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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 3, 1915)
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' THE BUTISH BLOCavADlC
' By upholding the right of neutrals
to freedom ot the seas In opposition
both to the British blockade and to
, the German submarines Prealdent
M ilson has strengthened the Araen-
can position, for ha haa demonstrated
i; bis Impartiality In dealing with belllg.
erent violation of neutral rights. He
i has deprived both Germany and Brit
? aln of cause for complaint that he
favors either. The greater urgency of
i his demands on Germany Is due to no
J' leaning toward her enemies, but to the
fact that Germany destroys American
lives as well as American property,
J- while Britain takes American, prop-
arty alone. The principles of lnterna
: ttonal law Involved in both cases) are
J. tha same, but In tha case of Germany
the higher principles of humanity are
'. ' Involved. That fact Justifies tha em-
phaais which he has placed on his pro
i tests to Germany.
J Britain, like Germany, .claims the
- right to set aside International law as
T it existed at the opening of the war
' and to substitute a law she has her
self made to meet the necessities of
.'. nor position. Germany's plea is that
she haa a new weapon the submarine
1' which cannot ba used If Interna
'. tional law stands unchanged. Britain
retorts tiat Germany's action Justifies
' use of another new weapon the long
l range blockade which Is also un-
known to International law. The
"United States replies to both bellig-
ersnts that new weapons and devices
can be used only so far as their use
..conforms to the law of all nations.
The United States, as a sovereign pow.
7! er. can recognize that law alone, not
-: the law set up for the occasion by
any other nation, belligerent or not.
'.' Britain has been slow to apply the
; torn -blockade- to her embargo on
- German commerce, for she cannot ef
J.foctlvely blockade all German ports
- as the law of blockade requires. She
'. can and does blockade commerce with
German North Sea ports and orlth
"Germany through Dutch. Belgium,
" Danish and Norwegian ports on the
,'INcrth Sea. Hence she can lawfully
seize all vessels carrying goods through
T these neutral ports to and from Ger
t many. But she cannot blockade Ger-
man Baltic ports except so far as she
', . can close the Skagerrack to commerce,
"hence ships passing from Baltic ports
' of the Scandinavian countries to Bal
Vtic ports of Germany are not subject
to seizure under the law which Mr.
Here Is the main point of conten
tion. Britain points to the great In
crease In Scandinavian imports of
food, cotton and war munitions from
."the Cnlted States as proof that the
'Scandinavian countries are supplying
Germany on a large scale with Amer
' lean goods.- There is an active agita
tion In Britain to have cotton placed
-on the contraband list, as It Is ex
; tenslvely used In making ammunition.
If that were done, cotton imports to
L Scandinavia In transit to Germany
could be seized without a blockade.
Scandinavian countries! deny that their
Increased Imports from the United
States are destined for Germany. They
maintain that they are buying from
' this country goods to replace those
which they ordinarily obtain from
Germany. Britain hesitates to antag
onize the cotton Interests of the United
States by declaring cotton contraband,
but seeks fo prevent its Importation to
Germany by limiting Imports to the
'Scandinavian countries to the quan
tity which they consume In normal
; Britain defends her blockade against
American Imports to Germany through
'Scandinavia by citing the precedents
'.established by the United States In the
Civil War. Our Supreme Court then
:iaid down tha rule of continuous
voyage as applying to goods shipped
1 from England to Nassau In the Ba
'. liamas on their way to blockaded
Confederate ports. Such goods were
theld to be subject to confiscation be
cause their port of ultimate destination
was blockaded. Britain then refused
to be bound by that principle, but now
quotes It In support of ber action.
From the American standpoint It
' cauld be applied to North Sea ports.
: where tha blockade Is effective, but
- not to Baltic ports, for vessels can
' cross the Baltic Sea freely between
; Scandinavian and German ports.
While strenuously maintaining the
, legality of her action. Britain betrays
, consciousness that her position Is le-
gaily weak, for she does not exercise
"the full rtehts granted by the law of
t blockade. Were the blockade effective
against an German ports, she could
confiscate all ships and cargoes go
ing to and from those ports, either
- directly or .by way of neutral ports.
In fact, she confiscates only those
ships and cargoes which would be for-
' felted by capture, even were there no
pretense of a blockade. She buys, or
sells for, the benefit of the owner, non
contraband goods and releases the
".ships which carry them. She buys
all cotton cargoes which she Inter
cepts. She permits Norway and Swe
Jen to import enough cotton for nor
mal domestic needs and she permits
Holland to carry on her commerce
. unhindered on condition that no for
" elgn imports cross the frontier into
'Germany. These measures may be
-designed to mollify neutrals, but they
seem also to be prompted by knoul
' edge that her action is not legally de
fensible, and by fear that, when all
cUlms growing out of the war come
before an International court for adju
dication, she will be mulcted In heavy
While no action so far taken by
Great Britain and her allies calls for
forcible action by the United 8tates,
2Jr. Wilson does well to maintain to
the full in diplomatic correspondence
cur rights ss a -neutral Nation. He
thereby not only saves our rights for
future settlement, but fortifies him
celf in dealing with Germany by Icar-
ing that country no opening to charge
this Nation with partiality. He can
the more lirmly inaUt that Germany
yield to his demand, since he is equal
ly firm in his attitude toward her
HISTORY REPEATING ITSELP.
