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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 7, 1915)
TIIE MORXIXG OREGOTTCAN. SATURDAY, AUGUST 7, 1915.
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DCTKXSE Or PAJCAlfA CAXAiV.
The popular belief that the Panama
Canal has doubled tha effectiveness
of ths United states Navy receive
serious blow from a high naval expert
In Bennett's "History of the Panama
Canal." Admiral rewey had agreed
to write a chapter on tha naval value
of the canal, but ha tent Instead an
article by Captain Harry S. Knapp. L.
S. X.. with the remark that It fully
expreaaed his views.
Captain Knapp pronounce "a dan
gerous fallacy" the popular notion
that the canal doubles the effective
ness of the Nary, saying It will not
-Jo anything approaching that." Ue
ays w should have as soon as pos
sible, a, tout strength not less than
that of the standard Atlantic fleet plus
three-quarters that of the standard
Pacific fleet." This means a fleet In
the Atlantic, equal to that of Ger
many, plus one threerfourths as strong
as that of Japan. In other words, our
Atlantic fleet alone should equal Ger
many's, though our entire Navy Is In
ferior to that of Germany. Even If
w had a Navy sufficient to cope with
Uermany alone, "are should be helpless
to defend ourselves In the - Pacific
against Japan If the two nations
ahould stuck us simultaneously. - We
should lose the Philippines, Guam and
Hawaii and the' enemy would be free
to attack our Pacific porta.
Major-General Wood, In his contri
bution to Mr. Bennett's book, says
steps have been taken "to provide a
garrison adequate to hold It (the canal)
against any force, excepting such force
as might be landed as a result of our
losing sea power that Is to say, the
garrison will be sufficient merely to
hold the canal against raiding forces
from fleet. If we should lose sea con
trol ao as to permit the free transport
ef troops by the enemy, then the force
required to hold the canal aecurely
would be a very large one." In other
words, if we provide a Navy adequate
to keep an Invading army off the Isth
mus, we can defend it with a relative
ly small land force, such as we now
have there. If we remain "weak at
ses. we must maintain on the Isthmus
an army sufficient to defend It from
Our duty to defend the canal is Im
pressed on us by Captain Philip An
drews, V. S. in Mother contribu
tion to the same book, from the stand
point of both National policy and
treaty obligation. He says:
Just a soon a our naval strength fall
below that of any European nation that
sis land for Nor surniuo population, we
Invite, and mar sat. a defiance of till Mon
ro Doctrine. Indeed, tha opanlns of tba
canal tu-lf. by gradually Increasing eora
anerre and opportunity In Oontral and South
America, will Invite rach aggression.
We bar guaranteed tha aautrauty ef tha
Panama canal; w most maintain tt by f orra
if noad ba asalnst any and alL We bar
bond onrala to do that. What this may
mean no an yet know; th nd for foro
an this ace r would probably arise at th
earn time aa other atrtlcultiea.
The description of the defenses al
ready provided shows that we shall
have done what is necessary to make
the canal Impregnable If we bring our
Navy up to the required strength in
dicated by Captain Knapp. The big
guns could prevent any ship from ap
proaching within eleven miles, the
smaller guna could prevent any which
happened to slip within that radius
from entering the canal, the entrances
are to be mined and searchlights
guard against surprise. There Is a
sufficient garrison provided the Navy
keeps the sea. and quarters have been
built for 20,000 extra troops in case
The defense of the canal Is therefore
one of the most important points to
be considered In connection with the
naval programme when Congress
meets. It requires that we free our
minds of Illusions and that we meas
ure our needs by the strength of our
possible adversaries, not by the amount
which Congress Is willing to spend
after taking care of all the members'
While one msy exclaim with reason
ever the rapid development of the au
tomobile, the telephone, the phono
graph and other inventions of the last
century which have altered old ways
of living and created new ways, there
Is a less spectacular Industry tha rise
of which has been quite as marvelous.
Its product has crept Into everyday
- lire to such an extent that If suddenly
deprived of It the world would find
Its dinner fiat and lacking.
This "industry ia built up around the
lowly tomato, that vegetable-fruit
which is now in the markets in its
succulent prime. The tomato is) not a
'century old as an article of food In
the t'nited States, yet In some form
or other It enters into at least one
dally meal of the multitude.
Prior to about 1S3S the tomato was
commonly known In America as the
"love apple." was grown only as a gar.
den ornament and was considered poi
sonous. In 1914 American factories
which keep accurate statistics put up
4S0.000.000 cans of tomatoes, or enough
to provide every man, woman and
child In the country with two and one
half pounds of food. Probably as
many more tomatoes were eaten raw
or preserved In the homes.
