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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 20, 1915)
THE 5IOn!OyO OnEGOMAX. FRIDAY. AUGUST 20. 1915.
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t)Rri-vu. taiuAT. Atcts-T. . ma.
irt r.ttEMT or wTWt.
Tha vi-'tt of tha House committee
en r:r snj harbors to tha Pacific
."rthtat la peculiarly Important be
cause lh firt stase In I.uprovemeDt
it the prtntlyal ateray of this
lion l near complvtl-ia and because
tf.rf are eMnces that Conrre U
about t ajopt a brw policy relatirf
tu ajch Oornmoni work. The T.ll
fc.r.rr by whti h tho Isjt to river
ana harbor billa maklr ape.lflc ap
proprtlona wcra rejected In favor of
lump appropriations carried iltscuwion
to bedrock. They raised the question
whether Inland nvt-iition was not
r:irly out of date la this country
ard whether all money apent on Im-
jrovrmeat of rivers, except as hip
channels radic froro the sea. as not
wasted. The question thui has be
come, not whether this or that stream
should ba Improved, but whether any
Cream ahould oa Improved.
That question has been raised at a
emi.-al time In tha development of In
land cavitation lr the Pacific North
wear- The Improvement of the chan
rel from Portland to tha sea and of
the channel across tha bar does not
ome under that head, for tha critics
of the oM policy regard this as an ac.
cessory to ocean traffic. But the Gov.
err.ment has Just completed tho Celllo
Canal and has J'"t boukht and berun
to improve tha wniametta locks. Con
rcsa Is called opon to decide whether
It :!! extend Inland oavuraoie
ters by canaltxlr.a; both the Columbia
and the WilUmetto and other tribu
taries of tha former tream. Tha Pa
cific Northwest Is vitally Interested In
the decision of future policy
The chief opponent of further canal-
hninn of rivers is ex-Scnator Burton.
)l did not atOD at denunciation Of
xpndlturea on obscure creeks and
amalt rivers a pork beyond question.
He went, farther and by coroparin
tha sums expended with tha traffic
row carried on treat rivers Ilka the
If leirpl. Missouri. Ohio. Tenn
and Rfd Kiver of the iwuth. he under
took tn ahow that the American people
had definitely ahandonol water for
railroad tranportatton. When It was
P',1.1 In defense of liver Improve-
martt that the preen"a of Improved
rivers eerved to rerulata railroad
rf. he condemned as wata tho expenditure-
of ltS.eoa.00 on a canattxed
rtv-r parallellnc a 1 1 S.lOe.000 railroad
ar, h- aald t.t rallroaj commliwlont
ti!-f. to rrfiUte Titles without du-pl:.-tton
of the Investment.
The reply to Nr. Burton la that
other nations no ls protrrswlve than
,tha I'nited ftates Tnd economy In
larce evpendltura on river Improve
ment, tiermar.y. France. Belclum and
Holland upend larfa um on rivers
and carai and carry heavy traffic
en them. We mut o deeper than a
rn-re comparison of Investment with
traffic In order to arrive at the reason
why the United States fails where
th we countries succeed.
In this country railroads have been
perrr.tfted t purchase steamboat lines.
wharv. d K'ki and the ahorea of rtv
era. When a steamboat Una haa held
ut In competition with them, they
fcave been free to ruin It by competi
tion and then to buy It at their own
rrtce or to drive It to other routes,
Vh-n a river Improvement was fln
Ishcd. the Government practically
landed the stramboatmen a channel
without terminal f.iclltttes or with such
fc::itiea miserably out of date and
without connection with land lines of
transportation and exposed to tho un
rel'ntlna hoetllity of -hose lines. When
a railroad tnanasvr saw a steamboat
crrlnc traffic, he " red" and
"Went after it." Under such condi
tions larte capital avoided Inland wa
ter transportation, and owners of
trambout line could not build mod
ern wharves, even when able finan
cially to acquire a rleoe of fror.tate
uncontrolled by railroads, for a rail
road would never sell to them. They
eouU r.oi krep tip with the march of
lnertion In buil.lmt steamboats, tuss
and barte. They ere started on the
water subject to a tremendous handi
cap, which they could not possibly
overcome, and their failure to succeed
under that handicap Is cited as a rea
son hy ttirtr entire busine." should
be "scrapped. f.ir as stoppage of
vairrai) Improvement can scrap It.
If we do as Kurope does. e car
succeed as Kurope succeeds. Contress
has done something by renulrlnn rall
roa ls to connect with water terminals
and to pro-rate with water lines and
by furbld'llrs; railroads to own or con
trol pinU'l water lines, but more Is
re!ed to brine American water traf-IV-
up to the tlerni.tn'stamlard. Broad
economy requires that heavy, bulky
truffic of 1 w value be carried by wa
ter and that Hcht traffic of hich value
mti' fy rll. In that manner the peo
j le would x-t the benefit of cheap
water traru;ort:itlon. and capital
would be encjuraed to Invest In up-to-date
wafer craft. Waterside com
munities should construct modern
whrves food ro Is and railroad con
yecttor.s. These measures would five
the waterways a f i!r lest cf the ques
tion whether money Invested In their
1-Tiprotemert f wasted.