A reader sends to The Oregonian a
marked copy of the New York Tri
bune, which nas reproduced, aa perti-
nent to the present times, the con
cluding page of volume II, Macaulays
"History of England." It Is a descrip
tion of the conditions which surround
ed the English Revolution (1689) and
led to the enthronement of William
and Mary. It Is:
All around n tho world ia convnlaad by
tfao igonkf or great nations. Govornraenta
wbieb Utolr aoornoa likely to stand durins
asa hava been oa a auddeo shaken and
overthrown. Tha proodeot capital" of West
ern Europo hare atreamed with blood. All
evil pouiobi. tho thirst of sain and tha
thirst of venseanee. tho antipathy of claaa
to rlaaa, tho antipathy of race to rare, bava
broken loco from Iho control or divine and
human laws. Fear and aaztety have clouded
the face and depressed the hearts of mil
lions. Trade haa been suspended and In
dustry paralysed. The rich have become
poor: and the poor haoo become poorer.
Doctrtaea boetlle to all sciences, to all arts,
to all Industry, to all domestic charities,
dortrtaea which. If carried Into effect woulj
In SO years undo all that 50 oenturies bave
done for mankind, and would make the
fairest provinoco of France and Germany aa
. m rnmk end Pataaonla. have been
avowed from tha tribune and defended by
tha aword. Europo haa beeo threatened
with sohjusatlnn by barbarlana compared
with whom Iho barbanane who marched
nnrfer Anna and Alboln were enllshtened
and humane. The truest mends of tha peo
ple have with deep Borrow owned that ln-
teresta more precious man iw """--
rtrlleeeo wero In leopardv. and that It
mlsht bo necessary to sarrlftca even liberty
ta order to sava civilisation.
There Is nothing new under the sun.
Mayor Albea very Intelllsently Insists thst
In the recent vote on meters the people did
not take a position asalnst permlttms thoeo
who want meters to bave them, and bla In-
supplying meters to thoeo who ask for them.
Mr. Oleca looa, ino oamo view. -
It Is an Interpretation of the vote
of tha people that might be applied
In numerous otner instances to ms
great gratification of the minority.
And it la really too bad. now that we
look back on troublesome days of yore,
that this cheerful conception of a
pleblclte was not born earlier.
Th.r. wero tha inner veara when
the woman suffragists were seeking
the ballot and were denied it by the
vn I. nnno of the defeats that
occurred prior to the 11S victory,
alas, was there a single one to "in
telligently Insist" that the people did
not take a position against permitting
those women who wanted to vote to
bave the privilege.
Rut thero ara other Issues to which
this broad and learned view of the
sanctity of the people's will may yet
apply. The people have voted down
slns-le tax. Of course land owners who
do not wish to have their lmprove
mente and nrnnTial rtronert v taxed
should not be denied the exemption. As
to prohibition, unquesnonaoiy me peo
ple have merely ruled that those who
don't want to sell or manufacture in
toxicants shall be the only ones de
prived of that right.
Mr. Albee, Mr. DIeck and Mr. Daly
have missed their calling. iney
should have been Philadelphia law
yers. There are some plausible sub
terfuges for every legal and mora! ob
ligation. Predatory wealth la said to
pay high prices for the services of
men who are adept at discovering
NOT DVK TO POLITICIANS.
The New Tork Evening Post, com
menting upon the retirement of Mr.
K. H. Newell as director of the recla
mation service, declares that the "Na
tion can 111 spare Mr. Newell and what
he represents." and that "Western po
litical lnfluencea are one explanation
of the reorganization- pf the reclama
tion branch of tha Interior Depart
ment. It has never been publicly explained
why Mr. Newell, after years of serv
ice as chief engineer and director of
the reclamation service, has been re
tired, but so far as the Post intimates
that Western political Influences have
advanced an unworthy end, it is sadly
mistaken. Western political influences
have had precious little to say for
long years about the conduct of the
reclamation service. The Senators
from Oregon, for example, have had
almost nothing to say. Oregon has
been sadly mistreated and overlooked,
and there is no present prospect that
the future has anything better In store.
The probable reason of Director
Newell's retirement is not "Western
political Influences," but Imperative
necessity of a change. The extraordi
nary engineering miscalculations of
the Government's agents and the well
nigh hopeless financial muddle of the
whole service may or may not be
traceable to Mr. Newell, but it was in
evitable that he be held responsible.
If there was a Government project to
put through on the basis of the origi
nal Washington estimates, and com
pleted to the satisfaction of the Gov
ernment and the settlers. The Oregon
ian would like to know where it is.