A writer In the Pan-American Union
names Peru as the origin of the to
mato, though the name ia believed to
be Aztec. It was Introduced in Spain
and Italy long before Its food value
became known in America, and there
it was used In soups and salads dur
ing the seventeenth century-
. The tomato la but one of several Im
portant world products given to man
kind by the discovery of the Western
world. Among the foods are Indian
corn, sweet and Irish potatoes and
chocolate, and among the medicines
quinine and cocaine. In neither clas
sification, bat no less Important from
the commercial standpoint, is to
bacco, also of American origin. But In
ministering to health, sustenance or
pleasure, none of them has been so
Ions delayed or leaped ao suddenly
Into favor aa the tomato.
HOW OT TO DO IT.
Tho Mad ford Sun. which has striven
valiantly to be a Progressive newspa
per In a community which ia only
Progressively so-so, in a party sense.
Is not sure whether (.here Is to be a
feast or famine for Armageddon's
brave band. 'Talk about the Progres
sive party now." says our Jledford
contemporary, "is mere political sham,
and the word of one guesser is as good
as another. A vast majority of the
Progressives of this state, and un
doubtedly throughout the country,
want to go over to the Republican
party. If they can, so If there Is a
Progressive party, the leaders of the
O. O. P. will have only themselves to
In the parlance of the true-blue
Progressive, there w-111 be nothing do
ing towards reunion If the Repub
lican party Is delivered over to Its re
The real situation could not be more
truthfully stated. What the Progres
sives will do will be determined by
what the Republicans do. Mr. Roose
velt still holds out. but the mild com
pliments he paid recently to the scat
tering Progressives who were going
back to their old allegiance were In
dlcattve of a receptive and complaisant
frame of mind.
It la not easy to say how the odious
Penrose and the wicked Cannon are to
be driven out of the Republican party.
But the Progressives have been sig
nally successful in showing that one
way not to do it Is to abandon the
party and leave them In possession.
A correspondent who subscribes
herself as a "Constant Reader of The
Oregontan" naturally qualifies as a dis
criminating and competent observer
of men and things. But a letter which
she offers to the readers of The Ore-
gonlsn today contains so sweeping an
Indictment of modern writings and
modern newspaper art that we feel It
a duty to challenge one or two of her
"Where." she asks, "are the artists?
Gone and forgotten and in their places
blacksmiths, ship carpenters and
butchers. Neither wit, humor, satire
nor feeling are present In any of the
work. . . . Where are the Nasts,
Davenports. Tenniels? ... The
one thing seems to be the Idea, and
The one thing needed to make a
perfect cartoon always was the Idea.
Everything else was Incidental and
unimportant. If our gentle critic
fancies aa she does that art Is the
supreme consideration in the produc
tion of cartoons, or caricatures, she
has iwofully misunderstood the meth
ods and work of such men as Nast.
Tenniel and Davenport. The idea'a
the thing always the Idea. The car
toonist's sole effort was and Is to bring
it out powerfully and understanding.
The Oregonlan has no hesitation
whatever in saying that current news
paper art (excepting the comics) Is
better than at any time. It Is better for
two reasons tha average work of the
artist Is superior, and the mechanics
of reproduction are vastly improved.
We could name a half dozen, or
more, contemporary contributors to
pictorial Journalism who. we think, are
finer artists than any of the great
names given by Constant Reader, but
none are greater cartoonists, or so
great. We venture to say that there
are thousands of artists In the world
today who do better work than the
famous Crulkshank, or the equally
celebrated Leech of earlier days. That
Is an unorthodox opinion, to be sure,
but it will hardly be disputed by any
candid person who Is not prejudiced
against present-day newspaper and
-ONLY WARSAW'S SHELL RE-MAINS.
The Russians have proved them
selves almost as skilled In retreat as
the Germans have proved In attack.
Their greatest victories were the se
quel of retreats, the one which stands
out most prominently In history being
thst before Napoleon to Moscow.
Preparation for retreat Is made as
methodically as for an offensive move,
ment and begins long before the ac
tual, complete withdrawal of armies.
Everything of possible military value
which can be carried away Is re
moved and that which cannot be re
moved Is destroyed. The purpose of
the retreating army is to leave an
empty husk to the advancing enemy.
The aggressors are cheated of their
plunder unless they can overtake and
capture or destroy the receding; army.
The order for evacuation of Warsaw
was given as early as July 15'and was
effective on July 18, according to Baa
sett Dlgby. correspondent of the Chi
cago Dally News, who by going from
Warsaw to Stockholm was able to send
an uncensored report of what was be
ing done. About 350.000 of the city's
population fled to Moscow and other
Interior cities, but their places were
taken by an equal number of peasants
fleeing into the city before the advanc
ing Teutons. Homes were broken up,
business . waa abandoned, factories
were dismantled, and millionaires be
came paupers in a day.