No better field for such a test could
be found than the Columbia River and
Its treat trlhutaties. the WUIamette
and the Snake. The people cf this
section have always been keenly alive
to the value of their waterways. They
"have proved this rot merely by vocal
Vv.rme. but bv their works, for they
have spent fhelr own funds liberally
la co-operation with the Government,
and wttn rest tfat'fjlrt result. Ore
gon built a portate railroad around
elilo fails as a temporary connection
between upper and lower Columbia
steamers while the Government was
kulldlcs th Cellio CaisaL Tha Port
of Portland hu spent mora than $4.'
oa.33 In deepening the ship channel
of tit Columbia and Willamette from
wT'Dtfta fret to thirty feet, ul that
iKKir contributed HTM to tha eoit
of tho Berth Jetty at th Columbian
month, while th Port of Astoria rave
t:S.00 fur the same purpose. Th
xpendlt jm ma!a by tha Government
In Jotty-ball-ling and dredging hav
deepened tha channel over tha bar
from twenty-two to twenty-eight feet.
with tha rood prospect that compie-
"I tiou of
' .... . .-ill In.
Jcrea tho depth to forty feat at low
oeo contributed immh io
tha purchase of tha Willamette locks.
Other expenditure of local fun da.
either made or about to be made, for
river and harbor ImproTement In Ore
ton, ara: Coo Bay. 114.000; Slualaw.
list.; Taqulna. K1.000; Tilla
mook. 1410. 000: Coqallle and Bandon.
114 4.000. Vancourer. '!), haa aleo
pent ttS.OOO on channel ImproTe
ment. Theaa lumi ara expended on
work which l.etrtct!y tha function of
tha Government and ara aaide from
further ependltura on related worka.
uch as dock, whanrea and dry docka.
Oreaon cornea to tha Government,
therefore, not as one askin every
thing and rlvtrr nothlnc. but aa one
volurtarlb harinf the burden It aska
the Government to assume only In
part. By so doing we prove our faith
In the merits of our own projects, for
we aurtty should not tax ourselves for
Thla etMe ook for
ward to the day when Contresa will
adopt a broad system of utilixln tha
Nation's water for all purposes) '
tern which will lift water uo far
above any suspicion of pork. Wnen
that time comes Oreaon will be
tady. as It haa proved, to bear Its
share of the cost. Meanwhile the atate
aska Conta-esa to practice that liberal
ity to which the Intrinsic mertta of Its
waterways and the public spirit of its
cltlxeca enUtla It.
POBTINO THE 13SCE.
Trie destruction of the Arabic la an
rent of tha moat Impressive gravity,
for it la In fact. If not In form. Ger
many's reply to the latest American
note. At thla writing- It la not known
whether any American passengers have
lost their Uvea. If there were Amer
ican passengers, and If they have been
saved. It was through good fortune
and not through the Intention of the
submarine, acting for Germany, to
The attack on the Arabic la a chal
lenge, definite and defiant, to Presi
dent Wilson to follow his words with
deeds The President had notified the
Imperial government that any repeti
tion' of acts In contravention of the
rights of American citizens to travel
freely on the aeaa would be regarded
aa "deliberately unfriendly." Germany
does not concede, bat openly disputes,
the right of any neutral to protection
If he shall take passage aboard a "Brit
ish merchantman. If she carries mu
nitions or 1 suspected of carrying mu
nitions, Germany will sink her without
wamlnr. no matter bt, the public
law Is and no matter who or what
ever else la aboard.
If It shall transpire that no Ameri
cans were drowned, the Issue between
Germany and the United Statea will
be merely postponed to a less fortu
nate day. Undoubtedly Germany will
not seek to avert It- For Germany la
determined to precipitate It. There la
no such principle as freedom of the
seas In the Uitht of recognised Inter
national law. as Germany sees It. It
la, or will be. Incumbent upon the
United States to stand by Its own In
terpretation of neutral rlghta, what
ever the cost, or to back out. what
ever the cost.
Out WORD OX LANGCAGE.
A kindly disposed reader of The
Oregontan sends In some of those in
quiries about the use of words which
seem to Interest so many intelligent
persons. He first asks about the use
of the word '-none. Is It singular or
plural? Usage makes this elusive
word either singular or plural, accord
ing to the wish of the writer. In r fr
ee ru years there haa been a decided
tendency to make It consistently
plural, but It la till singular when the
meaning requires It.
The Inquirer Is also puzzled by the
use of "or" In the following expres
sion: "But none axe greater cartoon
ists, or so great- He Is Inclined to.
think that "nor" should be used. But
he Is mistaken. The writer's meaning
Is exactly expressed by "or." It was
not his purpose at all to set forth two
co-ordinate Ideas. Far from It. He
first expressed the complete thought
that no cartoonists were greater than
the or.o he had In mind. Then It oc
curred to hi. a to revise Ms aentence
at d make it a little stronger. To do
this he added the supplementary words
"or so grj-t."
The expression "neither nor" is
really copulative In meaning and must
alwaa be- so used. To say that
Neither John nor James Is sick is
the same as to say that "Both John
and James are well." Many current
authors are ao-Impressed by this as
pect of the case that they write
Neither John nor Jamea are sick.
thus violating the old rule of syntax
hlch demands a singular verb In
these expressions. Thla usage Is con
stantly found In the books of H. G.
