad will
baadi la a Sl-bour raa.
klarlr Or4laaT Caalty.
Tba coat of ramovtag lb malarial
from Ibl cat waa llll rants par yard,
com par ad alia 111 coal per yard al
lb prat time. la 1141 lh dredc
wa prata4 from Ftbttary to May
aa4 ra svorad !. cab.e yard al a
coat af W 4 nt par yard. Tba fol
lawlog year 14.111 yard war removed
from tail lalaad bar and lb Daoulb
of th Wlllamatt Rlvr at a coat af
1144 pr yard.
Vary little parmaaaat good was ac
cooip!iabad with lb erad dippr
drd. far Ibrva yar lalr. In 171.
tkar wa bat 11 fl f water at tb
aaoatk of lb Vii:amtt. aad almra
draw ib mora tkaa tkal war ebllgad
la l;Mar tbelr tarjo dowa to tb
PortiaBd's first grata Hurl was dla
patrbad la 1141 and four yaars lalr a
f;aot of 44 va! WB diapalckad.
carry In 14.114 loBar looa. of which
1 1.: 14 Ions was lishtarad to Aatoria.
air 11 f tb vaaaaLa going dowa tb
riaar wltkaot llcblraa
V, haa a raca.l tkal la twptrabr.
wllk la riaar al tb low! atac
of lb aon. Ika bi llaaaar Strlnda.
carralna 11.444 loa af wboat and
4rawia ST fai of walar. want tbroocb
ta lb without a momoat's dalar.
It aaua dlfflco!! ta boliaaa that la
IIT1 ! imp nparklios Iw. with a
lea 4 d draft of la faal. waa ctlid lo
h(ktr li Iaa out ef a total cargo of
11 ; loa. to' haa tba Aatortaas a yar
U'.ar took advaatac of th roadl
tioaa a"4 aMpp4 five earos of
wkaat. portlaad sol boar aad la llS
tka rorab a4 affort af Iba Port and
tka Uovararoaat raailla4 la a IT-foot
ckaaal af tka saoai'.b af Ika Wlllam
att and U-faat at -aa Ia:ao I
la IITI tk Oovarnraont adopt4 a
projort f-r a 3-foot rbaaaal from
portlaad la Aatoria. and ta aid la -
caring tbl daptfc a dlka actoaa Vi'll
Lamatt l.ocll waa ballt ta Mil for
taiproalBBT I otoff. Har. Tkla la
prvaaavant waa rra.lltd wltb Incro
Ix t dapk f watar Ira 14 ft In
li: ia It ft la I til. la tfta Utir
Ta.r tkar was bal I4H ft at at.
lialaaa sad lata 1.ar. d Har bad f'Kad
a la II r t- Tk ataamahtp Wa:ia
all, wltb hr pror-a".ar chara4 aot
a t-(o channaL 1 faol wl . at St.
Il-aoa. a4 barrowa avid diaamlle
A IWJaaiWai b4w44 tat
Ife ; : . : ..--I -ify
br It fa-at at fh aorta od of th
duck for opaa aloraia.
Tbla dock takn or br U
fommlaaloa ba tb formr City of
M. John waa conaolldal'd with the
Clir of Hortlacd al th lctlo bald
la Jun. 11 . 1( waa built la lvt and
la ool rrortld -arllb track ajf facjil
II. Th uppor laral of tk dock la
lad to lb Cra-WiUanit i'apvr
Compknr uatit Jun. 1 1.
Thar I a low-walar dpth alon
Municipal Poc k a 1 and t of JO fact and
Wlllamatt bars Into a corresponding
la I3 lha dasultory work of I"
GovrnTnl wa lupplamralfd br tb
Cltr of Portlaad. which appropriate
I ;tc for work ea th Wlllamotta. sno
th Portland Hoard of Trad contrib-
uiad 1441 for werk oa ML Helen
taaaarra T, rk KBaa-lla.
This graduallr Increaslag depth 00
lb nppr racba of Ik channel
brought ta light th blab spots farther
dowa aad la llll lb tamr Walla
Walla alulrod Walkara Island bar frora
a darth of lit fl lo l ft at aro.
