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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 18, 1915)
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J-OBTLAD. WBOMEOO.ft. A ttt. la. lata.
the i.rrnij or rmAK.
The mob -which lynched Leo M
Prank had not even the poor excuse
that there had been a m!crrtae of
Justice. Under great difficulties and
In face of determined legal opposition
ha bad been finally adjudged guilty
and waa paying the penalty. From
the day of his arrest the mob had been
howling for his life and would be sat
isfied with nothing- leas. It Invaded
the courtroom and created an atmos
phere; Inimical to evenhanded Justice.
It continually clamored for his execu
tlon and It threatened Governor Slaton
when ha commuted the sentence to
life Imprisonment, Its spirit animated
Ihe convict who attempted to murder
Frank. The same spirit seems to have
prompted thosw who guarded Frank
tr. deliberate carelessness, when the
(-reat danger that an attempt would
be made to Ivm-n him should have
Blared extra officers around htm.
This crime Is a blot on the cam of
Georgia, but other stairs are In no
position to throw stones, for they live
In glass houses. Throughout tne
United States the same spirit Is rife
and displays Itself In habitual evasion
of the law as well as In occasional
substitution of a mob's sentence for a
court's sentence. In Oregon we had
a narrow escape from a lynching a
tw da a a rex The evident purpose
of the mob spurred the Sheriff to
extra vigilance and tho court to ex
tra promptness, and thue saved Ore
goa from once more suffering- the same
aharae as Georgia.
Responsibility for this prevalent dis
respect for taw must be shared by
thoeo who are charged with Its admin,
titration. They show more respect for
the forms than for the substance of
law. The result la that Justice la too
,n( delayed and la often thwarted.
The fiasco of Harry ThaWe trtal and
' final release Is the .most recent and
most striking example of this fact.
Tho proceedings of courts, attorneys
and executive officer Inspire the peo
ple with contempt for law. though
they should Inspire respect. The
lynching of Frank Is one or the nat
ural rrtjits of this deplorable condition
f public sentiment.
This weakneaa of the law and this
contempt born of its weakneaa have
caused the pendulum of opinion as to
administration of Justice to swing con
stantly and violently between sentl
mentalism nd savagery. M-'ved by
a wave of sentlmentaltsm. a state abol
ishes capital puntshmcnt. Soon after
wards a hideous crime moves the same
grale. or eome community within it.
to declare the perpetrator unfit to live
and ! commit an act of savagery In
order t. repair the error of Its sentl
Vientattsm. Justice Is safe only
when reaped for law anJ In
stinctive revul'lon arainet crime are
so firmly planted In the people-s minds
that thev will not through sentiment
weaken the law s arm by mitigating Its
'penalties n-T thrnueh savagery weak
en that arm agr.in by Imposing the
penalties of m-b law. Lynching- do
not happen in countries where Justice
Is sure and swift and where the death
sentence Is Imposed on men hose
crimes prove them unfit to live. They
happen only In countries where Jus
tice, deafened by the clamor of preju
dice and passion, movea with slow and
halting step along a narrow and tor
tuous path marked out for It by for
malists, and where the mob. Impatient
ef Its falllnjs. snatches the prisoner
from Its weak grasp and wreaks
vengeance npon htm.
tht risors ciucAcit i-ot-r.
At last the Administration has un
done rart of the wrong committed In
establishing the Chugach National for
est In Alaska. The forest, which orlrl
nally comprised 11. tie. 004 acrro. has
been cut dowa nearly one-half In land
area. The remainder may now ap
proximate the area which Is actually
forested after a fashion, for W. B.
Greeley, of tho Forest Service, admit
ted In testifying- before the Senate
committee oo territories that only
.O')0.Ov acres were forested.
There Is little concealment of the
fact that the reserve was created, not
to preserve timber, but to prevent lo
cation of coal land bv p roe rectors.
When the Alaska Northern Railroad
obtained a rtcrtt of way with right to
ent timber for Ita use twenty miles
on each sl.le. the country it was to
traverse was added to the reserve, and
the solicitor of the Agricultural te
partment ruled that this rtcht to rut
timber could not be exervteed on a
National forest. Py such Joggling with
the law was the development of Alaska
hindered in the pretended Interest of
The Forest Service calls this forest
one of the largest and meet valuable
bodies of t!mr-r of merchantable sue
to bo found anywhere on the globe
aorta of degrees of latitude."
Ceorr K. iialdwtn said to the Na
tional Mining Congress In ltl that
"more than per cent of Its area
was utterly destitute of timber, being
barren slopes, glacier and mountains
above timber line." Less than It rer
cent was covered wtth timber, and
I net was -of Inferior quality, only use
ful for local needs." Lumber was act
aally Imported to this forest for build
ing purposes. Keen the most compact
bodies are admitted by Mr. Oreeley to
row enlv U.eee to ; f'et to the
arre. which would not make a com
mercial logging proposition, even If
tho timber were worth anjtMrig. The
4 forested acres average only
As to Its utility. Mr. ree!e. an old
Alaskan, told the Senate committee
fat in seven years he had used about
TSa.ee feet of lumber In but:1!r In
that territory and less than lt. feet
ef thlrn total was dmesUc I amber, "be
cause w found It had no ralue to ua,"
His) examination then continued:
sir. wirkersham War: because It has ae
mt uar. oe strvaeth la H I
Mr. eiesl No SiUUors asd BO tenrll
rortb. Kvsa for aur etiei.lka and for
Uit-r ' r fiaiett and for roosa lumber o ea
.a .Li hiiubsT.