The allied consuls;' the courts and
their S1S.000.000 of funds were moved
first. The police visited every house
and told the porter to Induce the In
habitants to leave at once. Free
transportation on the railroad was
given, with grants of money when
needed. Thousands of cars, mostly
freight cars, were assembled for a
week beforehand and on July 1C, 17
and IS trains closely packed with ref
ugees poured eastward.
At the same time the work of dis
mantling the city began. All prop
erty likely to be useful to the enemy
was removed or destroyed. Factories
were stripped and their plants carried
away when possible. Concrete founda.
lions were dynamited, and machinery
which waa too cumbersome to disman
tle and transport was blown up. but
every fragment of metal was taken
to the Interior. With the announce
ment of evacuation newspapers ceased
publication, took their linotype ma
chines and presses to pieces and
shipped them away with their type.
All storks of copper In factories and
plumbing shops, all copper utensils,
all copper articles of every kind were
removed, hardly a ton remaining.
The stocks of hardware and hospi
tal supplies went also. The postoffice.
banks, telegraph offices, courts and
municipal offices were stripped, and
all their equipment and archives were
sent to Russia. Soldiers stripped all
copper telegraph wires from poles.
Bronze church bells were unslung and
with the church archives, vestments,
gem-studded vessels, treasures and
Icons were carried off. The telephone
exchange was dismantled and the dy
namos of the electric power plants
with all their attachments were hauled
away. The three Vistula bridges, one
of which Is more than a mile long and
cost 16,000,000, were lined with sand
bags and connected by wires with
mines which were to be exploded at
the Isst moment before the Germans
entered. Every wheeled vehicle and
nearly all the horses were taken across
the Vistula. Even the fire engines and
the pumps of the waterworks were
shipped away. Two thousand hack
ney carriages were driven nearly 1000
miles to Moscow. Warsaw was cut
off from the world, having no postal
service and only two or three military
telegraph and telephone wires to con
nect It with Russia. No civilian was
allowed to approach nearer than
The same measures were taken to
render the surrounding towns and
country a barren conquest to the Ger
mans. By July 29 hardly 200.000 per
sons remained in the towns between
Warsaw and Brcst-ldtovsk. Such
crops as the troops could harvest were
saved; all others were destroyed. Vil
lages were razed and the suburbs of
the city were surrounded by trenches.
As a last step before leaving Warsaw
the nollce trained a large body of
civilian Poles In police duty and placed
sunnlv of rifles and revolvers in
each station-house for their use.
If the Russians hold an Intrenched
line east of Warsaw, the Germans will
be able to reach them only by cross
ing a desert which tvas a yesr ago one
of the most productive and most in
tensively cultivated countries on earth.
If the Russians should be compelled
to retreat farther eastward they Ynay
be expected to extend this desert In
their rear, adding with every mile to
their enemy's difficulty of transport
Ing troops and supplies. While they
do so, they will be training and arm
ing new legions In the far interior and
on the remote borders.
FEEDING SEVEN! MILLIONS.
The world's wonderment has been
aroused by the foresight and detailed
efficiency and Ingenuity of the Ger
man military machine, but a history'
of the present war, when written, will
not be complete unless a chapter Is
also devoted to the marvelous efficiency
and Ingenuity of the commission for
the relief or Belgium. The response
in America to the call for help for
Belgium has been quick, whole-hearted
and generous. The people may
have noted the fact that the commis
sion has chartered seventy vessels to
sail from fourteen American ports, but
the process of distributing the cargoes
among seven million people, the diffi
culties surmounted, even the full de
tails of the acquirement of the food
have been subordinated to the more
stirring events of war s activities.
These details are now supplied by
Mabel Hyde Klttredge' In fhe New
Unlike the German military ma
chine, the Belgian Commission planned
Its work as it went along. It was
called to Its task on practically a day's
notice. There was no guidance In his
tory for the conduct of the undertak
Ing. It waa necessary to establish It
In a country surrounded by the armies
of five nations; in a country with no
telephone or telegraphic communlca
Uon and practically no postoffice sys
tem; no high roads or railwaya that
could be used for commercial pur
poses; no banking facilities. Metal
money had disappeared, paper cur
rency was valueless and . all Industry
Yet today the Belgian Commission
Is conducting a systematic banking
business with the outside world; it has
revived certain industries; it' has re
stored Belgian currency to full value;
Its representatives are given Instant
audience in the courts of Europe; it
has established a distributive system
that reaches nearly every part of Bel-
glum. But still more marvelous,' it has
created a fund for purchase of relief
supplies of which at least one-half
comes from the Belgians tnemseives.
A shipload of wheat consigned to
the commission enters the country
through Holland. The Dutch govern
ment furnishes the facilities for un
loading at Rotterdam. Canal routes.
of which many had been destroyed or
blocked and which had To be explored
by the commission, are now used for
distribution. The wheat goes to izv
principal warehouses, from whence it
is shipped to 32,000 communal cen
ters after an allotment has been
made In proportion to population.