St. illas bad maanwblla DUd up
aaala lo US ft and la Ausuat th
naaraer Walla Walla alulcod a channal
134 faal long. 144 ft wld and .13
A Ura bucket dr4g was built la
llll. and while It wa soma Improve
man I aaar II prdceor4 lb cost pr
yard aa4 4ha alownaaa of tb work
mad tb channal building a difficult
and aot altosathar aaiiafactory procaaa,
aad II was laid up moat of tb lira.
bUaawbll ship war Increasing la
sit aad nam bar. aad Portland was
growing In wealth and population.
Colonel John M-Craka. who, as
-chairman of tb Board ea Hlvr Im
provement" la 1144. bad entered Into
lb firat airremnt vr mad wltb
tb Oovornmaot for Improvement of
th Willamette and Columbia river,
wa still with the vanguard, but. Ilk
hi fellow patriot. Ladd. Lawla. Cor
bel t. Palling and other of our famous
rlty bolidera. was beginning to
th ncatly for a mor equitable
diatrlbutioa af lbs coal of making our
Part laaoraraled ta
It w ma for this purpoaa that th
Port of Portland waa Incorporated lo
Ul. Iba Lslalalura giving tb orgaa
Uatloa power to levy a tax and to ex
pand lb funds thus obtained la deep
ening th channal to th aea.
Tb Hoard ef Commlalonrs named
ander lb first act conslatvd ef W. 8.
Uadd. llanry Failins. C H. Lwla.
Jam btl. T. M. Itlchardaoa, John
STATISTICS COVERING FORTT-FIYE TEARS OF PORTLAND'S
W II EAT EXPORTS.
Ia 1174 f'vj veaaels cleared from Portland for foreign ports, carry
ing a total ol 114.H4 bushels of wheat. Tb avarag shipload was
la .'Hi 14 v aaala carried from Portland a total of 1.14.11 bushels
of wbeat to foreign porta. Tb average shipload was 211,111 bushels.
Nor. bk. ANha.. ......
Nor. bk. Mo eld
Nor. bk. r o.denekjold..... 2 3.1:4
ir. bk. Syr. 3J.I.
Oar. bk. Marmaa Doctor.. 11.7 ti
Pr. ship Carmartnaa tell n i l
Am. ahlp Otlharar TS.4
Am. ship tienjamln Saw all TI.174
lir. ahlp Boa vl.
lr. ahip r lorlda.
lir. hlp ( Bteauiaa.. .
fir. skip Piiharrte..,
!r. ship Crtadale. . :
lir. ship Cltr of Hankow.
Am. ahlp blcNaar
Am. ahlp O F. fke 104.12
Am. ahip Til'le Htarback...lol.4:l
I r. ahip M 11 Wataoa..... la.lii
ir. ahip tity of llenar.. .724
- lir. ship Macdlarmld :
Am. all ip Uan. ralrxhlld .. 71 111
lir. ship Carmartkaa Caatl 74 J
I r. bark Abercora..
lir. alii Innipa. . . ...
Am. ahip J. U. lirowa...
Average 1 4.3 41.
Hr. bark Mohan. 1S1.11I
lir. bark Lamfriablra. ... 1 44.411
l r. bark A ncoaa ...144.144
4r. bark Cheimaford 143 '
lir. bark blosambiqua UJ.Ill
Interior. Jfixrz rc z pa ZocJ-Z -A. i.
la th allp of It ft. At municipal
dock No. t th low-water depth U
about JS feat.
la th bulldlnir of It dock, th Com
mlaalon adopted heavy mill or low
burnlnc conatruction In preference to
fireproof conatruction. Thl ru don
both oa account of the savins In tbe
Initial coat and th neceaalty of taking
Into conal Jcration th uaeful or com
mercial lif of truclurea of thia char
actar. aa It la not at th present tlm
possible lo fores th typ of water
McCraken. O. R Markle. E. D. Mc
K. John E. Lombard aad Ellia U.
llucbea. of Portland: Cyrus Buckroan.
Dbv Itaffety and 8. E. Joseph I. of
Keal Portland, and William M. Kll
llnasworth and John II. bteffen, of
Alblna. The 30-foot project of 1877
aaa expanded into a XS-foot project In
Hl. and Ihkt, In turn, rfc w '
a 37. : and finally a 34-foot channel,
wblcb ha Jut beaet compltd.
boon after its orsanlsatlon th Port
replaced tbe old bucket and dipper
dredve wiih a modern suction dredge,
th first of the Jnacblnea having a
14-Inch tlD and a rapacity for ban
dilng more material in a day than th
flrat drdr could nanaie in a roonin.