Wells, whose atyle Is much commend
ed. When a eupplementary phrase is
added to-amplify or emphasize what
haa gone before, the right word to use
Our friend also asks about the
proper use of the verb "ought." f He
thinks he has- discovered instances
w here The Oregonlan Improperly pre-
rs It to "should." An occasional
slip of this kind may possibly have oc
curred. The line between ougnt ana
should Is a little Indistinct at times.
Purists do not alwaya "hold np their
hands In horror" at the expression
ought to." aa our correspondent In
timates, wnen moral oonttauon is 10
be expressed, "ought" Is precisely the
right verb to employ, while mere pro
priety or expediency is expressed by
should." And el tne oest wrniers
now and then Indicate moral obligation
bv "should." though they are proba
biv a little more careful about allpa
with "ought." The latter verb ap'plles
only to the "categorical Imperative."
Uke the verb "create, lis place is in
he very highest realm or tnougnt.
God alone creates. Just aa God alone
nreacribca moral obligations. Tne
common use of "create" when "found,"
establish" or "build" ls meant is quite
al rrrrettatle as the use of "ought"
hen should Is meant.
1-ar.ruare ls constantly changing and
growing, but some of these distinc
tion la the value of worda contribute
ao much to clarity of thoufbt and
rlcor of expression tnat uiey anouia
ba conserved aa lone as possible.
The win of the people of course
means nothing to Commissioner Daly
In Its actual expression. Considered
as an abstraction. It la something for
which he has most pompous regard.
Many a hard-fought campaign he haa
waged against the bosses, reaction
aries, plutocrats and monopolists who
would thwart the people' will. On
many a gory field haa he held up the
aegis of popular government and de
manded for It obedience and respect-
Bat now It Is different. Commls
slor.er Daly has a public job. and hi
wants his cr, way. and not the pn fa
ll .-'a. He i.rcpcaea to Install water me
ters and the people turn him down
yet he continues to go ahead with his
wasteful and needless policy anyhow
He a-Arui out lo regulate the Jitneys,
changes his mind, finally frames an J
supports a mild ordinance. Which tbe
people at an election approve, and now
be li. trying to devise a new plan
wholly sccep table to the Jitneys, but
not In accord with the people's verdict.
The obvious fact la that Daly is a
Commissioner foe soma of the people.
and hot all the people. He represents
a class, and not the public. He haa
no Idea of giving a fair deal to an es
tablished transportation concern which
haa Invested millions In Portland and
pays ar.nuul'r more millions In wages
and taxes. He would regulate, if he
could, the streetcar company, to its
great cost, but he would not regulate
Irresponsible Jltneylsm at all. -
That la the kind 6f a Commissioner
Daly Is- It ls not the kind the people
thought they were getting In him when
they elected him.
Fin MHJJON9 SAVED.
The Oregonlan ls grateful to the
Mayor of the great City of Phlladel
phla. Mr. Randolph Blankenburg. for
a copy of his annual message for the
year 1S14. Those persons who have
followed the story of Philadelphia will
recall that It was once contemptuously
described by. a famous muckraker as
"corrupt and contented": but evident
ly iie was mistaken.
Three years ago Philadelphia start
ed to clean house. It did not adopt a
new and radical charter, nor hurry
alonr to a commission form of gov
ernment, nor elect a city manager. It
put at the head of the city a Mayor
who had backbone and who meant
business. He worked through and
with the old councllmanlc system.
The Mayor proudly points to the
record of a nearly-finished term, de
scribing as his best achievement a
saving In that period of t5.000.000.
T direct savlnaa for four rear will
amount to much mora than IS.000.OiX. aa
ahowa rn tha reports or tha various aepmri
m.nt, while th indirect fiavlnsr In tm
proTed service. srealerefflrleucy and tn
eral result directly traeesM to the adop
tion and pursuing of butlnepa methods, with
tha enure summation of poliUoa, amount to
a vaatlv greater sum.
Yet, In the Jiurault of economy,
there baa been no neglect of a real
Th eltv la llthtea tnor cheaply and
much better than eeer before; a pur water
au&ply haa contributed to th health of th
roiumonliri th streta. a few years o
In a moet deplnrahl condition, ar well
paved: pubic butldlnta, brldaes and sewers
hav bees constructed with economy, with
out taint of sraxt. and In a manner to
brine credit opon Philadelphia: th work
of th police and fire bureaus haa ben
reorganized and rendered more effectlv:
th uetn rat haa been reduced; and In a
hundred other particulars the city hu taken
great strides toward a builnesaUka guveru
mnc Withal there haa been retrench
ment all along the line retrench
ment ao systematic and Intelligent
that millions have been saved to the
taxpayers. For example. In the de
partment of supplies. In 1010, the pur
chases of coal aggregated JS9.545 tons,
but In I14 they were reduced to
:23.31S tons. In 1911 the city paid
for lumber 174.817, but In 1014 the
total was IJfJ.427.
Even more significant Is the Item
of milk. In 1011, 1.109.924 quarts
were bought at a cost of 152.070;
while In 1114 the total had Increased
to 1,307,372 quarts at a cost of 172.
