Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, April 17, 1915, Page 6, Image 6

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Entered at Portland. Oregon, Postoftice
fttconn-ciasa mattr.
fcuiwcription ilatea Invariably In advance:
(Br Mail.)
Paily. Sunday included, one year. .... .9 8,00
J-'Hiiv, umlay included, vix months....
T'aily. Sunday included, three months.
rAily. Sunday included, one month.... .70
raliy, without Sunday, one year....... 6.00
I'nily, without Sunday, six months.. ... S.113
Illy, witnout Sunday, three months. 1.75
Daily vlihout Sunday, one moot'a 60
Weekly, one year.. 1.60
Putirtay, one year 2.60
Sunday and. Weekly, one year 8.60,
(By Carrier.)
Daily, Sunday Included, one year $8.00
Dally, Sunday Included, one month..... .73
How to Remit Send Postoffiee money or.
der. eprea order or persunal check on your
local bink. StampM, coin or currency are at
nenuera rita. uive poatoxrice address in iuu,
Including county and state.
I'nMaice Kates 12 to 1 paces, 1 cent; 18
to o2 pages, 2 cents; 34 to 48 pages, K cents;
i0 to dO pages, 4 cents; 62 to 76 pages, 6
rents; 78 to l2 pages, 6 cenlsT foreign post
age, double rates.
KaNiern Business Office Veree S? Cor.k-
lin, New York, Brunswick building; ChiOa
ttenger building.
ban J ram-ln.-o Office, R. J. Bldwell Coin
P&ny, 742 Market street.
X The British apology to Chile for the
s Breach of neutrality committed in
J Kinking- the cruiser Dresden mollifies
mm country, out uoes not raise me
Dresden from the bottom of the sea.
If Britain could sink a few more Ger-
V man cruisers under the same circum
stances at the same cost, she would
' doubtless be ready with an apology Id
each case. ...
'I But she is not likely to have the op-
portunity. If the reports that the
i Karlsruhe was wrecked in the West
' Indies are correct, the last German
1 raider was accounted tor when the
f Kronprinz Wilhelm came into Newport
a News. The latter is likely to follow
J the example of the Prinz Eltel Fried-
rich by interning. If it should venture
out, it would probably find. the waiting
"British cruisers more vigilant than
.'when they let the German'ship in.
1- , Elimination of the last of the Ger
. rftan raiding cruisers is admitted by
: Oount Reventlaw in the Deutsche
Tages Zeitung to increase immensely
the effectiveness of the British navy.
He infers from Mr. Churchill's state
J lflent after the battle ol the Falkland
V Islands that "the employment of many
vessels in the Dardanelles was ren-
1 dered possjble by the liberation of the
.British forces on the ocean." He says
J' that as long as the German squadron
displayed activity it "demanded the
i, activity of an enemy force ten times its
J, superior, and the British were com-
pelted to maintain in six or seven naval
5 bases squadrons each, one of which
had to be in a position to destroy the
German squadron." He adds: "All
" these forces are now at liberty for
f service in European waters."
These remarks suggest the question
whether it would not have been good
policy for Germany to send out her
ii whole navy, -except enough to control
J' the Baltic Sea, on raiding expeditions.
All the units might have been" run
t down and sunk, but they could have
almost paralyzed British commerce for
: a time and would have caused a scat-
tering of the British navy. Under
6 those circumstances the Germans
2 might have won several battles like
that oft Coronel. Germany might have
lost her navy, but she would have made
her enemy pay an' awful price for
naval supremacy. Her navy has ac-
complished insignificant results corn
el pared with its cost, except for thu
! havwe wrought by submarines.
i The suggestions as to the best policy
Jof Government railroad construction
S in Alaska, which are contained in a
communication published in another
;J column, are of interest as emanating
ii from a man who knows the country
Jand who has studied it from the rail
s' road man's standpoint. They are
i marred, however, by a predilection for
metal mining and by an underestimate
r of the value of agriculture and coal
mining as sources of traffic.'
There is no doubt in the minds of
ja Government experts and of men who
have actually grown crops in Alaska
that there are great possibilities for
4y agriculture in the valleys of Western
Z Alaska and of the Yukon and Tanana
Kiveis. . There is risk of late frost
there, as there is farther south, but
J this risk should be no greater in
Alaska than in like latitudes in Eu
irope, where farmers thrive. The mar
kct for farm products is limited at
present, but coal mines and metal
t mines will surely be developed when
'railroads are built, and will furnish a
J growing market. Freight .will act as
la protective tariff in favor of Alaska
j farmers and the Alaskans will certain
ly prefer fresh vegetables to those
which have been taken north in cold
J Our correspondent's unfavorable
opinion of the prospect that Alaska
I will furnish a market for its coal does
V not agree with that of Fairbanks men
;nd Western Alaska metal miners,
I-who have been clamoring for Alaska
t'coaLj. Coal is still used for domestic
purposes in many Pacific Coast houses
and for steam in many factories. It
vwill still hold a place as fuel.