Now Congress has taken from the
Interior Department the disposal of
the reclamation funds, and The Secre
tary of the Interior will no longer
make any arbitrary money apportion
ments. We are to have appropria
tions made for reclamation Just as for
rivers and harbors. ItvWiH be inter
esting now to see whether our Sena
tors and Representatives have any
"pull" with Congress. They have had
only a weak one with the bureaucrats
of the Interior Department.
HI MAN 1TRK VSQIKSCMABLK.
Facts of history do not bear out Dr.
G. Stanley Hall's belief that war
quenches the fire of the human Tace.
True, after a long, exhaustive war a
nation usually rests from fighting, but
the fire flares up again In a genera
tion or two.
No country was ever more exhausted
than Prussia after the Thirty Years
War. but eight years later she was
fighting Poland and twenty-eeven
years later she drove the Swedes from
Pomerania. A century after that war
she was raised to the front rank
among European powers by the wars
of Frederick the Great. She has grown
in strength at every point until she
now hesds a great empire, which ia
among the first In commerce, science,
art and industry and now, with her
allies, combats two-thirds of Europe.
There Is no ot quenched fire in
The Nupoleonic wars might have
been expected to quench the fires of
both France and Britain, both of
which continued the contest for twen
ty years, but the succeeding century
has been a period of Intellectual and
virile progress for both nations. In
dustry, science and art have thriven,
armies have upheld the best traditions
of both nations in war. and they arc
now allies In a struggle. which proves
the present generation no whit in-
ferior to those which fought for and
There would be more truth in the
saying that the fires of truly virile na
tions are unquenchable, and that they
burn the brighter for the strife which
seems to exhaust them In flame. In
such times aa these it is natural for
minds of a certain mold to presage the
degeneration of the human race
through war's destruction, but a new
generation arises excelling the old. as
was proved by the Eglinton tourna
ment. British noblemen of 1839 found
ho armne worn bv their feudal an
cestors too small tor their more stal
wart forms. So may we hope that
the men and women of 2015 will ex
cel those of 1915 in brain, physique
and moral stature.
A PATRIOT AND BRTAX.
Ex-Presldent Taft telegraphs to the
New York World that the latest note
to Germany "succinctly, forcibly and
finally presents the Just attitude of the
United States, and President Wilson
will have and should' have the ap
proval of the American people in
A noble sentiment from a whole
some and patriotic American. There
Is nothing of guile or deceit or of sub
terranean statecraft about Mr. Taft.
He Is no whited sepulcher. He does
not offer a smiling exterior of fair
weather agreement with the Presi
dent's war-time policies, and yet deal
foul blows of secret opposition by
striving to incite the American peo
ple to revolt against them. Not Taft.
No one haa seen from William Jen
nings Bryan, who falsely pretends to
be helping the President toward the
goal of peace, a word or a syllable
approving the third Wilson letter to
SIR, BRYAN ONCE MORE.
Tn f Rrran'i estimation every
person who does not approve his
Deaca oollcy is a Jingo, tivery per
son who opposes his economic policy
is a plutrocrat. Conversely, every
person who approves his peace pol
icy Is a neace advocate, though -war De
its legal .outcome. No person who
approves his economic theories is a
plutrocrat. no matter how rich he
in his sweeDlnc denunciation of an
who Aa not rearard his neace treaties
as the best security for peace, Mr.
Bryan classes together as jingoes Dotn
thrum who would make the Nation
safe against attack by adequate Na
tional defense and those who would
provoke war by foreign adventure or
by fighting over every international
rllfflrultv. Advocates of a stronger
Army and Navy may yield nothing
to Mr. Bryan and his adherents in
their abhorrence of war. They dis
agree with him by regarding his peace
treaties as a worthless bulwark
against . nations which look upon
treaties 'as scraps of paper and by
regarding war as a less evil than na
tional humiliation. They Include such
stalwart Democrats as Secretary Gar
rison and SDeaker Champ ciarK ana
the great majority of the Democratlo
party as well as the great body of
the Republican party.
In stigmatizing as plutrocrats those
who fail tn sea eve to eve with him
on economic questions, Mr. Bryan dis
plays his innate Pharisaism. He ana
his like embody all the virtues, and
his ononents all the vices. In hia es
timation those rich men only are plu
tocrats who oppose mm. jr a man
annlauda him. that man is no pluto
crat, however rich he may be and
however his wealth may have been
acquired. To him there is nothing
unseemly In prostituting the office of
Secretary of State to grab Chautauqua
dollars, nor in giving positions of
trust to men whose sole qualification
is that they are deserving Democrats,
nnr in carjitalizinaT a reputation as a
demagogue for the establishment of a
Mr. Bryan has unwittingly paid a
feth xcmniiment to The Oreeonian
by denouncing it. The Oregonian has
almost invariably disagreed with Mr.
Bryan on public questions, and mat
fact haa strengthened Its confidence
in the soundness of Its views.
an m whether The Oreeonian serves
the people of Mammon, those who
know It best can Judge best. Cer
tainly the plutocrats have not been
highly pleased by its support of direct
legislation, the direct primary, popu
lar election of senators, currency re
form, railroad regulation and the In
come tax, nor by its opposition to an
excessive tariff, ship subsidies and
frnt Those serve the people best
who discriminate between the truth
and the fallacies of men who, with loud
professions of devotion to tne pudiic
interests, strive to lead the people
nto disastrous error.