891. There was an outright aavlng of
19000. although 200,000 more quarts
of milk were used. Mayor Blanken
bur: leaves one wholly In the dark
aa to why the cost per quart was so
much greater In 1011 than In 114.
Perhaps there la no good explanation.
Mayor Blankenburg hns demonstrat
ed that economy and Inefficiency are
not Incompatible. It ls Interesting for
Portland to note that, unless he shall
be re-elected, he will be soon out of
TREND OF POREIG-T TRADE.
I- . a Viteon Increased from
ll.4SS.498.729 to Jl. 971.432. 182 In the
A.-.1 ve nrled 'June 30. 1915. as
compared with the previous year, while
there was a decrease irom io-a.on.-962
to 1477,081.320 to other parts of
North America: from 1124,639.009 to
$99,321,957 to South America and from
tti nan ii T in X77.7t4.72S to Oceania.
There was an Increase In exports to
Asia or a little over ii.uuu.uvu ana to
Africa of 1600.000.
While the figures for June show
that our direct exDort trade to Aus
tria-Hungary has been completely an
nihilated and to Germany almost anni
hilated, figures for the fiscal year con
tinue to Indicate tnat uermany is od-
tainlng large Supplies Indirectly
thenneh Scandinavia. EiDorts to Aus
tria-Hungary decreased In the year
from I22.71S.25S to il.iMU.ib.. ana
i r..n- eenm 11 3Jt ?5t In nothlnr.
while those to Germany decreased In
the year from 1344,794.276 to $28.-
863.354 and In June from 116.078,
846 to 21767. but the Increases to
Scandinavia were enormous. To Nor
way the Increase was from 19.066,610
to 139.074.701 for the year, but the
et!n of increase for June was con
siderably loss, namely, from 3466.-
615 to $1,107,216. To Sweden our ex
rjorts increased from $14,644,826 to
$78,273,818 for the year and from
$1,048,847 to $2,019,448 for June. It
will be observed that the ratio of the
June Increase Is much less than that
for the year. Exports to the Netherlands
show a material decrease In June,
namely, from $10,745,970 to $7,651,
76t though the year shows an In
crease from $112,215,673 to $143,267.
019. Evidently the British blockade
against German commerce through
neutral countries ls becoming more ef
fective. Total Imports decreased from $1,
893.925.657 to $1,674,169,740 for the
year. The decrease from Europe and
Asia was much larger, but was par
tially offset by material Increases from
North and South America, Africa and
The largest Incresses In exports are
to Great Britain and France. The
total to the former country was more
than $117,000,000 larger than In the
flscsj year 1914. and that to France
nearly $210,000,000 larger. This In-
Ktirdilsri mainly nf fondarnfTa
aad other commodities Ulan ammunl-
tlon our evnorts of eiDloslvea In the
eleven months ending May 31 to Great
Britain having Increasea only z.uuu.
000. The allies so far have not car
ried on the war with American ammu
There is no Insuperable reason why
tha Rev. Frank W. Gorman should not
be as near the Lord on the vaudeville
stage aa In his pulpit, but we fear the
Intervening distance will perceptibly
widen. It seems upon the whole
somewhat easier to keep close to the
throne as a preacher than as an enter
tainer of mixed audiences. We do not
predict any serious backslldlngs on
Mr. Oorman'a part, but if they should
occur we should not be tnucn sur
prised. How would you enjoy biting Into
red-hot coal In a spoonful of Ice
cream T The Interview ef the Con
gresslonal Junketing party with Mis
Arnold and her lively sisters must
have been a good deal like that- Bask
ing In Portland'a balmy breexes, there
seemed not a care within a thousand
miles, when all of a sudden enter Miss
Arnold and the others. "What ls Joy?
'Tls but a vapor, soon it yanlsheth
Next to the sheep, which was made
to be shorn, the hog ls our most per
fect pacifist. He eats his dally swill,
expands In grunting satisfaction and
squeals a little when the knife Is at
his fhroat, but never dreams of biting
the hand that sticks him. Sheep and
hors seem to enjoy life fairly well
while It lasts. ShaU we take them for
models? "Eat. drink and be merry,
for tomorrow the butcher comes."
The slogan "Back to whiskers" has
gained a certain momentum. Before
a great while all of us whom nature
permits may be wearing weepers, lm
perials or mutton chops. The Civil
War rave us the mustache, which has
had Its day and ceased to be. This
war may give us something even more
romantic and unhygienic. There ls
evidently some intimate relation be
tween war and whiskers.
The value of our monthly export of
automobiles has Increased fifty times
over In the last year. - Before the war
began our elite purchasers were In
clined to look to Europe for their cars.
but all that ls changed.. The cannon
have cast the native aufos upon the
scrap heap and neither France nor
England haa any for export. The
United States must supply its own rid
ers and Europe's, too.
The lessees of the Waldorf-Astoria
Hotel will pay an annual rent of $800,
000 for the next ten years. This ls 5
per cent on $16,000,000. Beside his
rent he must pay enormous running
expenses. A modern hotel is as costly
as in army to the lessee, but the owner
has little to disturb his repose. The
most serene of all occupations is col
The Nebraska-Kansas Society, which
Is a flourishing Institution In Yamhill
County, a few days ago chose Editor
John T. Bell, of the Newberg Enter
prise, for president. This was fit, for
Mr. Bell was a young man of promi
nence In tlj days when Nebraska was
young and many years on this Coast
has not dulled his recollections.