IVii.1 r Jdd. la other srorda. this tim
ber la oat outtabto f"e ai Id'.n e purposes T
Mr. Ht'sf 1 aonld not et y-'S cents
s tnaiMad foe It foe OQiMtnc pu-pr-ee. "ur
sporen-. Senator, was cbla Wo ffref put
a Utile poe-r.boao at frtneo W llliana
Sound, coaetrueted of beards, dounltne tiie
h-.rla. lesvtns eracso about four lacbea In
wtata K-toeea tho firot tier of boards, thea
bsttentne Ibaoo ermeks sjllh l-lnb boards,
and wbeoover wo would set a driving rain
toera tae raia would go ribt throusa those
It was to conserve such timber as
this that the Forest Service doled It
out to prospectors whom Jt harried
away from the coal mines. If that be
Its character, the Chugach forest had
better be abolished entirely, since the
coal leasing- U removes tho only
cause for Its creation. Tho miners
should be given a free hand In using
the timber for fuel. If they ever get it
dry enough to burn. It should surely
last until enough coal mines are de
veloped to enable them to dispense
aVAULED KX VOX C
The deplorable feature, of any pro
posed recall la that It exdtea personal
hatreds and stimulates factional ani
mosities which do not subside for
years. The consequences upon com
munity life are far worse than the re
sults of the crimes ordinarily to be
charged to any officer against whom
a recall la directed.
The latest seat of an aborted recall
venture Is In Wheeler County. The
official and personal conduct of the
prosecuting- attorney (J. K. Starr) was
not pleasing- to some busy and offi
cious persons. They said he got drunk,
which of course no man ought to do.
especially In a dry county, and failed
as a porsecutor In cases where he
ought to have succeeded, and was per
sistent In pursuit of certain so-called
malefactors In cases where he ought
to have failed. The charges were
serious, but they seem to have been
so Intimately Involved with political
and family controversies) that It was
Impossible during the campaign to get
the exact measure of their truth.
That the people of Wheeler County
did not believe them is clear from the
overwhelming vote for Starr; and their
Judgment may be safely accepted.
It la obvious, then, that the element
of personal revenge entered Into the
proposed recall of Starr. It is nearly
always so. It Is a deserved reproach
to the system that it Is so.
ax Kv.cr.44 or ZEAL.
Miss Grace de Graffs antl-milltar-
tstic seal carries her so far now and
then that she loses sight of her Judg
ment. As ITesident of the National
League of Teachers Associations her
wordj have a good deal of Importance
and It is a pity that they should ever
tend to Injure a good cause by urging
Im possible extremes. It la desirable
from every point if rlew that the pub
lic schools ahoulo teach the Ideals of
peace and human brotherhood, but we
need not sacrifice sound discipline for
that purpose. It la also desirable that
the public schools should cease to
over-emphasise war with its deceptive
glories, litatory and literature for the
young should undoubtedly dwell more
upon the Ideals of peaceful Industry
nd less upon those of bloodshed.
Strife should be depicted as a painful
necessity rather than a charming vo
cation. Hut all this may be done with
out giving yie children a free rein In
everything. The dally march In and
out of the schoolhouso. of which Miss
de Graff disapproved In her San Fran
cisco talk on the ground that it
smacks of war. Is In Itself a very
The routine march forms habits
which are useful when there Is an
alarm of fire or when any sort of a
panic Is Imminent. With the chil
dren rushing out pellmell it may re
quire half an hour to empty a building,
while Ave minutes would be enough
If every pupil kept his assigned posi
tion and moved In orderly step. If we
are going to abandon everything that
can possibly be serviceable in war. It
Is difficult to see w hat we shall have
left. Prayer must go, for the Euro
pean commanders have found It of
great use In their campaigns. So must
the prevalent habit of eating. Men
cannot fight without food. Hence, if
we are determined to carry our pacific
principles to the last ditch, we must
set out on a perpetual fast, eai is
always more persuasive when It is
tempered by reason. There are many
features of military discipline which
would be immensely helpful In civil
life. What we want In the world Is
not more anarchy and disorder, but
more Intelligent self-control.
A ri-KAMMO IMODEM.
The Pankhursts whom we are about
to celebrate bear a famous name, but
up to a few days ago their fortunes
were obscure. They are not sufrra
gettos. Neither Erameline nor Chrts
tobel claims kinship with them. So
far as we know they have never
broken a window nor set fire to the
dwelling- of a Cabinet Minister. These
Pankhursts are a worthy and aged
couple who live on a large farm In
Mcllenry County. Illinois. They have
accumulated a comfortable portion of
this world's goods, but Providence has
not t leased them with children. So
as Time hastens onward and Old Age
showers their heads with silver they
frcl the lack ef a young; voice In their
house. They want the sunshine of
youth about them to reinforce the
waning brightness of their declining
day. Looking around for somebody
to adopt, this excellent couple fixed
finally upon Mary Alice Smith, a girl
whose two Christian names are both
charming and whose family name is
at least Innocent. It seems that Mary
is an orphan. To bo more accurate,
her mother is dead and her father
does not provide an acceptable bo-ae
for her. so that for some years she
has made her own way In the world
with that resolution and courage w hich
In these days are so common among
young women to whom fortune has
not been especially kind.