Large mills In each province do noth
ing but grind the commission's wheat.
Every bushel is checked Into the mill
and the flour is checked out. The
miller is allowed to retain the bran.
which must not exceed 7 per cent of
the ground product. He is also paid
25 cents for each 225 pounds of wheat
From the mills the flour is sold to
the bakers, but each baker must pro
duce a fixed equivalent for tho flour
and may bake only the amount Indi
cated by the communal officer of his
district as sufficient to supply current
The well-to-do pay for their bread.
the Intermediate class Is charged only-
the cost price, and the destitute re
ceive it free. A day's ration is eight
ounces of bread, one and one-halt
pints of soup and'a small amount of
coffee. There is also a special aistri
butlon of milk, cocoa or a specially
nourishing soup for children under 3
years of age.
The soups are prepared In accord
ance with a formula devised by skilled
dietitians and the making Is In charge
of chefs from the principal hotels.
The women who prepare the vege
tables have even been trained In the
best and most economical w:ay to peel
The commission restored the value
of paper money by accepting it in pay
ment for food. It also arranged with
the belligerent countries to let the
commission collect foreign debts to
Belgium In gold and pay their credit
ors in paper. Many well-to-do Bel
gians were Induced to pledge their
credit for gold, which Is handed over
to the commission In return for pa
per. Belgian concerns with resources
sbroad but none at home hand over to
the commission funds they possess in
New Tork and London and receive
paper In exchange. By these methods
a systematic banking business across
enemy lines has been established
which Is now the foundation of the re
Numerous communes now, as a re
sult of this system, buy their food
from the commission with paper
money, which through the commis
sion's own exchange process is con
verted Into coin available for the pur
chase of supplies abroad. By turning
over Its capital it has been enabled,
with a fund of $20,000,000, to Import
food worth at least 3S5.000.000. The
restoration of currency has enabled
the communes to maintain their mu
nicipal governments and maintain
their schools and municipal works.
By reviving the lace-making indus
try the commlaston has found work
for 20.000 women. Their product is
sent to London and America to be sold j
for their sole benefit. Old Belgian
families have sacrificed rare laces
which have been shipped to America
for disposal. Their value may be
guessed from the duty, which was
360,000. ThO entire returns from the
disposal of these laces must be used tu
employ labor In Belgium. Among the
employments established by the com
mission Is the making of clothing.
Cloth is distributed in the same way
that soup is sent out, and each worker
is limited as to a week's earnings in
order to give, employment to as many
as . possible. The clothes thus made
are sold or given away in Belgium.
It is a matter of pride that the task
of restoring a nation to a partial self
sustaining basis under unheard-of cir
cumstances and in the face of tremen
dous difficulties has been accomplished
largely by Americans. Miss Klttredge
gives credit also to the Spanish com
mission ''and the Spanish Minister,
who, aside from the American, la the
only foreign diplomat In Brussels. A
Belgian organization -of the country's
leading citizens is the third partner
in the arrangement, and there are' a
hundred thousand volunteer workers.
Mere mention of numbers aided does
not give a full realization of the mag
nitude of the commissary work under,
taken. ' Conception of seven million
hungry persons is impossible for the
ordinary mind. But an Inkling of the
vastness of the work may be gained
frem one of Miss Klttredge's Illustra
tions. She estimates that if all the
persons In Belgium who stand in' line
dally at the many food-distributing
stations stood in one single file, the
line would be 600 miles long. To lo
calize the illustration, such a line
would reach from Portland to San
Certainly war is fundamentally
wicked, as Dr. Jordan says, but Is that
any reason why we should submit to
a nation which sends its strongest men
to slaughter us? If that rule were
followed by all peace-loving nations,
they would all be ruled by the war
like nations and the war business
would be greatly stimulated. Dr. Jor
dan Is preaching to the wrong congre
gallon. He should denounce war to
those nations which uphold . it as I
means of aggression, not to this Na
tlon. which resorts to It only as i
means of defense against such na
Down in Oklahoma, yesterday a
number of masked men took a negro
from a Sheriff and hanged him. To
be sure, the victim was guilty and
would have gone to the penitentiary in
time, for the negro never escapes in
the lawful programme. In extenua
tion it will probably be said that im
prisonment does not' check crime
acainst white women. But neither
German efficiency appears once
more in the promptness with which
the government ended the strike at
the Krupo works. It contrasts with
the' British inefficiency which permit
ted strikes at shipyards, munition
works, docks and coal mines. Autoc
racy is not a lovely thing, but it gets
results In war.
Maimed British soldiers are to make
toys that In former years were made
in Germany. As Christmas Is less
than five months off in this country-
at being understood no other nation
can afford to celebrate this year they
must hurry the work.