Tha 24-Inch dredca Portland was re
inforced In 1142 by tha Columbia, the
firal of tha blr 20-Inch dredge wnicn
have sine made such great changes In
Portland's channel to th aea. Th
Columbia was followed four years
later by th big tl dredg Willam
ette, and early In 111 tha Tualatin.
wbk-b. In sis, capacity and enutproent,
la lb laat word In drdg construc
tion, will twain work oa a pro.'ect that
call for a wider and deeper channel
than any yet attempted.
Big Proarreaa la Xetaa.
For several years th Port of Port
land baa been working under an agree
ment by which th Government has
attended ta lh channel la th Colum
bia, while tb Port looked. after the
Willamette, wltb occasional sorties
Into the Columbia to assist th Gov
ernment when needed. Tbe channal
from Portland to th mouth of th Wll
lamatt now has a minimum depth of
t feet at sero. with a width of from
100 to 404 feet, and th channel In th
Columbia has a corresponding depth.
To met th Increased depth on the
bar the Government ha already begun
dredging to 11 feet In some parts of
lh river and the Port of Portland
will follow suit.
The new projects, while not offlciaUy
announced, will prooaoiy call lor a
channel 404 feet wide, with a minimum
depth of II feet at low water. Wltb
tha modern equipment and an experi
enced organization, this 21-foot Chan
al to th sea will b much easier for
tb 114 Portland to secur than the 16
feet that tb grand old cltr builders
of years ago fought so hard to se
cure. Meanwhile the north Jetty and
the big Government dredge are rapidly
depr.lng tb ntraace to th Colum
bia Kivar and delays at that point will
soon be aa Infrequent and inconsequsa
tial as tbey now are In th river.
Mr. ship Claverdon Ilfe.3j0
Hr. ship Thlatlebank 137.511
li r. ship Mrledllbik..,
lir. ship Hlversdale
Br. bark Invernesshira..
Hr. str. Fpsora 215.40
Hr. sir. Knight Prrant. ... 110.004
Kr. str. Abergeldle. 13,50
lir. str. Oceano. 143. 3
lir. str. Auchenblae 154.01S
Hum bark Tennla. ...... .137,282
Kr. str. Kelvinbank 114.491
Kr. bark Owen..... 135,301
Kr. str. Hyderabad. 135.104
Br. ship Durbrldg..
Nor. str. Ftrlnda....
Kr. str. Hargh Hail.
Kr. str. liishbury. ..
Hr. atr. Ueaon city.
Kr. str. Esrpt'n Tranap'rt15S.537
Nor. atr. Christian Uors..
lir. str. Ouwen. ...21. 31
Kr. str. Vol. ...331.524
Kr. str. Hermlaton 3:8.571
Kr. atr. rinowdonlan.......227.94
Kr. bk. Corn! Bart 125.31
Nor. air. Gaslna. 135.(04
Br. bark Innerlyon 111. 411
Kr. bark Pierr Antoaln.. 137.447
r.r. bark Golgat 154,211
Br. tr. Wlacomba. 110.117
front structure that will be demanded
to meet chanced requirements 25 or 10
year hence, when extensive altera
tions may bar to be made to present
structures, which can be more readily
accomplished in timber than in fire
proof construction, or an entire new
destirn may be found necessary to meet
the changed requirements.
Tbe type of construction adopted by
the Commission seems well adapted to
local conditions, whera heavy timbers
and pilings are easlly obtainable at a
Development of Inland Navigation Necessary Step
Establishing. of River-Boat Service, Erection of Docks and Warehouses and Construction of
Electric Lines and Highways Among Projects Needed to Build Up Interior Trade.
By C. W. Hadaoa.