Mrs. Flske has yielded to the seduc
tions of the movies. She is acting
"Vanity Fair" for them, her back
ground being Boston's high-toned Bea
con Hill, where Thackeray put up
when he was In that city. George
Ticknor was his host. This film
should be the most calmly aristocratic
nn. mn nn t tira.11 v associates, the Chl
n a-b vith rtnmhe that tha effort to as
sassinate the (Governor oi btiangnai in
thafway seems to be more of a Jolly.
When the Chinaman means business
1 dependence ls placed on a natcnet
or an automatic.
Unless the allies can supply the Bal-
n n eiaiH with arena and ammunition.
ih. addition nf tha tatter's armies to
their forces will not help much. The
allies have plenty or men lr tney were
only fully supplied with big guns and
CmnAfi W o n r-i T n K o n Vi I on old
man to endure the strain of the con
flict. He was 85 yesterday, an age at
hioh mnttt men hnna to sit bv the fire.
smoking and reading the morning pa
per, Wniie younRer men uo me wuin..
A residence lot is fifty feet front and
a cord of wood piled four feet high ls
eight feet long. That allows for six
cords on the curb, which amount of
fuel may suit some and not suit oth
ers. The. ateamshlD Dacia. stolen by
France while under American registry,
has been renamed the Tser, and she
111 have to be a heap "wiser" if she
escapes German submarines.
If the Russians continue losing big
guns to the Germans at tne rate oi
400 In at bunch, the allies will do bet
ter to supply no more, for it ls equiva
lent to supplying the enemy.
The Eugene baby show this year
will run more to defectives than to
eugenic prize-winners, if there be
mothers willing to admit their darlings
are not the best ever.
Russia has an order In this country
for 65,000 tons of steel rails. Wants to
use them for battering rams, probably.
In her primitive modo of warfare.
In Utah, where woman had been for
earlv half a century more or less a
chattel, the Bar Association is sticking
on admitting one to memDersiuu.
Drs-anlzation of a Marine League at
Chicago Is welcome evidence that the
Interior has at last awakened to its
interest In the merchant marine,
James J. Hill is Minnesota's "great
est living citizen." Nobody can aspire
to that honor with Mr. Hill In the run
ning. Berlin calla the sinking of British
war vessels "good results." which de
pends on the point of view. "
Is It not about time the reefs that
endanger navigation around San Fran
clc6 were removed?
The Admirals will note the date of
the Astoria regatta. September 2. -
The Arabic will no more carry muni
Russia ls calling her grown boy to
OH SCHOOL MOXEYDISTRIBUTIO!l
Ceina Baals Deelatreal Seit Poorest
Way to Get lest Beanlta.
PORTLAND. Aug. .15. (To the Ed
itor.) One of the changes most nec
essary to improve the condition of the
schools In Oregon, and of many other
states, ls a change in the basis for
distributing the school money. Dlstrl
button on tbe basis of the school cen
sus Is Just one remove from the poor
est way that has ever been devised.
(The very poorest Is on the basis of
the entire population.) Why should
district draw money on children that
are not In school, on children that have
quit school and never will enter It
aftain. on married women if they hap
pen to be under 20? Such distribution
sets a premium on poor schools, for if
a district has children enough on its
census list, it can, by paying poor
salaries and running short terms, meet
all its expenses with no local taxation
whatever. It may even discourage a
large enrollment, aa an increase of en
rollment often means an increased ex
pense for teachers' salaries. A neigh
boring district may have a smaller
census list and therefore less monv'.
but it may have a larger enrollment,
a better attendance, a longer term and
better teachers at a better salary, but
it must pay for these things by local
taxes, while Its shiftless neighbor goes
scot-free. It would not be hard to
find districts In which -the 85 per cent
set aside by law for teachers' salaries
ls large enough to pay the teachers ana
also pay for all needed Improvements,
and the school boards evade the law
by using the money In this way. e
If the money were apportioned to
each district on the basis of total days
attendance in that district for the year.
the district would be rewarded for
what it was actually doinjr for Its chil
dren and not for the number that live
within its boundaries, whether they
have any connection with the school or
not. Such distribution would encour
age keeping the children in school,
raise the standard of attendance, en
list parents and school boards in com
bating unnecessary absences, make
truant laws almost self-operative and
do away with the tight-wad opponent
of the longer school term, for such op
ponent always holds the dollar so close
to his eye that he cannot see the child.
It would do away with such disgrace
ful proceedings as coaxing- large fami
lies from one district to another long
enough to get them enrolled in the
school census. One family of six chil
dren was enrolled in two different dis
tricts, and drew money in both. At
least one state, wasmngton, apportions
its money on the basis of total days'
attendance, and it ls found very sat
isfactory. Has anyone a more Just or equitable
method to suggest?
J. W. SMITH,
13 West Alberta street.
OX FARMERS AND GOOD LIVING
Girl Bora In Country Says Many Do
Not Live as They Might.