NOW THE GASOLINE HORSE.
nna of tha 'important elements in
h mnunllnr rout Of llvlnaT is the
ititcworH mnvnment of the Deople. In
the last census decade the increase
of land in tarms ine country over woo
t.. m e ... .hll. In ee f f hp
OUIjr v.o jver " . ...
states there was an actual decrease.
Theodore H. Price, writing in the Out
look, predicts that If the tendencies
which these figures disclose continue
for the next twenty years tne eco
nomic situation will become intoler-
ble. The hope lies in making tne
farm more attractive.
Thr. io e-rent virtue In carrying so
cial attractions to the Tural communi
ties: solution of marketing proDiems
wouldadd to the attractiveness of
farm life. These may be provided.
but there are still the long hours or
.rrf.,no tnii which In EDite of agrl-
culture's superior Independence, drive
youth in countless numoers w tne
easier life of the towns and cities.
The age of machinery exists every
kr arMti nn tha farm. True the
owner of great acres finds that his
needs have been fairly well supplied
by Inventive genius, and In the last
half century invention of harvesting
ppllances has given vaiuaDie sssisi
n human enerarv. But the aids
t.. onltlvHtfon have been Incidental. In
some work the farmer may now ride
Instead of walk, but nis nours oi la
bor have not been materially short
ened. Incidentally machinery may
draw the water, separate the milk
rmm th, rmni and aid his wife in
butter making, but to perform his
larger tasks tne general larmer oi
oderste resources must work rrom
inup till sundown.
Since the perfection of the gas en
ine there has been a potential de
on,t for a farm tractor that would
serve more than one purpose and still
within tne means ox ino oruiuau
farmer. The farm- tractors on the
arkct are costly Implements ana not
.jnnrtmin vnliiA on the small farm.
They are ponderous machines, pri-
.... . . ji .i
amy oesignea to pio,
rrow on largo rancnes or Droaa es-
:e. Machines of more general util-
huvo heon invented. Jbut their addi
tional capacities are largely In sup-
pljlng power Xor other machinery,
such as corn shelters, pumps and
threshers. They are not adapted to
the cultivating process or the hauling
of produce to market. They, too, are
costly and ponderous.
In the substitution of gasoline pow
er for animal traction on the ordi
nary farm Mr. Price sees the solvent
by which the farmers' difficulties will
be resolved and the movement from
the land stayed. The small, practical
tractor has been developed, he believes.-
Imagine a little gasoline
wagon that will pull a plow cutting
an eight-Inch furrow through a heavy,
rank, unbroken field, pull a twenty-
four-disc harrow weighted to cut the
ground about four Inches, draw multi
ple cultivators through the young corn
at four miles an hour or haul four
tons of produce to town.'
Given such a tractor at a cost of
$200 a machine that could do the
work of four horses and the farmer
will have . a convenience that repre
sents a smaller Investment than one
team of draft animals and that
takes away materially from his early
and late chores. It is such a machine
that Henry Ford has now perfected.
Mr. Ford has discarded the theory
that a tractor must have weight Nat
urally it was necessary to discard
that theory to get down to a low cost
Weight requires greater power and
greater power means higher initial
cost and greater expense of opera
tion. Grip plus a maximum of pow
er used not in operating the tractor,
but in doing the tractor's work, was
the ideal sought. It Is like the story
of the cat chased up a tree by a dog.
The cat", said Mr. Ford, "didn't have
weight: she had traction."
The substitution of the gasoline
horse for the living flesh on the farm
ought not to be an idle dream. The
gas engine has revolutionized high
way transportation. Whereas, like the
prewent-day weight tractor, the first
automobiles were for the convenience
of the wealthy, the automobile has
now developed Into a universal neces
sity procurable In all grades ana
at all prices. Automobile produc
tion is the one conspicuous manufac
turing industry -in the arts of peace
that has not suffered by the derange
ment of world affairs.
The farmer is the auto manufac
turer's best customer. He is not timid
In the face of mechanical mysteries.
He was quite ready to discard the team
and buckboard for the swifter gas-
propelled vehicle. The small tractor
will not be looked upon by him as an
impractical toy. The autombbile has
nrefared him for IK When it has mit
igated the hardship of agricultural
life, converts to tho back-to-the-land
gospel will be more noted for their
works than for their talk.
Were the United States to permit
specific compliance with its demands
to hang fire or to remain subject to
the will of German naval officials, this
Nation would Justly be held, to have
relaxed its determination to exact . a
direct answer to the questions we have
put to her, namely:
Whether Germany approves tha Lualtanla
Whether Germany will mane reparation
for that maeaacre.
Whether Germany will give assurances
that no more each murdera of Americans
wlil ba committed.