P-y persevering energy Mary Smith
educated hcrsetf to be a stenosraphet
and secured a situation In Chicago
which paid her ll a week. From her
adopted parents she will receive only
i. but they promise her tie.OOO In a
lump sum when Mr. rankhurst'a life
is ended. She has therefore a secure
provision for the future and may well
deny herself some little Indulgences
for a few years. But In Mary's opin
ion she cams more than she lo-vs be
cause life on the farm offers many
pleasures which the city does not af
ford. She likes animals, particularly
horses. We think It to to her credit
that her affections are not set on dogs.
She also like the freedom and healthy
activities of the eountrv. The chances
are. therefore, that .Very will pass
many happy years in her new home.
Wacn deata ctprtvc fcer of her adopt-
d father ahe will have Independent
means, but era predict that she will
not return to the city to live. She will
have found so much to interest her In
the countrvNind formed so many ties
that she will remain there.
A r:il as sensible and energetic as
Mary is will have plenty of beaux ana
offer of marriage. If she Is aa ahrewd
aa we think she will hesitate a long
time before accepting any of them. Of
course she will want a home of her
own In the lpng run, but there is no
hurry about it. In her case marriage
will Involve many changes, soma of
which may be perilous, and some posi
tive, sacrifices. Ita glowing promises
should be soundly weighed before she
stakes all upon them. It would be
singularly disheartening to read in the
papers a few years from now that
Mary Smith, who began life at the
I'ankhursis with so many prospects of
happiness, had thrown herself away
upon some worthless husband and put
her adopted parent to tho trouble of
finding another daughter with no gain
to anybody but a silly domestic nui
Mary's duties In her new residence
will be light. She will be eyes ana
ears to Mrs. Pankhurst, who missed
educational opportunities In her youth
and now needs someone to read to
her,- write letters and so on. These
occupations will -leave Mary plenty of
time to cultivate her mind and refresh
her body with pleasant outdoor exer
cise. We can imagine no life more
attractive than the one which lies be
fore her. The only danger is that she
may blight her happiness by her own
folly, as human beings are so prone to
do. but this Is not aerlous In her case.
She has proved already that she
knowa how to manage the businesa of
life wisely. It is a surprising circum
stance that more axed couples who,
like the Pankhursts, are childless, do
not brighten their lives by adopting
some lively and sensible young girl or
boy. Perhaps It would be better to
adopt both a girl and a boy. People
of means could gTeatly increase the
sum of happiness In the world by this
course and thus lay up for themselves
treasure beyond the grave as what
they possess here slips out of their
XAXCT HANKS. ,
The death of Nancy Banks, the
standard-bred American mare which
from 1S93 to 1891 held the world's
mile trotting- record, calls up reminis
cences among followers of the light
harness track that are both diverting
and welcome In this age of the auto
mobile and airship. Here is a dumb
brute In the scientific sense, once
queen of trotters, whose death was suf
ficiently Important for a mention of It
to be telegraphed to more than 7000
dally papers. So much cannot be sam
of the passing of many men and
women of considerable note.
Nancy Hanks, who was driven to
fame by Budd Doble. while not so stel
lar a performer as some horses which
have followed her -emarkablo speed
demonstration j.t the Terra Haute.
Ind.. track in marks a mllepost
In the development of the trotting
horse -a strictly American product.
With her record light harness racing
as a sport reacnea tne pinnacie ua
popularity aa a clean and wholesome
The trotting- horse Is peculiar to
America. Years before this form of
racing became popular In America,
Europe had Indulged her social fan
cies and scientific turn of mind In fast
and frivolous as well as sturdy horses.
but In the early '50s In the United
States the American trotter became an
Institution. Jt is Interesting to note
that this family of quadrupeds com
monly Is supposed to have Its origin in
what Is known In the horseman's
world as the Morgan family of horses,
descendants of the famous Justin Mor
gan, whose breeding was always ques
tioned but whose progeny have won
laurels Innumerable and established
the strain on the records. The Mor
gan horse waa a product of West
Springfield. Mass.. but his development
la traced to Vermont, wnere ne at
tained his fame In stud service and
But beyond this the American trot
ter traces quality back to a still more
famous horse. Hambletonlan Ten.
sometimes known as Rysdyke's Ham
bletonlan. The fancy trotters of the
modern age are direct descendants of
these two strains, which in time were
to become so minutely Interwoven. But
still beyond this family of trotters the
real American trotter traces his lin
eage to the celebrated Messenger,
sometimes referred to as Imported
Messenger, because he was the stock
that camo to America from Europe In
17 and from which the American
trotting stock really developed. Trot
ting and pacing- horses of record, and
many which do not possess that envia
ble asset, a recorded pedigree. In this
and other parts of . the country, belong
to this family. Careful and long breed
ing, with style, endurance, breeding
quality and speed all considered in the
process, produced thla notable family
of horses. Messenger waa running
stock, but he developed and handed
down a strange trotting- proclivity.