BnDir a vn a,e Ifi (T tho TCril-
tor.) I was born and lived most of
my life on a farm. I have had business
in the citr and country and I think
I am In a position to Judge and say
that The Oregonian is correct when it
says farmers do not live well.
i began visiting homes of my girl
friends when I was very young, and
1 I W ,n hualnaae which
IJBVO BIUI.9 ucon ,1 " -
called, me to homes, kitchens, city and
country. No doubt the .farmer selects
the largest, iresnest eggs tor miuscu,
- . I ai .ll -lllr- nut he
urucuso UJcy i ' - - -
uses few. When he sells apples, pota
toes ana omcr uunga w,n.
quality, he sells the very best and uses
. i - -. . u. ties few
Wnai IB 1" 1, a- Lli. - - - - "
delicacies put away, and if a little
urchin from the city, who wears a hat
or tie in city style comes for a day,
the table is loaded with tempting
things, and the city dweller speaks of
the happy, prosperous farmer.
There are, oi course, eitcitnuun w
.li. i .v..,- atppntlAiii ara not
among the thriftiest farmers, who may
u n ... v. h.,r hut iiKuailv rln not- I
always feel like taking some time to
consider Deiore comraaicuns an -torlal
in The Oregonian. although the
editor sometimes seems to go wild:
but time proves him usually correct, I
feel that one may safely conduct busi-
V, follnelnff th ri i t nri&.lS. and
be will certainly be a good thinker
and a good talker, in aayiuB m
do not feel any less respect for the
farmer, who is the foundation to all
prosperity and business. L. U.
Oil Companies la Oregon.
i.KXTS. Or. Aug. 18. (To tha Edi-
tA, i Are there any oil companies op
erating in Oregon? If so, what are the
names and tne aaoresses oi meir ui
The. fniinninar companies are Incor
porated and at least two or three are
Beavis-May Oil Company, Z. V. Trine
secretary, 617 Medical building, Port
f-entral Oreeon Oil & Gas Company.
Ltd. (Harney County), Boise, Idaho, J.
C. Turney president
Isis Oil & Gas company tiuaineur
County)! J. B. Hubbard secretary, 495
East Thlrty-flfth street, Portland.
Polk County Oil. Gas, Coal & iana
Company, Dallas. Or.
Sherwood Oil Company, Sherwood, or.
Ronset Oil A Gas Company (Malheur
County), R. Cartwrlght secretary, Sa
West Shore OH Company, Bandon, Or.
Midway Oil Company, A. E. Davis, 302
Concord building, Portland.
Tanisis Idaho. Ausr. 17. (To the Edi
tor.) Please tell me what year tho new
Madison bridge was completed. Was
there any aiaaison ormse previous m
trt present -one? If so, please tell me
what kind, and was it built before
The original Madison-street bridge
-a. started in the Fall of 1S89 and
thrown open to traffic January 11, 1891.
it wa a wooden' bridge with a swing
span, built by a .private company and
opened as a toll bridge. The city pur
chased the bridge on November 11, 1891,
rt made, it a free bridge. The pres
ent Hawthorne bridge, which replaced
the Madison-street bridge, was com
pleted in 1911.
The Burnslde bridge was erected-ln
U'nuM to Marrlaa-e.
TiAmTlAW Wash. All ET. 18. ITo the
xivu ,, - - 'J
t j ,t , mnrriH&rn iebi in me
State of Washington with only one wit
It Is necessary to have at least one
witness to obtain a marriage license In
Washington. This witness must be able
to swear he is personally acquainted
with the principals: that they are not
nearer than second cousins; that neith
er has been divorced within the last six
months and that there ls no legal pa
pediment otherwise. Two witnesses are
necessary to the marriage ceremony,
although for the ceremony the wit
nesses do not have to be personally
acquainted with the principals. .
SANDY. Or., Aug. 16. (To the Edi
tor.) Can a man who provea up on
a homesteaU and obtained final papers
from the land office sell his homestead
before getting a patent irom tne.
United b tales land office?
CIVIL WAR FILM C0XDEM3ED
Grand Araar Post Opposes Exhibition
of "Birth of m Nation.
PORTLAND, Or, Aug. 19. (To the
Editor.) The following resolutions
were adopted unanimously by George
Wright Post, No. 1, Grand Army of the
Republic at a regular meeting Wednes
day evening. August 18: "The Clans
man.' or The Birth of a Nation." al
most from beginning to end is a mis
representation of facts and is presented
in a manner so utterly exaggerated and
misleading as to create in the minds
of the young and of ohers thoroughly
Informed wrong impressions, regarding
tho strife which once exists between
the people of the Northern states and
those of the Southern states and which
finally resulted in the Civil War.
"Because of these misrepresentations
and exaggerations the play can hardly
fail to arouse to some extent the feel
ings of hatred which once existed be
tween these peoples, but which in later
years had largely died away, bringing
peace and contentment to a once dis
tracted Nation. We disapprove of all
such exhibitions and believe they
ought to. be suppresssed by the muni
cipal authorities everywhere.
" The Clansman' begins with a plo
ture which conveys the Idea that the
New England people were responsible
for the introduction of slavery into this
country; whereas the truth is. accord
ing to any reputable history of the
United States, that the first negro
slaves . brought to America were
brought by a Dutch vessel in 1619 and
landed at Jamestown, Va., where they
were put to work on the tobacco plan
tations. "The picture of the so-called burn
ing of Atlanta Is a misrepresentation,
as it carries the Idea that the whole
city was destroyed, whereas only the
buildings and their contents used by
the Confederate government in the
manufacture of things necessary for its
armies, were destroyed.