Until those questions are answered
In the manner we have demanded, our
dispute with Germany will remain un
settled, and we shall still hold her
guilty of a crime for which she has
not atoned arid which she is ready to
' ' .
The attempt to expurgate French
and English words from the German
language reduces to an absurdity in
ternational hatred. From time im
memorial conquerors have adopted
the language ' of the conquered and
vice versa. Men use the most con
venient words to express ideas with
out regard to origin.
Once It becomes known that a thirty-four-inch
trout, weighing over
eleven pounds, has been caught in
Southern Oregon fishermen from the
wide world will make the pilgrimage.
Conversation must halt In Norway,
since it is unsafe for anybody to
mention the subject which is upper
most in all minds without risking a
Even if Howard Spaulding has only
a dower right In his wife's estate, he
will be able to live without work. A
half or third of J30.000.000 Is not to
Russia's promise of autonomy to
Poland wbuld be received with less
skepticism If it were not made at a
time when she needs the help of the
It would be Just like the Kaiser to
push things both ways, suggesting to
Kitchner that it is a long time since
May, when the war was to begin.
Britain may be financially able to
fight the war to a finish, but her
wealth will be' more effective when
converted into guns and shells.
The Jute trade may' be brisk, but
abolition of capital punishment in
some states gives warning of depres
sion hi the hemp trade.
It was time that Russia gave France
and Britain a hint to lay aside their
tatting and do some fighting. The
bear can't do it all. . .
O'Donovan Rossa had an elegant
funeral, and that Is some comfort. His
body rests under the old sod, in the
Alarmists will see another recruiting
base .in the big sugar plantation in
Hawaii Just bought by a Japanese
Suppose, when two lawyers seem to
be anxious to fight, the Judge should
step down and let them, would they
do so? '
' Might as -well drop a few more of
tho Northwestern League and enlarge
the "Coast Defenders" next year.
Dr. Hoxamer may have been born
in the United States, but he is not an
American at heart.
If .your ancestor was transported,
take a look at the ship that carried
Twelve Inches of deficiency and a
mighty hot month in which to make
Easy, Villa, easy. The American
Government will not go there.
Russia must fight alone. The al
lies seem to be In a deadlock.
Some of these osteopaths do not
look so bony as might be expected.
European War Primer
By National Geographical Society.
Through the government of Lomzha,
where the right wing of Field Marshal
von Hindenburgs army began its bat
tles for Warsaw and the way beyond
the Bug, the battle tide has ebbed and
flowed in decisive waves since the
war's outbreak. From this northeast
ern corner of 1 Russian Poland, the
forces of the Czar smashed their way
deep into East Prussia, and they were
thrown back this way by the re
inforced Germans upon their fortresses
of Osowiec, Kolno and Ostrolenka.
The ground in the north of the gov
ernment has been fought over a num
ber of times, and Just recently have
the Germans swept over the first line
of defenses toward the southwest and
the southeast. A description of this
interesting battle., amphitheater fol
lows: e e e
The government of Lomzha is one
of the dreariest regions in Russian
Poland. Extensive marshes spread
over much of its area, particularly fol
lowing the banks of the Narew River,
as it winds its way southwest toward
its confluence with the Vistula, north
of Warsaw. The Bug forms the south
ern boundary of the government, and
Is one of the last obstacles to a march
on Warsaw from the north. In parts
of its course, the banks ot the Bug are
worn in deen terraces, and, likewise.
the bed of the Narew is cut so deep
in parts as to give the country a hilly
appearance. Clayey, wire-grass tufted
swamps fill in much of the monoton
oua picture of this region with dingy
rust and brown.
Just to the north of the government
lies the Masuren Lake region of East
Prussia. The same stinging, moist
cold, the same leaden skies, and the
same hot. breathless Summers hang
over the Polish district as those found
In East Prussia. The Winters here are
the bitter Winters of the Russian
plain, where the snow crystals snap
and crack like powdered ice under
runners or the tread of heavy boots.
The cold and northern storms set in
about the middle of November.
- e . e e
The . government Is primarily agri
cultural. It has an - area of 4666
square miles, much, of which is taken
up by grain, fiber, potato and stock
farms. The chief crops are rye, oats.
wheat, barley, buckwheat peas, pota
toes, flax and hemp. The potato crop
Is used. .In part, for the manufacture
of alcohol. This is carried on in nu
merous distilleries within the govern
ment The flax and hemp find their
disposition in home factories, in the
factories of Lodz, and in export.
Geese probably, the distinctive prod
uct of Russian Poland, and one which
in the past has taken a valiant part
tn supplying the German Empire with
its untold tons of gooseflesh and its
acres of goose-feathered bedding are
found in countless white and grayish
white herds throughout Lomzha. Bee
keeping is also a profitable part of
The country, in the Lomzha govern
ment is mostly flat monotonous or
slightly undulated, except in stretches
in the north and southwest Except
for river crossings and forest belts, it
is open for the passage of troops. Its
roads, as are all roads in Poland and
in Russia, are very bad. In the east
of the' government and stretching away
to the fortress of Osowiec in the gov
ernment of Grodno are heavy forest
tracts. There ase no rail communica
tions in the government except that
which connects the fortress Osv-olenka
with the main Jine between Warsaw,
Grondo and Vilna.