J Failure to take advantage of the
coal-leasing law is not conclusive
against that system. There has been
' and continues to be stagnation in new
-enterprises of all kinds. Intending in
vestors are probably awaiting railroad
facilities, which they cannot expect
short of two years. Coal mines have
been developed under lease in other
countries. Why not in Alaska?
Postponement . of 'purchase of the
Copper River Railroad does not imply
a. decision by the Government not to
buy it. Until it has 'been appraised the
Government will not know how much
ty pay. The Government makes a be
ginning where it can, and, while ex
4rnding the Alaska Northern, will
doubtless consider whether to buy the
Copper River road.
Thero has been an 'astonishing in
crease in the average- length of
human life during tho last three
oenturies. During tho seventeenth
and eighteenth the increase was at
tho rate of about four years to
the century. Recently the average
length of life has been increasing
-much more ra.pidly. When the war
lroke out the rato for Europe was
seventeen years to the century. Tyits
docs not mean that the expectation of
ijfe has been extended seventeen years
fbr the average adult. The average
ias- been raised not so much by pro
longing the lives of the old as by sav
ing children from premature death".
In this field science has wrought
ondcrs and of course every child that
lives to maturity increases the average
duration of the life of its generation.
Another general cause for the exten
sion of life in modern times is the
"comparative infrequency of wars. Be
Jor4herseveiite.er4ii..Jcejiturx. war .was
the normal condition of mankind and
peace the rare exception. It is not at
all true that modern science and in
vention have increased either the fre
quency or the destructiveness of war
and our long intervals of peace have
enabled the human race to thrive bet
ter than it did in former ages.
In America the average rate of in
crease of the lengthxof life has been
less than in Europe. Here it is but
fourteen years instead of seventeen.
Professor Irving Fisher, of Yale, at
tributes this to the prevalence of the
"diseases of maturity" among us, par
ticularly the diseases of the blood ves
sels, which, he says, cause four times
as many deaths as they did ten years
ago. "Our vital organs wear out"
sooner than they should, to quote Pro
fessor Fisher's words. The cause of
this calamity may be found in part in
our intemperate use of alcohol, in to
bacco, drugs and vice, but its principal
cause, if we may trust Professor
Fisher, "is the general neglect of in
dividual Tiygiene."
Some people under modern indus
trial conditions cannot live hygienical
ly; others could, but they are too ig
norant or indifferent to do so. In any
case nature punishes them by prema
ture death and fastens degeneracy
upon their children. It therefore
stands the Nation in hand if it cares
to maintain its pre-eminence in the
world to look after this matter. No
country can continue great with a de
generate population.
The present war will cut down the
average rate of increase of the dura
tion of life. So many men are falling
in their youth and early prime that
not only will the average length of life
be shortened, but the vigor of the race
is likely to be materially impaired.
Other counties voted bonds for road
building before Multnomah. Jackson
County w3s the first and was followed
by Clatsop and Columbia. An election
was held in Marion County, but the
bonds were defeated by a large major
ity. Now that Multnomah has decided
to put $1,250,000 into good roads it is
likely the citizens of other counties will
consider the advisability of raising
money for road purposes in the same
way. ,'
' One trouble in the way of extensive
work is that some counties could
not, under the law, raise money
enough to make a . good start in
hard-surfaced roads. We all . re
member the result of trying to do
a great deal with scant funds in Clat
sop and Columbia counties. Wash
ington, Clackamas, Yamhill, Polk,
Benton, Linn and Lane Counties may
have taxable values sufficient to call
for bonds of a sufficient amount to
make a good showing. Perhaps Uma
tilla County could do the same; but
there are several large, sparsely popu
lated counties in Oregon that cannot
raise money enough under constitu
tional limitations to build one paved
road across it. Fortunately this is
true principally in counties where soil
and climatic conditions do not so im
peratively call for surfaced roads.
The outlook on the whole is encour
aging. The great agitation on the
subject pf good, or at least better,
roads is having its effect and we may
look for a general and gradual im
provement all over the state.