"The character Stoneman, which
claims to show the spirit of the United
States Congress during the reconstruc
tion period, is a vile misrepresentation,
as no such period as that portrayed
did exist in that Congress. It only
sought to give the emancipated slaves
their rights, as was already anticipated
the emancipation proclamation oi
Abraham Lincoln and which rights were
first violently resisted by the whites of
the former slave states themselves.
"The scene which represents the ne
gro men armed to a man and shooting
down the whole of the white popula
tion, unarmed and unprocteed, is a
shocking misrepresentation, as it con
veys the Idea that such a state of af
fairs existed wherever the former
slaves had been given their liberty.
Eaually untrue ls the idea conveyed
that the so-called carpet-baggers' were
generally looked upon approvingly Dy
the people of the free states and also
by the United States Government.
They vere simply adventurers, who on
their own "responsibility arrived to take
advantage of the unsettled condition of
affairs in the South, to feather, each
for himself, their nests as best they
"The representation that the 'Ku
Klux Klan' was organized especially to
suppress certain outrages upon white
women by negroes, and that they went
in largo bodies to carry out their in
tention, is false. The fact is that the
Ku Klux Klan was organized before
the close of the Civil War and for the
purpose of suppressing the Union sen
timent which was shown In certain
portions of the South, especially in
some of the border states; and further,
that they even extended their infamous
work into the states of Ohio. Indiana
and Illinois. Union men were forcibly
taken from their homes in the night
and murdered in cold blood because
they were loyal to their country' and
Its flag, and instead of going in large
bodies, as is represented in 'The Clans
man,' they always went in Bmall bodies,
in order that they might accomplish
their cowardly deeds as secretly as pos
sible. "One of the worst features of The
Clansman" Is that In which our mar
tyred Lincoln is represented in the act
of granting pardon to a Confederate
officer who had been condemned to
death by the military authorities; that
is for the purpose of giving an air oi
truth and respectability to the rest of
the play and thus to cause Its perni
cious influence to be mpre deeply lm
presssed upon the minds of the unin
formed. "And now, let us ask why it ls that
in all this play of The Clansman' there
is not even a hint of the awful massa
cre of the United States colored troops
at Port Pillow nor of the villainous
treatment of Union prisoners at Ander
sonville and other prisons nor of any
other abhorrent acts of Southerners be
fore, during and after the rebellion? Is
it because to exaggerate them would
THOMAS A. JORDAN.
Commander George Wright Post.
A. C. SLOAN, Adjutant.
Germany a Limited Monarchy.
FORTLAND, Aug. 18. (To the Edi
tor.) Is the German Empire ar, abso
lute monarchy, and has the Kaiser ab
solute authority? READER.
Germany ls a limited monarchy, but
as compared with other limited mon
archies, the power of the German Em
peror is great. The Imperial dignity
is hereditary in the line of Hohenzol
lerns and follows the law of primo
geniture. The Emperor exercises the
Imperial power in the name of the
confederated states. ' In his offlce ne
is assisted by a federal council (Bun
desrath), which represents the govern
ments of the individual states of Ger
many. The members of this council
are appointed by the Individual states
for each session. The legislative func
tions of the empire are vested In the
Emperor, the Bundesrath and the Reich
stag or imperial Diet. The members of
the latter, numbering almost 400, are
elected for a term of five years by
universal suffrage. Vote ls by ballot,
and one member is elected by, approxi
mately, every 150,000 inhabitants.
The executive power is in the Ger
man Emperor's hands. He represents
the empire Internationally and can de
clare war if 4Qef ensive. If offensive,
the consent of the federal council must
be obtained. Both the Bundesrath and
Reichstag meet In annual session con
voked by the Emperor, who has the
right of proroguing or of dissolving the
Diet, but the prorogation must not ex
ceed 60 days and in case of dissolution
new elections must be ordered in 60
days and the session opened in 90 days.
Imperial measures must obtain the
sanction of the Emperor before be
coming law. The Emperor's appointive
power is exceedingly broad. It Is note
worthy that the Emperor ls "German
Emperor," and not '"Emperor of Ger
many," a distinction made at the time
of the forming of the empire.
PORTLAND, Or., Aug. 16. (To the
Editor.) I am employed during the day
and want to study -4aw. Please tell me
if by studying law at home could 1
attain that vocation without going to
law school. I would appreciate your
frankness In telling me how this can
be done In this state without giving
up my position. A STRUGGLED
Portland is well equipped with night
law schools and corresponaence scnoois
offer law courses that can be studied
i Trie studv of law also can
be carried on in the office of a reput
able attorney if, at the end of three
v.- win certify that you have
JClo, " .....
read law In his office for that loeta
Twenty-Five Years Ago
From The Oreffonlan of 'August 20 e 1S90.
Corvallis. Or., Aug. 19. The passage
of the rivers and harbors bill, giving
Yaquina $185,000. the largest amount
ever granted, caused great rejoicing
The marble found in Douglas County
is said to be finer than the Italian
and is the only marble in this country
that will bear turning.