Kovno. the key to the railway sys
tern of northwestern Russia, behind
which the Germans are endeavoring to
strike the great interior lines, is the
central fortress in- the Russian north
western chain of frontier strongholds.
It stands at the confluence of the Nie
men and the Viliya Rivers, east of
Central East Prussia. Petrograd- lies
550 miles by railroad to the north
west, while, behind Kovno, and between
this fortress and Fetrograa, tne rcus
sian plain is strewn as thickly with
lakes as fallow meadow lands with
July and August daisies. Mltau
Kovno, Grodno and Lemberg He nearly
In the same line, north and south, and
Jvovno rorms me normern lenimia-
tion of the line of the Bug, to which
the Russians may retreat and of
which Brest Litovsk forms the central
e e e
The railway from Eydtkuhnen, East
Prussia, to Vilna runs through Kovno,
and. at its terminus. Joins the trunk-
line between Warsaw ana -etrograa,
which the Germans are endeavoring to
sever. Kovno is a fortress of the first
class and has been considerably
strengthened In recent years. Its
main defense consists of a girdle oi
11 forts, surrounding' the town in an
arc with a radius of about 2H miles.
The work of the river Junction is an
important feature of the city's
strength. Here, it is guarded by three
forts in the direction of Vilna, one of
which commands . the Vilna bridge.
The fortress is 55 miles from the East
Kovno has shared In the expansion
caused by the demands of tke present
generation of Russians for a home in
dustry of sufficient development to
hasten the supply,of the young nation
with the material elements of modern
civilization. It has developed several
important metal industries, and has
large factories producing nails, wire.
barbed wire and machines. It nas
also developed a large commission busi
ness, and was an important entrepot
for timber, cereals, flax, flour, spirits,
fish, coal and buildmg stone products
of trade between Western Russia and
Prussia. It has a population of about
75.000. Kovno was founded in the
11th century, and, between 1384 and
1398, it was a possession of the Teu
Sues Canal Traffic.
The Suez canal traffic for 19J4 Ii
not sufter the diminution that might
have been expected as a result of the
war. In 1913 a total of 5085 vessels
passed through the'canal: In 1914 the
number was 4802. Of these vessels the
vast majority were British: other na
tions In 1914 were represented in this
order: German. Dutch, French, Aus
trian. Italian. Japanese, Russian, Dan
ish, Greek. Swedish, Norwegian, Span
ish, Turkish, Siamese, American, Per
sian. Satisfaction of Applicant.
Houston (Texas) Post
"Want a Job, eh?" "Tes, sir; I am
looking for a place where there is
plenty of work." "I am sorry, but
there would not be enough, work here
to keep you busy an hour a day."
"That's plenty of work for me, sir."
Call From a Pasaiosmte Poet.
"You see," said the country editor.
"I have printed your poem." "Thank
you," responded the poet. "I suppose
I shall receive remuneration according
to your usual tariff." "Tariff? My
good man, poetry is on the free list."
Discharge of a Chauffeur.
Chuggerton How's your chauffeur?
Carr Had to Are him; he used to be a
motorman. Chuggerton Too reckless,
eh? Carr Reckless, nothing! Why.
I couldn't break him of the habit of
slowing up at crossings.
Enquiry of a Suitor.
Her Father You've been calling on
my daughter for some time, young
man. Why don't you come down to
business? .. Suitor Very well! How
much are you going to leave her?
OWN POCKET PLACE FOIl DOLLAR
Home Merchant lie Blarht to Coin That
Can Be saved by Trading Eloewhere.
CLATSKANIE, Or- Aug. 1. (To the
Editor.) I am interested in the com
munications of .Harry Cummings and
F. W. Rowland! I did not know, that
Mr. Cummings' kind are legion, but am
glad to hear it But I differ with Mr.
Rowland in that he Is either misin
formed or easily deceived. Rather the
I am one of those individuals who
see no honor in putting a dollar in a
country merchant's pocket when I can
keep it in my own, in spite of the divi
dends of the mail-order houses.
I am not sure Mr. Cummings got a
13.50 pair of shoes lor $1.85. But from
my own experience I know if he had
paid $3.50 for them at home, he could
have sent and goi two pairs like it
away from home, almost. He would
have gotten a $1.85 pair for $3.50. Some
difference? I can get a pair of shoes
here for $3.50 which will last two
months, for a lad. I can get as good
in Portland for $1.95. For $3.50 in Port
land I can get a shoe which will last
the whole school year. When will the
drummer and the merchant realize
that to sell an inferior article at a
superior price will put both out of
I have seen a drummer drive a mer
chant out of business. Have you? I.
like all well-informed and not-easily
deceived people, hate to be "held up."
I bring my eggs into town and get a
half-cent below market price, in trade.