Fast trotting, as a matter of record,
on American tracks began In 1810,
when a horse named Boston did the
mile In 2 minutes and 4S H seconds.
The speed, now considered hardly
worth noticing, then was considered
important. In 103 years the speed has
been developed to 1 minute and 54 H
seconds. In this space of time such
famous horses aa Dutchman. Lady
Suffolk, Pelham, Highland Maid, Flora
Temple. Dexter. Goldsmith Maid,
Uarus. St. Jullen, Maud S.. Jay-Eye-See.
Sunol. Nancy Hanks, Allx. liter
ally killed In campaigning. The Abbott,
the sturdy Cresceus. the brilliant Lou
Dillon and the holder of the present
world's record. Uhlan, were developed.
Uhlan In 11 whipped arouna tne
track In 1 minute and 54 ti seconds,
which mark has remained. ecUpsing
the fast pacing record of Dan Patch,
which la 1:55.
Nancy Hanks part In the trotting
evolution was particularly conspicuous,
however. Her world record perform
ance In 1SJ2 waa noteworthy in more
than one way. She attained a speed
equal to the fastest pacer then re
corded, although pacing was In the
speed ascendency then and held the
edge on trotting- by a second or more.
She also clipped off more than four
seconds from the world record for trot
ting, made In Hl at Stockton. Cal.. by
SunoL It was one of the most astonish
ing speed reductions known to horse
racing, and. strangely enough. It was
made la the year that Mascot, a pacer,
cut the pacing- mile record to S:04.
Ball-bearing sulky axles had Just come
Into use. Prior to that the consistent
performances of Maud S., who circled
the mile In 2:10 V In 1M0 and again in
I:0 In li. were much talked of
and the 2:17 mark made by Dexter
In 1157 at Boston had been heralded
as the final attainment. When Nancy
Hanks gave way to the new queen.
Ail. In IIM. tbt mark, went down to
2:0S?. where It stayed until 1900,
when Tho Abbott, working-, singularly,
on the Terre Haute track also, reduced
it to 2:01V. In 1901 Cresceus, often
proclaimed the greatest horse of the
age. acain slashed the time to 2:02
only two years later to give way to the
sensational mare, Lou Dillon, who In
1903 at Readvllle, Mass., established
the 2-mlnute-flat mark for the mile
track. In 1903 Lou Dillon, racing
against time with the aid of a wind
shield, lowered the time to 1:58ft
where it was supposed it would stay.
But Uhlan In 1913. against time and
with the aid of the wind shield, did-the
remarkable time of 1:54 H, which
Nancy Hanks had none of the advan
tages of the wind shield. About the
time of her supremacy the pacing
horse reached a higher development.
and Mascot, Robert J.. John R. Gentry.
Star Pointer. Prince Albert and finally
Dan Patch almost convinced the horse
loving world that the pacer, really an
artificially gaited racer, was to be the
There haa never, however, been the
quality of interest In pacers that has
prevailed in trotters. The trotters were
bred before pacing- was an accepted
gait, but when horse breeders- began
to realize that fast trotters could be
made to pace even faster, the breed
lng- race really began.
Nancy Hanks, on the track, was a
picture of style and breeding- not easily
forgotten. She was genuinely stately
In her diagonal rait, and "gathered
like lightning. In disposition she more
than upheld the tradition of kindly
nature and almost human, under
standing associated with standard trot
ting stock. Thousands of children in
the palmy days of Nancy Hanks
stroked her mane or caressed her glis
tening neck. The trotting horse had
been bred not to fear man, and Nancy
Hanks was a notable example of suc
Nancy Hanks, of homely but cher
ished name, having been called after
Lincoln's mother, came of the best
stock. She was a Hambletonlan
through and through, and directly of
the stock of Hambletonlan that had
never given up the title. Hambleton
tan's four greatest descendants were
Electioneer, George Wilks, Abdallah
First and Happy Medium. Nancy
Hanks was by Happy Medium, her dam
being Nancy Lee. who was by Dictator.
Abdallah was out of the famous Mes
senger. Nancy Hanks was beloved in
her day and in memory she lives with
the greatest. She had well earned ner
pensioned days of rest.
The appended comment from the
Benton County Leader was so satisfying-
to the peaceful soul of the Salem
Capital Journal that it was reproduced
In the columns of that paper:
Th. sham of our unDreDnrednes for war
was Illustrated on two puses of Tuesday s
Oremntnn. Tho editorial paso urited tho
mnlntenaneo of private a-un and shell works
operated at full capacity In order that thif
country mlcht havo an abundant supply of
artlllorr. machine runs and ammunition,
while on tho financial pare bis headllner
proclaimed that roreirn coniracis wurin
t-no rtoo fx Ml are oondina. If tho U. B. la so
mighty shy an war munitions, why doe
alio ship it (them?) to Europe 7
No patriotic American manufacturer
ould prefer a European customer to
his own Government, in any matiet
at Issue between them; and no manu
facturer would sell abroad if he had
an equal chance to sell at home.