What is the use of unloading in this
country all these reports of atrocities
incident to the war? Now Russia is
sending a voluminous one to Wilson.
The President can get all the atrocity
stuff he wants, and more, too, from
Annexation of St. Johns and Linnton
brought into the city school district
about $90,000 of school debt: but if
those districts could figure a way to
pay It before annexation, .the whole
district can do so without a tremor.
The Pennsylvania ' physician who
was arrested here a few days ago for
marital misconduct did not endeavor
to hide under another name, as is cus'
tomary in these triangles, and that
much Is to his credit. .
The man who married the richest
girl in the country is prohibited by
a trust deed of her father from han
dling the millions: nevertheless, he
ought to be able to work her lor all
the cash he needs.
It is all very well that the eugenic
woman be taller than the present-day
woman, provided the eugenic man is
also so much taller that he does not
need to climb on a stepladder to kiss
It is easy to foresee peace. All Ger
many need do is to chase the Russian
troops into Siberia, the British into
England, the Italians to the vineyards
and tell the French to scatter.
Great Britain is following a course
that was more or less popular In this
country more than a half century ago
in taking In gold and paying out cur
With Mr. Hay. the pacifist, at the
head of the House military committee,
tho President's defense programme
will have difficulty In getting by.
American marines bring about an
unaccustomed calm in Hayti. Sin
liar measures might have brought like
results in Mexico two years ago.
S. Benson is to be honored at San
Francisco not only as Oregon's first
citizen, but as one of the Nation ;
good roads champions.
Americans who contemplate settling
In Australia should consider that
Fourth of July comes in the middle
of Winter down there.
Russia's report on her enemies"
atrocities having .been issued, we can
now Judge which of the belligerents
excels in barbarism.
How, many more times are the fac
tional leaders who are destroying
Mexico to be given another chance?
While grateful to India for prayers.
John Bull, is more grateful for sub
scriptions to the-war loan.
Salt is becoming cheaper and the
use of salt Is healthy. Too many are
too "fresh" now.
While French deputies make
speeches German armies capture cit
ies. The Oregon naval militiaman now
feel like sure enough Jackles.
European War Primer
By Katlomai Geographical Society.
Kholm, or Chelm, as the Poles spell
it has been one of the most Interesting
of Polish towns under Russian admin
istration, for from this quiet corner of
subject Poland the ' government pro
gramme for the russiflcation of the
Poles has been directed. Just over the
Russian border, surrounded by endless
acres of forest and agricultural land,
the whole region in which it lies
possessed of but indifferent means for
communication, and, so, screened from
the feverish, suspicious politics of War
saw and other Polish centers. Kholm,
in peace times, was a strategic point
of rare advantages for the propagation
of Russian influences. , x
The Russian ideals, the . Russian
tongue,' Russian methods and the Rus
sian religion entered Poland by way of
Kholm, and from here painstaking ef
forts were mae to spread them among'
all the peasantry.. The Russian point
of view has sought to penetrate by way.
of the Kholm-Lublin-Ivangorod railway
line, and from here, too, it has made
its way south, even beyond the Ga
liclan borders to the great Polish city
of Lemberg. Thus, Kholm. which the
Russian soldiers defended so splendid
ly, was a Russian stronghold in more
senses than one. It was the sentimental
and intellectual heart of the Russian
programme in Poland.
Kholm is the seat of a Russian
bishop. -The national Greek Church.
though It claims but few followers
over . the Polish boundary, is here
strongly Intrenched. The city sup
ports a number of Greek churches, and
an ecclesiastical seminary- long found
ed here offers to the Poles and to Kus
sian missionaries to the Poles ' the
learning of the Greek Church. The
Russian Church has based mighty ef
forts from Kholm for the conversion
of the Poles to the "Church of most of
the Slavs." Its success, however, is
still hanging in the balance.
m m m
The city is very ancient.. It was
founded by Daniel, Prince of Galicz, as
business headquarters for rich family
estates. It la today a living specimen
of archaeology, with the railway run
nine through, it as one of the few re
minders of the modern age. The shell
Are of today, shaking this out-of-date,
time-sleepy city, must cause an un
canny realization among its citizens
ot the strides that the ages have made
since Kholm last came into immediate
contact with the outside world. The
city, most of which was built without
a plan, provides a home for 20.000 peo
ple, and before the outbreak of the
war provided an arsenal, a quiet but
powerful source of russiflcation plans
Lublin, the Important manufacturing
town of this part of Russian Poland.
lies 45 miles west-northwest of Kholm
by , the Kief-Warsaw Railway. Kholm
forms the south ' termination of . the
strategic railroad that runs behind the
last line of Russian "defense in Poland,
that northaand-south line of the Bug,
reinforced and continued north from
the Bug, by the Kholm-Brest-Lttovsk-Bieostok-Osowtec
Railway. Its posses
sion .therefore, is of great military im
portance. The country around Kholm
grows an abundance of grains and is
also very rich In Its production of
other agricultural products. .