The merchant makes a profit on my
eggs and his goods. Next time I send
them to Portland for- cash. 1 have a
dollar in my pocket extra. But tha
merchant says that dollar should be in
his pocket: then I would be an "honor"
to the "community." Is the storekeeper
of so much better clay than the rest
A friend recently said he saved $7.50
on a $30 order for groceries by order
ing from Portland, comparing with
pric.es here. On 60 pounds of lard he
saved enough to pay for the money
order, freight and hauling, and had
10 cents to put in his other pocket.
Mr. Cummings' "shrewd ability"
comes from knowledge. And if the
mail-order houses continue sending out
catalogues there will be more people
with that same "ability." Haste the
day when it will be an honor to the
community for a man to keep in his
own pocket the dollar the storekeeper
Will the small-town merchant go to
the wall? Do you think I care if the
merchant has to dig for a living as
some of us do? If so, you have an
other "think" coming.
MRS. W. P. SCHNEIDER.
FICKLE f SiO, MERELY SENSIBLE
Bryan Knows a Good Thins to Drink
When He Finds It
New York Tribune.
Of course a man has a right to
change his tipple, and so he has to
harvest his whiskers or grow a beard.
But when from long association he has
become identified in the public mind
with one thing or another of this sort
he Is really under some obligation to
remain constant to early choice. Other
wise the anguish caused cartoonists
and headling writers and the utter
havoc wrought In the popular vocabu
lary Hopelessly outweigh the slight ad
vantage to him In convenience or com
fort which the change brings.
For this reason his countrymen will
hope that Mr. Bryan's taste for the
Juice of the Loganberry will only tem
porarily eclipse his - passion for the
Juice of the grape. Aside from the
widespread mental readjustment which
such fickleness on his part threatens,
the Loganberry is by no means as well
known a fruit as the grape and it has
far too many syllables. To have our
former Secretary of State return from
the Pacific Coast wearing a Van Dyck
beard would be less of a catastrophe.
Some few months before the Euro
pean war broke out last year, it was
reported trora Vienna that the Emperor
Franz Josef had scandalized the court
barber by. suggesting one morning that
in the near future he shave off the royal
side whiskers. The barber pleaded with
him in vain against such sacrilege, and
then appealed to the members of the
royal family, who, In consternation,
called a family council. Together they
finally persuaded the aged monarch to
forget his mad fancy, but not until it
had been explained to him that all the
coins would have to be restamped, and
new plates made for all the stamps and
paper currency; that old portraits of
the Emperor would have to be recalled
and new ones distributed broadcast at
great cost, and all kinds and conditions
of insignia altered tne wnoie not lm
probably resulting in a revolution
which would shake his throne to its
The case of Mr. Bryan and his grape
juice differs in degree only, not in
kind. With our foreign relations in
such a delicate state, has he not
already caused domestic disturbance
I met a woman on the way.
Her smile was sweet her hair was
Her dress was dear and nifty.
Her face breathed forth such rare con
I asked her what such radiance meant
She said: "Sir, I am fifty." .
I knew somewhat the. life of care
That dimmed her eye and grayed her
I knew that she was thrifty.
I thought-of battles hardly won.
Of work from dawn till set of sun.
From twenty up to fifty.
And then I thought of daughter fair.
And knew the love they both would
Till daughter, too, was fifty.
I thought me of her sturdy son.
Whose work in life was well begun.
And wished that I were fifty.
If we could, like this woman dear,
With radiance crowned, give all good
The years when we were fifty.
If we could see, through good work
Our lives prolonged in maid and son.
Dear 3od, we d all be fifty. -
HORACE WILLIAM MACNEAL.
Germany's JVaval Power. .
PORTLAND, Aug. 2. (To the Edi
tor.) To settle a bet, will you kindly
tell me which has the greatest num
ber of superdreadnoughts, building and
built, the United btates or Germany,
and the number? READER.
It is impossible to give a definite an
swer, as a distinctlion between dread
noughts and superdreadnoughts is not
commonly made in naval intelligence.
Moreover, Germany is more or less
secretive as to size, speed and arma
ment of her largest battleships and
every possible cloak of secrecy has
been thrown over her naval building
since the outbreak of the war.
Classifying dreadnoughts as battle
ships having a main battery of guns 11
inches or more in caliber, Germany, on
July 1, 1914, had 13 dreadnoughts built
and seven building; the United States,
eight built and four building.
Glaaa Cansea 9800 Blaae.
New York Sun.
A house was nearly burned down in
New York recently because some one
had left a- magnifying glass leaning
against a wicker sewing basket. The
glass caught the rays of the noon sun,
focused them on the inflammable ma
terial In the basket, a blaze followed.
and before the fireman put it eut $S00
damage had resulted, "
Twenty-Five Year Ago
From The Oregonian. August 8. 1S90.
Cresson Springs, Pa., A.ug. 2. Presi
dent Harrison's sojourn at Cresson
during the greater part of the months
of August and September is now a
fixed fact The Presidential house
hold will leave Cape May cottage
about the 12th inst., and take up their
residence for the Summer in their
beautiful mountain home. Parke cot
tage, and the President himself, it Is
expected, will follow within a week.