THE only value attaching to any
thing is in Its use. Let this thought
b kent try mind In considering
the question of Inland navigation in the
Columbia River Basin. However great
may "be the trade potentialities of the
wonderful area traversed by the Co
lumbia River and Its tributaries. It
will be as though they did bot exist
unless properly Xostered, developed and
used. . By no other means can the
commercial Influence and dominance of
Portland as the principal trade center
of this vast territory ha established
and-maintained as effectually as by
th bringing 'Into, general use of this
great natural artery of trade. '
The history of the world shows that
waterways furnished the first means
of trade communication between dif
ferent sections of the countries and
the countries themselves, and. after the
advent of railroads, became the almost
exclusive carriers of the slow-moving
and staple commodities, by reason of
their marked cheapness of transport
tlon costs as compared with the more
expensive rail systems. As natural
highways they became, and have to
this day remained, the great regulators
of distributive rates.
Notwithstanding the complex nature
of modern business. In tbe final analy
sis It resolves Itself into but three
great subdivisions production, distri
bution and consumption. When these
three are eorelated and operating
normally, we experience what we call
prosperous times. Let either one be
disturbed, and the whole commercial
fabric becomes deranged, and disaster
follows. During the past decade cor t
of distribution has been abnormally
out of proportion to the other two es
sentials to our business prosperity, due
In large measure to excessive transpor
tation costs, which comprise over 60
per cent of all the expense of bringing
producer and consumer together.
Water Traapartatla X cccaaarjr.
The great problem confronting the
Pacific Northwest la: First, how to
stimulate production, which necessarily
carries with It provision for increased
consumption of products: second. In
order to secure and serve such con
sumers, how to provide for more eco
nomical distribution. Only by work
ing out some feasible plan. for accom
plishing these results can our coun
try develop and attract to us a much
desired increase In population.
As every commercial venture must.
of necessity, earn a reasonable return
on the Investment, and as claims are
made br our present rail transport
tlon systems or their inaoiiity further
to reduce rates and make a reasonable
profit, Portland's distribution rate re
duction. If auch claims be founded on
fact, naturally becomes dependent on
the use of cheaper methoda than are
at present being employed. Water ia
th only- alternative. Th question,
therefore, resolves itself into how capi
tal can be Induced to provide the nc-
(asary facilities, and how to Induce
their full us alter navmg seen pro
Tided. Sporadic effort have been made In
times past to establish steamer lines
on the Upper river, but on account of
Improper equipment, lack of practical
knowledge of operattion on tbe part
of the managers, obstructions in the
channel at medium or low stages of
water, absence of systematic co-operation
with shippers, and want of ware
house and dock facllltiea. they have
resulted In discontinuance after losses
have been sustained by the promoters.
Recent Improvements made by the
National Government In overcoming
obstruction In th stream at and
above tbe Cascades have provided an
adequate channel of eight feet mini
mum In depth between Portland and
Cciuo, a dislaoc of 11 anil as; and
reasonable price, and where the last.
lnaT Qualities of the pllinc in the sub-
above low water, du to fresh-water
conditions and tidal effect In- the har
bor at low-water stage, are greatly In
excess of the life of the superstruc
ture, so that, by resorting to what is
known as "bench-capping," the piling
above elevation four or six feet can
be renewed at small expense, thus
B-reatlv reducing the cost of the
heaviest item of repairs.
In addition to the general type of
heavy mill construction employed In
the building of Its docks, the Commis
sion has introduced other features in
construction to reduce as far as pos
sible the fire risk from both inside and
outside causes. For this purpose con
crete fire walls, extending from low
water to six feet above the rake of
the shed roof, have been provided at
each end of the docks, and In the caae
of Dock No. 1 a similar intermediate
11 and all stairways and elevator
shafts are inclosed by plastered par
titions and provided with fire doors or
Both docks are supplied with auto
matic sprinkler systems and other ef
ficient fire-protection facilities. :
The two warehouses at the site of
Dock. No. I are also of slow-burning
construction and equipped - with
sprinkler systems. These structures
and Docks -1- and 2 have steel roller
doors, steel sash with wire glass and
four-ply asbestos roofs. Due to this
nearly fireproof construction, the city
enjoys a low insurance rate, as com
pared with other waterfront struc
tures. The floors of the docks are double
thickness tongued and grooved flooring.-with
the exception of the lower
floor of Dock. No. 2, which consists of
a reinforced concrete slab, supported
structure to a height of five or six feet
between Celilo and Priest Rapids
there is sufficient depth to accommo
date steamers of four and one-half
feet depth of draft, while the removal
of one bar in this reach will provide a
minimum depth of five feet on the av
erage. During the greater portion or
each year Snake River, the longest
tributary of the Columbia, is navigable
from its mouth to Riparia. With the
completion of work already planned to
be done on this stream, Lewlaton
Idaho, will be included In the list of
ports to be reached all the year round
by boats operating out of Portland.