When the United States becomes a
purchaser of munitions, there will be
no foreign shipments or any supplies
this Government wants. If there Is
any sham about our unpreparedness,
It Is because we will not buy needed
equipment from our own, or from any.
If Mexico wants them, there are
thousands of Industrial Workers of the
World this side of the line she can
have on demand. She will be no worse
off with them.
Minister Hornlbrook omitted to
mention one paint In his letter from
Slam the price of lots in Bangkok.
Otherwise he boomed the town In true
Western style. -
It is enough to throw a scare Into a
man of Ice to learn there were four
sticks of dynamite in an automobile
that bumped Into a streetcar the other
Now the submarines have begun
sinking British transports, it may be
Kitchener will chango the date of be
ginning the war and go to It.
Evidence accumulates that Carranxa
has dispensed with formalities by be
ginning war on the United States with
out a formal declaration.
There Is a decided conflict of opin
ion on National defense between Dr.
Jordan and Dr. Wheeler, the two Cali
fornia college presidents.
President Bush, of the Missouri Pa
cific Railroad, changes his title to re
ceiver, but still holds his Job. He is a
lightning change artist
Excessive speed in her youth did not
shorten the life of Nancy Hanks, who
died yesterday. Horses, however, differ
from human beings, -
Yuan Shi Kai must be remembering
NaDoleon and Diaz. If he succeeds.
Japan will be taught to keep her hands
off his empire.
The allies have spent 322,000.000 for
horses in the St. Louis maritet, tne
bulk of which no doubt was reinvested
The Afro-American will now proceed
to don the war paint, for the show to
which he particularly objects is booked
The liberal party of Germany de
mands wider frontiers and the war
party is certainly doing Its best east
That German submarine which raid
ed Whitehaven must havo wished to
remind the old town of Paul Jones
H. G. Hanson should be Imprisoned
In a better Jail than Grants Pass haa
or he will repeat Hooper's feat.
Georgia has been a little the worst
commonwealth dating from the era of
Leo Frank dead Is a better man than
any member of the mob that killed
In Oregon many are Invited to the
recall, but few are recalled.
The most anybody can get of Hooper
is a dissolving view.
Galveston's seawall was a profitable
European War Primer
By Xatloaal Geo graphical Society.
WITH the greatest wholesale de
struction of treasure in all his
tory taking: place, with war-wrought
economic lossea piling up in such stu
pendous aggregates as no panic ever
caused, the question as to how long
each of the belligerents can stand the
fearful strain upon its resources is be
coming- as important and fully as in
teresting as are any of those more
stirring questions growing out of the
purely military phase of the world
war. Russia, which, having expended
$3,500,000,000, having lost hundreds of
millions of dollars in foreign trade
and cities and provinces worth nun
dreds of millions more, is facing an in
definite future of warfare undismayed.
Commercial and industrial revolution
were stlrrlnsr in Russia before the war
the work of opening its magnificent
domain was being rapidly carried for
ward; plans for developing its almost
unlimited resources were In process of
confident organlratlon; modern cities
were springing up like mushrooms in
rich Siberia; textile, metal and other
industries were layina; firm foundations
and foreiern trade had been brought up
to about I1.500.000.U00. What nas Deer.
called "the most powerful country of
the future" was finding Itself, was pre
paring to enter upon the centuries of
expansion that it will need to exnausi
the possibilities of its boundless nat
ural wealth. -
About two and one-half times larger
than the United States, with an area
of 8.650.000 square miles and a popu
lation of 170.000,000, which Is Increas
ing at the rate of 3.000,000 a year, kus-
sia's natural resources resemble those
of this country and are proportionate.
It has nearly 900,000,000 acres of forest
compared with the 644,400,000 acres of
the United States mucn or wnicn. even
now. is carefully administered, and
which, one day, will be the world's first
source of timber. It has 250,000,000
acres of land under cultivation, while
this country has a cultivated area about
twice as great: but Russia can expand
her farm lands 20-fold and still leave
virein land to the future. It can De-
come the granary and the stock farm
of the world. While Its mineral weaitn
has not yet been carefully surveyed,
known supplies of petroleum, metals
and fuel abound. Russia is a continent
In Itself, and, likely, the richest of them
Scarcely two score years have passed
since Russia began witn serious pur
pose the task of her internal devel
opment. Progress during the first 30
years of this period was hesitant. In
the last decade, however. It has dou
bled its foreign trade, of which 56
per cent is exports; still this foreign
commerce is less than half that of
the United States. But Russia before
the war had scarcely begun to gather
steam for the prosecution of her tasks.
There, remain hundreds of millions of
acres of fat lands to be brought under
the plow; tens of thousands or lactory
Dlants to build: rich mines to be
opened: great railway and canal sys
tems to be built; minions. or nome
builders to be moved into Siberia, the
Silver East of the Czar's empire, and
manv million of Illiterates to De edu
cated to a higher standard of lire and
m m m
Russia Is a vast storehouse of raw
materials and must for many years re
main a purchaser of machinery and
anufactured goods in Increasing quan
tities. Tet the mills or Kussia con
sume $130,000,000 worth of raw cot
ton annually, and Russian Iron and
steel rails have already found their
way into competition in the markets
of the world. Germany bought more
from Russia than any other three
countries and sold to the Russians
about half of all their Imports. These
two empires did . tremendous, tnriv
Ing business with one another before
the war and a irreat stream of German
capital flowed Into the northern em
pire for investment. England. Holland.