Tne steamer State of California ar
rived from San Francisco at 9:30
o'clock last evening.
Citizens of Salem freely contributed
fruit of all kinds with which to feast
the Mystic Shriners as they passed
through that city last evening.
Chief Morgan withdrew all the
fire apparatus, except the reserve en
gine, from the North Pacific mill yes
terday. He said last night that the
fire was about out He had been fight
ing eight and a half days.
Rev. D. O. Ghormley, pastor of the
Presbyterian Church, is taking a
month's vacation, and his pulpit is be
ins filled by Rev. Mr. Day.
City Attorney J. V. Beach and wife
are at Turner's Station, on the South
D. P. Thompson, J. W. Vawter and
others have made application to the
Controller of the Currency to have au
thorized the organization of the Na
tional Bank of Med ford. Or., with a
capital stock of $60,000. The bank will
take the place of the present Bank of
Medford, of which Mr. Vawter is man
ager, and is expected to be in opera
tion on the new basis about October 1.
Mr. H. B. LItt who Is now in Paris,
sends to The Oregonian the dally papers
or that city containing accounts of the
celebration there of the anniversary
of the fall of the Bastile, which are
Mrs. Lyman Abbott, .wife of tho suc
cessor to Henry Ward Beecher as
pastor of the Plymouth Church, Is to
become one of the editors of the Ladles'
Home Journal- on September 1, next.
Half a Century Ago
From The Oreeonian of August 3, 1S65.
It is said that Messrs. Moore and
Fosus have actually effected a sale of
their mining interests in Owyhee to a
New York firm for $1,000,000.
The California Farmer, the oldest
agricultural paper on this Coast has
commenced its 24th volume. It is a
complete farmer's guide, and should be
on every ranch.
The Missouri constitution excludes
from the ballot box all rebel soldiers.
Knights of the Golden Circle, Sons of
Liberty, O. A. K.'s; forbids compensa
tion for emancipated slaves and pro
vides for an efficient registration of
The steamer Webfoot was yesterday
discharging a cargo of alder bark,
and a scow which she had in tow lay
alongside with a load of the same
material, in all probability 100 cords,
at the foot of Yamhill street which
is for use at our tanneries. The qual
ity of alder bark for the purposes of
making a good article of leather
causes considerable demand for it, and
we learnr there is an abundance of it
to be obtained in most places along
the Willamette and Columbia rivers.
The funeral of the late Mrs. J. R.
Cafdwell will take place from the
Presbyterian Church today at 10:30
The union men of Vermont have
nominated Paul Dillingham for Gov
ernor and A. B. Gardner for Lieutenant-Governor
of that state.
On the 6th day of June, A. D. 1S65.
W. Noe Parrish, of Yamhill County,
State of Oregon, was Joined In mar
riage to Sarah Jane Beaver, of Yam
hill County, state aforesaid, by Israel
L. Clark, minister of the Christian
THE SWEET IDEAL IS THERE.
I'm a soul born today
Of Life's slow cosmic play.
Eons long, long ago,
I fought struggled and climbed
With the brute round me twined;
Vaguely yearning, I dreamed
Of the sweet joy that gleamed
In my dawning ego,
Then blazed the psychic flame
Lo, this thinking I came!
This marvelous mind, whence?
This longing soul, and hence?
. At either end the veil
The mystery deepens
The mind's keenest weapons.
Searching as a star's light
When piercing deepest night
Can find no hidden trail;
Why the bravesoul despair?
The sweet ideal is there.
In youth's golden morning.
Ere manhood's ripe dawning.
The ideal came to me;
Oh, how it shlned and twined,'
And so tenderly climbed
Into this soul of mine.
Like a flowering vine
'Mongst the leaves of a tree;
Through my soul's gates ajar
Shines this sweet day-dream star.
The songs and visions dear
Of prophet, psalmist, seer.
The dreams that filled with light
The poet's heart of fire;
Tunes from Apollo's lyre,
Tha wisdom of sages.
Coming down the ages.
Are my own free birthright;
Mine to drink of my fill.
To enjoy,' If I will.
Tis the ideal gleaming
That sets the soul dreaming
So. sweetly in the night;
Though Summer friends betray.
And plighted love fades away.
Riches elude and laugh,
And Fate pricks with his gaff.
While Hope turns off the light;
Still the sweet Ideal wiles.
And the singing heart smiles.
Why fear ye doubting hearts.
Why the trembling soul starts?
The Eternal knows best:
I but came up through Time,
This thinking soul of mine
Cannot stay here alway;
Mayhap supernal day
Will be mine, or sweet rest;
He doeth all things well
The curtain drops, farewell!
J. T. Ford.
The "Speed-Up" message has gone
out In many lines of industry.
Orders are coming in. Business is
. This will be ai active Fall season.
Sales will be larger and failures
The signs all say, "Push for Busi
The man who lags Is going to
INVITE PEOPLE TO BUT TOUR