With these difficulties overcome, the
war will be opened for the establish
ment of a permanent and profitable
through steamboat and barge line.
City's Trade Territory lyarge.
The Columbia River trade territory,
which naturally belongs exclusively to
Portland, produces over 20,000,000 bush
els of wheat per year, with an addi
tional 35,000,000 bushels to be drawn
on In competitive territory. A very
large percentage of the grain exported
from the states of Oregon, Washington
and Idaho is grown within 0 miles of
the Columbia River and its navigable
tributaries. In addition to wheat are
vast quantities of wool, hay, fruit and
livestock. Tbe installation of a first
class water-carrying system, properly
equipped and managed, would unques
tionably secure for Portland a very
large proportion of the traffic created
by the movement of these commodities
to tidewater, as much lower rates could
be established than are now charged.
and a handsome profit realized.
A recent survey made of the Colum
bia River Basin, under the patronage
of the Portland Chamber of Commerce,
discloses many interesting facts in con
nection with a plan which has been
suggested for the expansion of Port
land's trade in the interior country.
and with the idea in view of securing
lower shipping and back-distributing
rates. This plan contemplates the
building of feeder lines consisting of
permanent highways and electric roads,
the erection of a comprehensive system
of docks and warehouses along the
river, and the inauguration of a first
class steamboat and barge line to op
erate from Portland to the extreme
upper reaches of the navigable por
tions of the Columbia and its tributa
ries. This survey has demonstrated beyond
question that a magnificent and ex
ceedingly profitable business awaits
the establishment of a line of steam
ers properly built to navigate shallow
water, provided with ample power to
negotiate the several rapids with ease.
and to make reasonably good speed.
These boats must also be supplemented
by a sufficient fleet of barges, which
would increase the carrying capacity
of each independent unit many-fold
without materially adding to the ex
pense of operation. Such an equip
ment would permit of a very marked
reduction in present rates both into
and out of Portland.
Rail Line Weald Benefit.
It may be said such a move would
be objectionable in that it would re
sult In destroying the earning power
of the rail lines now serving this terri
tory. The history of transportation de
velopment throughout the world dis
proves such assertion. In fact, wher
ever water service parallels rail lines
the result has always been, because
of tbe reduction of rates, to Increase
very greatly the tonnage offerings by
reason of stimulated development of
the region served, and as r. consequence
the revenues have been more than cor
In addition to the establishment of a
properly equipped boat line, there must
of necessity be proper handling facil
ities provided at conveniently located
points along the streams. Ample land
ing places, with warehouses for shel
tering the freight offerings, have never
been provided for this traffic, while
th rail lines have either supplied such
facilities themselves or have induced 1
Methods Used for
Handling Cargo in
Safety Is Feature
Type of Construction Adapted to
Loral Conditions Warehouses
Fully Equipped With Fire-Protection
on creosoted timbers a practically
permanent construction, so far as the
life of the dock Itself is concerned.
In Warehouse "A" a heavy wooden
floor is placed on sills directly on the
solid fill, while in warehouse "B" the
floor is of reinforced concrete finished
off with special surface hardener and
the central driveway a creosoted
wooden block pavement on concrete
base. The dock floors are designed
for a live load of $00 pounds per square
foot, and in the warehouses of 2000
pounds per square foot.
For the economical and expeditious
handling of cargo at the docks, the
Commission haa Installed along the
face of the dock sheds cargo masts,
which are used in connection with the
ship's gear or the ship's gear and
portable electric winches, of which four
hav been provided for Dock No. 1,
each of a rated capacity of 31 horse
power. By the use of the cargo masta
the freight is loaded or picked up di
rectly In the center of the door open
ing, regardless of whether the ship's
hatches are opposite the door open
ings. Large Elevators Installed.
In the two-level section of Dock No.