Austria-Hungary and Italy, in the or
der named, followed Germany in busi
ness with the Russians. German trade
promotion was thoroughly organized
throughout the land, and in Riga, Pet
rograd and Moscow names of thousands
of German firms could be seen.
Foodstuffs formed aoout 6o per cent
of Russia's total export trade: raw ma
terials and partly manufactured goods
about 30 per cent, and manufactures
about 3 per cent. Kussia imports an
those things that highly developed and
specialized countries have for sale.
Therefore, Russian trade has been a
most valuable one for the older na
tions. Russia, as are but few otner great
nations, is self-sustaining in the mat
ter of raw materials: but the Musco
vite Empire is dependent upon the fac
tories of other lands for every step
that it may take in the upward scale;
it is even dependent upon foreign man
ufactures to maintain standards in its
wide-sweeping territory as high as
they are today. There is fabulous
riches awaiting transmutation by Rus
sian industry, but Russian, industry
has hardly passed the birtn.
W rong Crew Given Credit.
ILWACO. Wash, Aug. 14. (To the
Editor.) Please correct the statement .
that Point Adams coast guari. crew
rescued Nels K. Nelson and Herman
Anderson, when they were tnrown on
the rocks of the south Jetty by the cap
sizing of their boat about 7:30 A. M.
It was the Cape Disappointment coast
s-nard crew who. after three hours'
hard and dangerous work, rescued the
men from their precarious position and
took them to Astoria to a hospital.
nno of the men (H. Anderson) was
thrown onto the rocks by a huge. break
er with such force as to break his leit
lee in two places. Too much credit
cannot be given the Cape Disappoint
ment coast guard crew for rescuing
this man.- as they had to lash him to a
board and carry him a half mile over
rocks and broken trestle work of the
old south Jetty before they could get
him into their powerboat But they
did it J- J- JONES.
Germaa lmmlgratloa Prior to CIvU War
CHERRTDAtE, Or, Aug. 14. (To the
Editof.) Please explain what ur.
Mexamer meant by Colonial Germans.
as quoted In The Oregonian August 6.
I have never heard of Germans In Co
lonial times, unless the Hessians hired
by England could be called Germans.
I would like to know something of the
history of German settlement peiore
the Civil War and I can not find it in
our histories. OLD CBSCKiBEK.
n-t., r.,n..n. nloveil a considerable
part in the early settlement of Penn
sylvania, whence tney were attractea
by universal suffrage ana religious iia
erty. No immigration records were
maintained until 1820 and from that
- n.ii isis the records are of "ar
rivals" with no attempt to segregate
settlers rrom travelers, aooui
Germans came to the United States be
tween 1820 and 1S30. Census reports
show that German-born residents num
bered about 750.000 In 1850 and 1,276,000
Detroit Free Press.
D.. .alH m memher nf the buildina
committee to the architect, "you haven't
a single spire on the church."
"No. In these days of advanced civili
zation It Is better to build your
His Animal Traits.
"Young Mrs. Wombat doesn't want
her husband to go hunting."
"Says he's such a dear that some
body Is bound to take a shot at him by
mistake.' . . ....
ORIGIX OS SUGAR CASE TJXKXOWjr
"Reed Which Produces Honey Without
Beea" SleatJoacd fey Aacienta.
The world has had a "sweet tooth"
for many ages. People have been eat
ing sugar from time Immemorial, it
would seem, and growing sugar cane
is an industry so old that it antedates
the Christian era by many centuries.
At least that is what may be gathered
from an article by Edward 'Albes in
the May number of the Monthly Bulle
tin of the Pan-American Union, which
gives a comprehensive account of the
cane sugar industry In the Americas.
"Scientists admit they do -not know
where the sugar cane originated." he
writes, "for nowhere has it been found
in its wild state. It has been a culti
vated product for many centuries, and
the first mention to be found in written
records is in the sacred books of the
Hindus. '1 have crowned thee with a
shooting sugar cane, so that thou shalt
not be averse to me," was written many
centuries before the Christian era. In
the train of Alexander the Great dur
ing his Asiatic conquests were some
observant persons who made notes, of
what they saw, when not too busy kill
ing off the Inhabitants, and In these
written documents, according to later
writers who fell heir to them, is told
the story of '6 reed growing in India
Which produces honey without bees.'
Thus, sugar cane was evidently well
known in that country before 320 B. C.
"As to the manufactured product of
the cane, the first kind of sugar of
which mention is made was a concen
trated cane juice called gur' in India
Cgud' in Sanskrit), and this seems to
have been known as a food from pre
historic times. That its manufacture
was a well-established Industry in India
in the seventh century is attested by
the old Chinese encyclopedia, the Fen-tsao-kang-mu,
which states that the
Emperor T'ai-tsung, who reigned from
627 to 650 A. D, sent some of his people
to Behar to learn the art of sugar-making.