A valuable quarts ledge has been dis
covered on the farm of Mr. Behr, near
Philomath. A company composed of
gentlemen of means of Philomath and
Corvallis has been organized to develop
the ledge sufficiently to determine its
The bill authorizing the construction
of the bridge across the Columbia at
Vancouver was passsed by the House
Monday. It now remains for the Pres
ident to sign or veto it eind such a
thing as vetoing a bridge bill has never
been heard of. so it is to be expected
that the bill will become a law within
a few days.
Mrs. Oscar Wilde is amusing herself
compiling an alphabetic dictionary of
Oulda is engaged in the preparation
of a new play for Sara Bernhardt, the
plot of which ls already complete, and
deals with a story of love, passion and
James Turk has received 8200 for
pension arrears for his service in the
Mexican war. He was in the Navy
and was at the bombardment of Vera
Mrs. J. M. Gilman died at her home
at the corner of Twelfth and Alder
streets at 1:45 last night. She had
been 111 for some time. It has not
been decided when the funeral will
Clarence Eddy, of Chicago, who has
a world-wide reputation and stands at
the head of the list of American play
ers upon the pipe organ, will be in this
city the latter part of the month.
OX THE USE OF CERTAIJf WORDS
Cortsig-e Grove Correspondent Puraled
by The Oregonlan's Choice,
COTTAGE GROVE, Or., Aug. 18. (To
the Editor.) I have learned much from
reading The Oregonian and studying
the English it uses, but sometimes I
am puzzled. In a recent editorial you
say: "But none are greater cartoon
ists, or so great." Usually you use "is"
with "none." Which do you consider
correct and why? In the sentence I
have quoted from your editorial I am
puzzled by your use of "or." Wouldn't
you consider it used in conjunction
with no, and in that case shouldn't
"nor" be used?
I notice that you make frequent use
of the words "ought to," at which many
purists throw up their hands in honor.
Do you think it would be better to use
"should" whenever it seems to fit as
well? I am asking these questions for
information and not in a spirit of criti
cism, for I am not at all certain but
that you are right. STUDENT..
Mart W. Pinkerton,
CENTERVILLE."Wash., Aug. 17. (To
the Editor.) Can you please give me
the address of Matt W. Pinkerton, of
the Pinkerton Detective Agency?
Matt W. Pinkerton has no connection
with the Pinkerton National Detective
Agency, but he may be reached at the
offices of Pinkerton & Co United
States Detective Agency, Chicago. The
company has maintained a branch In
Portland in the Lumbermen building.
The company should not be confused
with the Pinkerton National Detective
Agency. The Pinkerton & Co.; United
States Detective Agency, an entirely
different concern, has recently been the
object of a Government order, and to
get in touch with Matt Pinkerton you
should call upon the local office in per
son, if feasible.
London and New Torfc Population.
HAINES, Or., Aug. 17. (To the Edi
tor.) Kindly state the population of
New Tork City and London, according
to the latest census.
MRS. GUT M. SMITH.
New Tork City, including all bor
oughs, on July 1, 1914, according to the
Census Bulletin, 6.333.E37. According to
Board of Health Bulletin, for the same
date, 6,583,871, making the estimated
populaton of Greater New York, includ
ing Westchester and New Jersey sub
urbs, 7,500.000. The population of Reg
istration London, from latest reports
available, as accurate, before the war,
was 4,522,964; with metropolitan and
city police districts, 7,252,963. Strictly
speaking, New Tork ranks first of cities
of the world; London second.
PORTLAND, Or., Aug. 18. (To the
Editor.) I would like to know if a
girl would have to nay tuition to go
to high school in Portland if her parents
lived in another county. She ls work
ing for her board in Portland, but the
family she lives with are not taxpay
ers, H. A.
Under the rules she would have
to pay tuition. By special action, how
ever, the School Board can admit a
student without tuition if she shows
that sne is unable to pay. Applica
tion should be made to Superintendent
L. R. Alderman on a special application
blank, which can be obtained at the
office of School Clerk R. H. Thomas.
Wife's Property Rights.
FOSSIL, Or., Aug. 19. To the Edi
tor.) A man and wife are separated,
not divorced. (1) Can tie sell any of
his real estate accumulated prior to
their marriage without her. signature?
(2) Can he transfer any of it to his
relatives? (3) Can a family estate (he
bting an heir) be sola and she deprived
of all interest in it? (4) He having an
adopted son, what would be the wife's
rights? A CONSTANT READER.
(1) No.. (2) He can transfer the
property subject to the dower right of
his wife. 3) No. She would retain a
dower right. (4) The wife would re
tain her dower 6f a life interest In tbe
income from nan tne prupeny.
Back to Plain Shoes
Having had a fantastic Jam
borie of colored leathers and
ahanging shapes, fashion Iras de
creed that women's shoes are
now to be plain black.
Simplicity wilt mark the new
lasts and effects will be obtained
by trim fit and well modeled
Fashion apparently loves the
law of extremes the charm of
No wonder women Uke to keep
posted on the good dame's vaga
ries, and no wonder that more
and more women are becoming
readers of newspaper advertis
The advertising columns now
adays are a regular fashion Index.