WHERE ARE OIB GREAT ARTISTS f
None Living, but All Belong to the
Past. Soya This Critic,
PORTLAND, Aug. 6. (To the Ed
itor.) In a recent issue of Current
Opinion Owen Wister criticises our
popular American writers in a way
that is to the point. I'm sure that the
broad-minded public ls in a measure of
the same animus as Mr. Wister.
We are fed on foolish trash for
mental relaxation In our craze for fic
tion; always something startling, some
thing so impossible that our tastes in
time will be such that we will not rec
ognize genius nor talent.
We will have been educated to the
poorer "outbursts" of our commercial
two-bit pen "slingers" to such an ex
tent that all of our love and apprecia
tion of the better class of literature
will be a minus consideration to us.
Now. why can't some able writer
who is an authority on the cartoon
give us a lengthy discourse dealing
with present-day newspaper art? It
seems that the average paper, and a
good many of our foremost ones, are
giving us dally "scratchings" that are
a disgrace to a second-grade school
boy. "Art is badly used, or, to be
more .plain, is put to rout. The one
thing seems to be the idea, and noth
Where are the artists? Gone and for
gotten, and in their places blacksmiths.
shipcarpenters and butchers have taken
up the pen, and hence we .have a con
glomeration of stuff that people go mad
Neither wit humor, satire nor feel
ing are present in any of the work. If
Thomas Nast could see how we have
fallen' from a once great standard he
would feel that there is little hope
left for us.
Why not give us a standard equal
to that of our foreign brothers, and
help educate the masses to appreciate
one of the greatest talents that man
can boast? Where are the Nasts, Da
venports. Tenniels and others who have
given us priceless treasures pf mind
Truly, art is on the wane.
FACTS ABOUT NAVAL BLOCKADES.
Germany Planned Starvation Britain
Retaliated Again Submarines.
GRAYS RIVER, Wash., Aug. 6. (To
the Editor.) It is said that the Eng
lish were tha first to declare a block
ade of German ports in order to starve-)
the nation to submit to their terms.
I have read your paper dally since
the war began, and it is my under
standing that Germany first declared
her Intention of starving England, and
that country retaliated with their long
distance blockade, and then not until
Germany had taken military possession
of all foodstuffs. Our point at Issue is
which country first proclaimed the
starving blockade. I know you have
made it plain many times in editor
ials, but we.forget - READER.
On December 2, 1914, Admiral von
Tirpitz, head of tho German navy de
partment, . announced the purpose of
Germany to starve England and to
strike terror into her civil population.
In January the German government
seized the entire food supply of the
empire and intrusted the distribution
among the civil population to Jocal of
ficials. On February 5 Germany pro
claimed the submarine blockade, to be
gin February 18, and on February 13
warned neutral nations to keep their
ships out of the war zone. On March
1 the British blockade against Ger
many began, its announced purpose
being, not to starve Germany, but to
destroy German commerce as a re
prisal for Germany's Inhuman methods
The sequence of events shows, that
the German submarine war was not
proclaimed in retaliation for the block
ade, for it antedated the blockade. The
first suggestion of starving out an
enemy came from Germany, not from
Britain. We have it on the authority
of British and neutral writers who have
traveled through Germany since war
began that Germany, can produce
enough food to supply her own peo
ple, hence cannot be starved out
THEIR EYE IS OX THE PUBLIC CRIB
Writer Thinks Prosecutors and Law.
ma kern Heed Politics Too Much.
PORTLAND, Aug. . (To the Ed
itor.) There has been considerable
said about Governor Withycombe's par
doning one A. Wolfman, and If we are
to "believe what some of the writers
say, our Governors are only the tools
or playthings of our courts and pros
ecuting attorneys. This has led me to
say a few things about Oregon laws
and the uses they are put to.
In the first place, it is a character
istic of American aa well as of Oregon
lawmakers entirely to overlook the
need or Justice of laws enacted. Just
so they do something; for they figure
that the number of bills they get passed
is their passport to another election,
Just as our prosecuting attorneys rely
on the number of convictions as pout'
ical timber. So our trusted officials
work not for Justice, but for another
feed at the public crib.
There is a mass of obsolete, tech
nical and unjust laws on the Oregon
statutes that enable an unscrupulous
lawyer, with the help of a bunch of de
tectives who work for the reward, to
railroad anyone, unless he is well lined
with gold, into the penitentiary. These
lawyers and courts, forsooth,- consider
themselves the whole thing, and it
seems they are in many cases the grand
Jury, tho trial Jury and the Governor.