The manufacture of sugar even in
the early centuries of the Christian era
was not restricted to the mere evapora
tion of the juice of the cane to dryness,
for the Arabs and Egyptians had soon
learned how to purify raw sugar by re
crystallization, and incidentally bow to
make a great variety of sweetmeats, or
candy, out of the product."
The author tells of the Introduction
of the cane into Sicily by the Arabs in
703, whence it waa taken to Africa, to
Spain, and all along the coast of the
Mediterranean Sea, as well as to the
islands and borders of the Indian Ocean.
The crusaders found extensive sugar
cane plantations in Tripoli, Mesopota
mia, Syria, Antioch and Cyprus, and by
the 14th century the cane was being
cultivated in every part of the known
world where soil and climate were pro
pitious. It came to South America by being
Introduced Into Brazil by the Portu
guese, who brought it from Madeira,
and thence it spread to nearly all the
other countries of that continent, Co
lumbus Is said to have brought it to
the Island of Santo Domingo, whence
it spread to Mexico and Cuba. It was
introduced into the other islands of the
West Indies as soon as they came under
European domination. The first sugar
cane came to Louisiana by being sent
to the Jesuits from Santo Domingo In
17ol, some English authorities giving
the date as 1737.
Although practically all of the coun
tries of the Pan-American Union culti
vate the cane, Cuba is tho greatest pro
ducer of cane sugar, not only In the
western hemisphere, but in the world.
The total production of the western
hemisphere for the 1913-14 season
amounted to 4,919,814 tons, of which
Cuba produced 2,597,732 tons, or nearly
o2 per cent. The total cane sugar pro
duction of the world was 9,773,348 tons.
ana. aeaucting tne Z.ZG2.6U0 tons pro
duced by India and locally consumed.
It is seen that Cuba produces nearly
35 per cent of the cane sugar that is
available in the markets of the world.
The United States is the greatest
sugar-consuming country of the world.
In 1913 its total consumption amounted
to 3,743,139 tons Including cane, beet
and maple. This Is a per capita con
sumption of 85.4 pounds per annum.
Much of this is consumed in the. form
of candy, over) $500,000,000 being spent
tor inai sweet commoaity in tne unitea
States every year. New Terk is the
largest candy-consuming center in the
world, and to supply that city alone it
would take five trains of 50 cars, each
loaded to the limit with candy, every
week in the year if it had to be shipped
in on a raiiroaa.
Too Often Pictured.
PORTLAND, Aug. 16. (To the Edi
tor.) I am a native of New Hampshire.
having removed from Concord to this
city something more than one year ago;
and it has been my intention to settle
ir Oregon, but there are so many
things that appear to me so strange
that really it might be called by me
very funny, as that is the way I view
the idiosyncrasies of the different
species of humans I have chanced to
come in contact with, your laws, your
system of county and municipal gov
ernment. Why is It that the cost of conducting
your city government is such a stu
pendous sum annually and why do the
taxpayers submit and tolerate this ter
why should the City of Portland pay
$5000 per year salaries each to four
men and $6000 per year to another man,
which 1 am told is the case, the quar
tet being known as Commissioners, and
the quintet being known as Commis
sioners and Mayor?
Almost every day since I have become
a resident of this city I have seen pic
tures of these men flashed before my
eyes in different ways and attitudes
until their very likenesses bore me. 1
vow many times In my thoughtful mo'
mcnts that the frequency in which
these men's pictures are dished up, un
less discontinued, will drive me bug
house, and in that event what re
course is there attainable?
All of these men's pictures are to be
seen pasted up in numerous show win
dows in this city today where they
have been photographed on board the
"Convict Ship" which is on exhibition
and Is moored in the city's harbor. Is
it necessary that the public be treated
to a surfeit of these men's likenesses
at the rising and setting of the sun
every blessed day? Who is to blame
for such a deluge of reproductions of
these physiognomies? Is it the law of
JEROME B. WATROUS.
Military Camp for Bnainesa Men.
PORTLAND, Aug. 16. (To the Edi
tor.) I note in the daily press that a
military instruction camp for profes
sional and business men will be held
at the Presidio, San Francisco, for four
weeks, beginning August 20. Also that
a similar camp is being arranged for
by Seattle people, for American Lake,
beginning August 23.
Can not we have something of the
kind in the Willamette Valley or in the
vicinity of Portland?
The idea Is a splendid one, and I am
of the opinion that many would be
glad to take advantage of the oppor
tunity. It makes for preparedness,
rather than for rampant militancy. It
should appeal to all.
G. A. BENEDICT
Sites of World'a Fa Ira.
PORTLAND, Aug. 14. (To the Edi
tor.) Be kind enough to inform us the
amount of acreage covered by Fan
American Exposition and how it com
pares as to size with World's Fair Ex
position grounds at Chicago in 1893.
The Pan-American Exposition was
held in Buffalo in 1901 and occupied an
area of 350 acres. The Panama-Pacific
Exposition in San Francisco covers 625
acres. The site of the World's Colum
bian Exposition. Chicago, embraced 666
acres, but the portion occupied was
about 650 acres.
Twenty; Five Years Ago
Prom The Orozonian of August 18, 1890.
It is learned from a reliable source
that the famous Cabell mine, in Baker
County, has been sold to a syndicate
of capitalists for $200,000. The new
owners will take charge October 1.