1 there is a three-ton elevator, with
platform 8x14 feet, and at Dock No. 2
two such elevators are Installed. Be
tween Dock No. 1 and Warehouse "A"
an electrically operated conveyor s
provided for the direct transference of
freight between the two structures,
capable of handling grain in sacks,
flour, case goods, etc As an additional
facility for the distribution of freight
at Dock No. 1 and Warehouses "A" and
"B," two electric dock trucks, each of
a capacity of two tons, are avallabl
for the handling of such commodities
as cannot be transferred by the con
veyor and for the transportation of
goods from distant points on the doclc
to the conveyor.
For use on the open dock along the
slip at the north end of Dock No. 1, a
locomotive crane has recently been in
stalled. This crane has a lifting ca
pacity of 40,000 pounds at 12-foot ra
dius of goom and 6500 pounds at a 50
At the request of one of the largest
grain exporters of the city for th
Commission -to provide elevator facili
ties for the handling and storage of
grain in bulk, the Commission had pre
liminary plans and estimate of cost
prepared covering the construction of
a grain elevator of a capacity of 1,000,
000 bushels. After conferences held
with exporters and others, at which the
proposition was discussed in detail, and
full consideration of the entire mat
ter, the Commission decided that it
would be inadvisable at that time to
ask for a bond issue to provide such,
Independent warehousemen to provide
and maintain thera. With the trans
portation necessities being provided,
there can be no question as to the ton
nage being ample to afford a handsome
return on the investment in these facil
ities. The ideal condition would be for
both transportation and handling facil
ities to be under one management and
control; but even under separate man
agement and ownership there can be
no possible doubt that the venture
would be profitable.
Supplementing the two main essen
tials of adequate and proper transpor
tation and handling facilities is the
proposal to provide a system of feeder
or supply lines, consisting of electric
railways and permanent highways for
use by auto trucks, to run from land
ing points on the river back into the
Interior at frequent intervals for a dis
tance of not less than 60 miles.
Permanent Highway Suggested.
While the electric railway would be
the Ideal means of handling such traf
fic, the proposal to construct perma
nent highways, which can be used all
the year round by auto trucks and
other vehicles, meets with great favor.
Such highways can be provided at pub
lic expense through taxation, and
would serve not only the proposed
steamer and barge line, but the rail
roads as well, as all the traffic borne
by auch highways, in order to reach,
the rlver would be compelled to cross
the tracks of the rail lines operating
In the territory. This plan appeals the
most strongly, as It is deemed to be
the most practicable and easy of ac
complishment. These highways would
serve the additional purpose of supply
ing the entire communities through,
which they are located with first
class facilities for local use. Undoubt
edly this plan will be adopted. It will
contemplate the formation of port or
shipping districts which will have the
power of levying- taxes, the same as
school and road districts; or, possibly,
such construction will be undertaken
by districts already In existence. The
details are yet to be wonted ouc
Either plan, however, wouia result in
distributing the cost of construction
and maintenance throughout the ter
ritory directly affeoted. and not bear
heavily on any one industry or com.
Shipping Possibilities Big.
Given the practically completed worlc
of the Government in supplying an
open river; the production already
known to exist; the system of feeder
lines from interior supply points to
the river; the inauguration of & first
class line of powerful steamers capable
of successfully handling barges of
large capacity, such boat line to be
under the management of capaDie,
practical and experienced men; proper
docking and handling facilities, and a
proper sentiment ana aeierrainauon on
the part of shippers and consumers to
take the utmost advantage of the fa
cilities thus afforded, there can be no
question as to the future of the Co
lumbia River as the greatest commer
cial artery in the Northwest, nor can
there be any doubt as to the supremacy
of Portland as the greatest shipping
point on the Pacifio Coast.
One thing, however, must be Im
pressed upon Portland business Inter
ests and the people of the upper coun
try, if there is to be a continuance of
Government assistance in the improve
ment of the Columbia Klver it must
be used vastly more than it bas been
in the past. Let this tnougnt Bins;
deeply into the mind -of every resi
dent of the Northwest. Will we take
advantage of the golden opportunity
to make this city the actual, instead
of the possible, commercial center of
the vast region embraced In the Co
lumbia basin? Will we take the proper
steps to make such presentation of the
future possibilities and the present op
portunities to stagnant capital which
is anxiously looking for such chances
for profitable investments as here af