Is it not a fact in a vast number of
cases that the prosecuting attorney's
word brings the indictment the Jury's
verdict and the Judge's decision. Our
prosecuting attorneys become our per
secutors instead of our protectors and
resort to anything and everything to
secure a conviction. Then .because a
Just Governor rights as far as possible
the wrong there Is a tremendous howl
because the Governor did not let a
Judge or attorney act in his official
capacity. The fact that 10 of the Jury
signed a petition for the pardon of
Wolfman In Itself is sufficient evidence
that there was a miscarriage of Jus
tice. Convictions without any reliable
evidence are altogether too numerous.
Too many innocent men have been
ruined and society and their families
deprived of a productive element, and
the taxpayers have to foot the bill.
Why is it that so many tnen have no
respect for our attorneys and courts?
This condition points to something rad
ically wrong, for a man, guilty or in
nocent respects a just-Judge and a Just
lawyer. Our attorneys, instead of
bringing out the truth, befog and mis
quote and twist the statutes until a
Jury is unable to understand what Is
We must have laws, but they should
be Just, and we need only a very few
of them. We must have 'Judges, but
they should not be politicians, and they
should be Independent of the prose
cuting attorneys as well as our Gover
nors. I am glad that we have a Gov
ernor who does not have to ask the
prosecuting attorney what he shall do.
DR. ERNEST EVEREST.
HOME RULE LIVES, SAYS REDMOND
Great Irish Nationalist Writes Op
tlmlstie Letter to Portland Citizen.
PORTLAND, Or., Aug. 6. (To the
Editor.) Recently The Oregonlan
printed a story under a date line of
Dublin, parenthetically credited to a
special correspondent, relating in
somewhat perfervid diction, that home
rule for Ireland was dead. The article
appeared in a prominent place and at
The matter was referred to the chair
man of the advisory board of the
United Irish League, of this city, who
took the matter up with the Hon. John
E. Redmond, leader of the Irish Par
liamentary party, and Mr. Redmond's
reply follows. J. H. M.
Aughavanagh, Aughrim, County Wlcklow,
July 20, 1915. Dear Mr. Callahan: I have
received your letter of the 4th July, with
tha lncloaed cutting. The "special corre
spondence" from Dublin Is manifestly the
work .of some pro-Oerman and anti-Irish
writer and is utterly beneath contempt,
The statements that "home ruia Is dead,
although it is a statute written In the laws
of the Imperial Parliament," la sufficient In
Itself to convict the writer or being either
a political fool or a bitter pro-German
enemy of the Irish National cause. Nothing
could be turtner xrom me trutn. 'ine nome
rule statute Is as firmly implanted in the
constitution of these countries as Magna
Charta. The only doubtrul question at
present Is, how long the war will last. The
moment it is over, at latest, and perhaps
long before that, the home rule act will
come in operation. '
I am delighted to read your statement
that 95 per cent of Irish-Americans are with
the allies without reservation. Tour state
ment is only one of many similar testimonies
which I have received rrora every part oi
the. United States.
Your family association with great historic
events in the National history of Ineland
makes your letter all the more agreeable to
receive. Very truly yours,
J. B. REDMOND.
New Doom Faces Famous
Venus of Mio
Loveliest of Pagan Idols in Danger of Being Mutilated Again!
The Sunday Oregonian
Sterling Heilig gives a vivid account of the history of this notable
statue and tells of the danger that besets it since its latest removal
from Paris, last August. An intimate account of this exquisite piece
of carved marble and it turbulent joumeyings is written in Mr.
Heilig's inimitable style and is illustrated with some of the most recent
photographs of the famous work of art, as a feature in The Sunday
NAVY FLIERS IN MID-OCEAN Another most interesting feature
of The Sunday Oregonian will be the detailed story" of the United
States' progress in developing this modern process , of war. The
Country's equipment in this branch of its National defense is told
in an understandable way.
PICTURES IN THE NIGHT Here is a short story 'that is a short
story; built on an unusual idea and written by Eugene Ackerman in
a way that is gripping and filled with appetizing narrative. There's
a note of romance in "Pictures in the Night" that is irresistible.
CONTROLLING THE COLOR OF CHILD'S HAIR AND EYES Dr.
Woods Hutchinson, eminent authority, discusses this interesting
problem and tells why it cannot be solved. ' This is one of Dr. Woods
Hutchinson's articles on health and the human anatomy. It is "dif
ferent." THE RED HARVESTER Read it! In 92 words George Willard Bonte
has written a rhymed and poetic review of the war. Read it!
HAPPIEST MARRIAGES If you are interested, read this crisp dia
logue and comment by Barbara Boyd. You will know when you have
read it if you are the dutiful wife or the negligent husband.