Adjutant-General Shafner has issued
orders for an election in the Second
Regiment. O. N. G, on the 25th inst,
for a Major, to succeed Mr. Lovell. who
was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonei.
The different companies will hold elec.
tions at their armories and report the
results to General Shafner.
J. K. Gill & Co. have Just received a
carload of schoolbooks for use in Ore
gon and Washington. They have been
appointed agents for the sale of all
school books recently adopted In tha
State of Washington.
Mrs. M. Watkins. the popular cashier
of the Portland Cable Company, enter
tained a select circle of her friends at
a dinner party at her house a few
days ago. The menu was quite elab
orate. The hostess was ably assisted
by her mother and daughter. The com
pany enjoyed tho entertainment very
much and, at a late hour, dispersed.
, Dr. Franklin Johnson accepts tha
presidency of Ottawa University, of
Ottawa, Kan. He is a brother of
Hon. W. Carey Johnson, of Oregon
The leading boot and shoe stores, af
ter August 15, will close their respec
tive places of business at 7:30 P. M.;
on Saturdays 10 P. M. Eggert &
Young, Protzman & Do France, Rosen
Colonel Van John. Colonel of the
Brown Hussars, the crack regiment of
cavalry in the army of the German
Kaiser, is stopping at the Portland. Ho
is on a leave of absence and is travel
ing around the world for pleasure. He
will be here until Tuesday.
Tonight at Cordray's Theater tho
first presentation of the pleasing do
mestic drama, "The Fisherman's
Daughter," will be given, with Darrell
Vincent, Esther Lyons and the full
strength of the company. It Ib a
charming play and should please tho
patrons of this popular house.
Half a Century Ago
From The Oregonian of August IS, 1803.
Oroville, Aug. 16. The Btage between
La Porte and Oroville was stopped by
five robbers about daybreak this morn
ing a short distance this side of La
Porte. The robbers had built a barri
cade of fence rails across the road.
They were armed with shotguns and
demanded the treasure box of Wheeler
& Co.'s Express.' After breaking it
open and taking out the treasure,
they returned the box and left for tho
woods. The stage driver thinks they
got little treasure, as the box was
The weather at the present writing
is intolerably hot. Ministers of the
King, whose polar realms are never
visited by the "fantastic heats" of Sum
mer, defend us!
Messrs. Ladd and Tilton are prepared
to issue policies for marine insurance.
They are agents for the Pacific Insur
ance Company, of California, capital
$750,000 In gold coin.
The steamer Rival met with an acci
dent at the wharf yesterday morning
by blowing out a steam pipe, which
caused a delay of some two or three
hours in her departure for Oregon City.
No damage was done by the accident.
The various committees of the fire
department will report on the annual
parade proceedings at the office of the
chief engineer this evening.
San Francisco. Aug. 17. The heavy
Chinese companies in the city hav
united together for the purpose of ten
dering to Speaker Colfax and his party
a complimentary dinner gotten up in
the highest Chinese style of culinary
art. The invited guests will include
our Governor, military, naval, Federal,
state and municipal officers.
New Tax Law.
PORTLAND, Aug. 16. (To the Edi
tor.) Kindly explain the "refund, pen
alty and interest tax" law, which I
understand was to take effect May 22
and become a state law.
Chapter 223, Laws of 1915, cancels
penalty and interest on any tax for the
year 1913 if the first half was paid
before April 1, 1914, and the last half
before October 1, 1914. Penalty and
interest on 1914 taxes are also canceled
in event first half of taxes has been
paid before April 1, 1915, and the last
half before October 1, 1915.
Under the provisions of chapter 156
taxes for years thereafter must be paid
as follows: First half on or before
April 5 of following year; second half
on or before October 5 following. In
terest is to be charged ort any tax. or
half of a tax not so paid at 1 per cent
per month; unpaid taxes on October 5
become delinquent and on November 5
a penalty of 5 per cent in addition to
interest is imposed.
Livestock at ' Large.
MONUMENT. Or., Aug. 13. (To the
Editor.) There Is quite a controversy
here among your subscribers as to the
legality of hogs running at large In "
Grant County. A few claim there is no
law against hogs running at large in
this particular county. Please inform
us of the facts in the case.
There is no state law prohibiting the
running at large of swine In Grant
County, but provision Is made for coun
ties to vote on the question. We can
not give information as to county or
district laws enacted under this pro
vision. England Does Not Role Scotland.
ST. HELENS, Or., Aug. 7. (To the
Editor.) A says that England rules
Scotland; B says no. Who is wrong?
A is wrong. The two kingdoms, to
gether with Ireland and Wales, are
represented in the Imperial Parliament,
which rules all. In proportion to its
representation, Scotland has a share in
ruling England, and England has a
share in ruling Scotland.
When you use newspaper ad
vertising you can flash your
newspaper message forth be
tween days to meet special eco
nomic conditions as they arise.
You can cash in on prosperity
here and sidestep depression
You can start, stop, extend
or curtail at will. That is elas
ticity. You can check sales against
expenditures, city by city, and
arrive at an accurate basis of
That brings your advertising
department closer to the kind of
efficiency that pervades the oth
er branches of your business.