THE PRESIDENT A WAR LORD Do you know that the President
of the United States can make war anytime, although the power of
declaring war rests with Congress alone? Here is a timely topic
and a well-written story of the Nation's war-making machinery. It
. is filled with facts you will want to learn and remember.
GOING WRONG AND GETTING RIGHT The making of useful citi
ens of potential enemies of society is the theme for this feature on
one phase of the social problem. Going Wrong and Getting Right
the title tells a story in itself. It will appear in Section 6 of The
FOR THE CHILDREN An entire page and a half devoted to stories,
anecdotes, problems, puzzles and narrative for the children. The
Story of Prince Camaralzaman is a gem. The TEENIE WEENIES
continue to delve into Kid-lore.
OTHER FEATURES There are many other ideas developed in The
Sunday Oregonian and you will want to read of them. The news events
of the day will be covered up to the minute and THOROUGHLY.
Keep in touch with your friends at the beach resorts through the
comprehensive news reports of happenings at the ocean side. Learn
your town and state by reading the historical stories of life today
and yesterday which appear in The Sunday Oregonian.
Twenty-Five Years Ago
. From The Oregonlan of August T. 1690.
A. Ferrera has moved his office from
143 Front street to 47 Stark street,
near Third, where he will be pleased
to see all his old customers.
Messrs. Zan Bros, have received a
letter from Elmira on the West Coast
of Africa, wishing them to ship a lot
of goods there and take a lot of Afri
can produce in exchange. Members of
the firm are afraid if they send the
goods they may receive a consignment
of young natives, for which they have
no use. .
Hamburg, Aug 6. A Hamburg cor
respondent says: Kaiser Wilhelm will
spend,, nine days in his coming visit to
the Czar. The correspondent also says
that he will be accompanied by Chan
cellor von Caprivl and the Prince of
Union, Or.,-Aug. 6. John Dobbin, an
old and honored pioneer of Oregon,
died this morning at his residence in
this city. Mr. Dobbin came to this
city in 1862, and has been one of the
most prominent stockraisers in Eastern
Oregon ever since. He died of stomach
' Track laying J on the La Grande
Elgin branch will be commenced in a
few days, the engineers and officials
in charge of this part of the work
.having arrived. The completion of
this new road will mark a new era in
the history of La Grande.
Dave Ball's new sawmill at Cotton
wood, near Fossil, was .totally de
stroyed by Are Wednesday night. Loss
$3000, with no insurance.
A correspondent in the Astoria Pio
neer gives an account of faro and
poker games at Oysterville. Thousands
of dollars change hands in a single
t, i. mt n uncommon slirht to
weciv. ii o j V , ,
see two or three thousand dollars .on
the table at a single setting.
San Francisco, Aug 6. A prominent
commission house of this city estimates
the Oregon salmon pack of 1890 at
Half a Century Ago
From The Oregonlan of August 7, 1S65.
John O'Brien, a lad aged about 8
years, son of Mrs. O'Brien, living on
Taylor street, in this city, was found
dead under the Alder-street wharf yes
terday. He had been missing from his
home since Monday last. The last heard
of him was on that day, when he was
at the dock under the "What Cheer
Mr. N. Pearcey, of Sauvie's Island,
. , - - - ... tn.rloi' a nit Rhnwed
caiieu uii u mrav rf, - -
us his left arm, it having been restored
to him alter me acciuem. m
13 last, by which it was frightfully
shattered by the explosion of a gun
barrel. Twenty-six shot and several
particles of the gun were extracted,
the last two shot being taken out on
The match at the Union 'course on
Saturday was witnessed by a larpre
number of people, xne nrst neat waa
said to have been a pretty race, won
in 3 26. The second heat was won in
3:12. On Saturday next there will be
T-i n nAaw frnnurA bv the
steamer Cascade, from the Upper Co-
. i iiaa nnn
lumbla region last evenine..
was received from the Boise country
through Wells,. Fargo & Co. express.
1. 1 . K..n HlepflVArAll thnt Rh lift -
speare received but 5 pounds for "Ham
let." The best five-act plays In his
time brought a little over 6 pounds to
their authors. Boucicault made over
50,000 pounds from his "Colleen Bawn."
C- TT" rrt m-l f" ll Aliar R The fifth ift-
j. Vali- unrier the BUSClCeS Of
IA k 1 IU1 I .- -
the Mechanics' Institute, will open on
Wednesday evening, next. Frank W.
Pixley will deliver the opening ad
Auction United States Marsnai s
sale of opium and cigars, Saturday.
September z, ist, ai iu onucs
A. B. Richardson, auctioneer.
Coming Home at S P. M.
c-1 man we werft mnrried a vear
.Hi: ' " ' ' -
ago, I never expected to see you com
ing home at 2 in the morningn. He
Well, you wouldn't now If you'd only
go to bed and to sleep.