Desire for state division, like many
other things governmental, seems to
run in epidemics. Recently there was
talk of dividing Washington and an
nexing a part of Idaho to the new east
ern state. Following that came report
of a movement in California for seg
regation of the southern portion. It
is now announced that the business
men of Glendive, Mont., are circulat-
ng a petition for state division, and
that the people of the western part of
North Dakota desire to form a new
State division has its obstacles. One
is that the Legislature of each state
affected must give its consent and Con
gress must give its approval. In gain
ing the latter, provided the former is
obtained, politics must be considered.
The party in power, if it so happens
that the creation of a new state will
increase the representation of the mi
nority in National House and Senate,
is likely to reject the admission.
Probably creation of any new states
is a long way in the future, but it is
not unreasonable to expect an addition
to the existing forty-eight at some
time. Probably it will be accomplished
by the creation of several new states at
once. Texas is likely some day to
start the movement. Not only is it
large in area, but it was annexed with
the right reserved to the people thereof
to form four additional states out of
the territory included in the original
republic of Texas.
Apparently Congress has already
given authority to Texas to divide it
self, and if Texas should split into two
or more states the addition of two
Democratic members to the Senate
from each would render more likely
Congressional assent to division of one
or more states in the North.
Probably the best chance of a North
ern state's division, provided it has the
approval of the state itself, is first to
work on Texas to take the lead.
The faculty of the Monmouth Nor
mal are laying interesting plans for
the Summer school which will begin
June 21 and continue for about a
month. The purpose of the Summer
school is primarily to fit teachers pro
fessionally for their work,, but this
year it will . undertake something
broader if there is sufficient encourage
ment. A course will be given, as we
learn from Professor Pittman, of the
Normal faculty, "that will be of spe
cial assistance to superintendents and
principals." . ' .
These gentlemen, as conditions stand
in Oregon, are usually college gradu
ates. And it is well for the state that
they are. But-this dvant8go is at
tended with the disadvantage that they
are not familiar with the special prob
lems of the teachers in rural graded
schools and small city systems, as Mr.
Pittman puts it. The questions they
are asked by teachers often embar
rass them, for all their excellent train
ing, because it was not extended to
that particular field. The Monmouth
Normal now proposes to remedy this
Tho Summer course for principals
and superintendents, as Mr. Pitman
outlines it, covers six fields of work,
all to bo given, by members of the
normal faculty who are well equipped
for the task. Mr. Gentle will treat the
very important subject, "How to
measure a teacher and help her grow."
Evidently -he wishes to improve' the
superintendent's constructive as w
as his critical power. Presiifcnt Ac
power. President Ack-
erman, of the Normal School, offers a
courso in "City Administration," with
which he is familiar from long exper
ience. Miss Cohoon will treat of "Pri
mary, M.eyiodst" Miss. Arbuthno$ of
Intermediate Methods" and Miss Mc
intosh of "Grammar Methods." while
Miss Taylor will handle the extremely
important subject of "Playground Su
Too little supervision makes the
school playground a hotbed of childish
vices. Too much makes it a bore to
the pupils. No doubt Miss Taylor will
show how to keep to the difficult and
helpful middle way which was so
praised by Aristotle and is so seldom
found by his successors in the great
profession of pedagogy.
There is a multitude of facts to up
hold C. I. Collins' contention that the
Bible inculcates the principles of eu
genics. In his discourse upon that
theme before the Eugene divinity
school he brought out some of them.
but not perhaps the most weighty.
borne critics might not agree with Mr.
Collins that Cain was eliminated from
the Hebrew stock for eugenic reasons.
The Bible, at any rate, gives no hint
of any such a thought and that i3 our
only source of information on Cain's
affairs. If Cain- the murderer was
eliminated for eugenic reasons why
was the gentle and ' kindly Abel
But these more or less credible
stories from the ages of myth are hap
pily by no means our only grounds for
believing that the Bible teaches ex
tremely sound and practical ' precepts
not only regarding marriage and birth,
but also regarding general hygiene.
Taken as a whole, the Levitical laws
lay down the best system Of practical
health precepts ever formulated and it
is not at all to the credit of the Chris
tian world that it has neglected many
of them while it has taken infinite
pains to emphasize certain trifling
matters of ceremony.
Our modern hygienic regulations
might well be adorned with the legend
"Back to Moses," for that ancient law
giver, or his representatives, knew and
enforced most of them. To be sure
they had not yet discovered the germs
and microbes which pester us so fear
fully, but they took wonderfully effi
cient precautions against infection.
There is no record that Jews living
under the Mosaic law have ever been
visited by a pestilence which was not
communicated by Christians. We need
not quote texts to prove that they have
practiced the principles of eugenics.
Their history is proof enough. Their
vitality, their abounding genius in the
arts, their pre-eminence in science and
trade, should convince any reasonable
person that they understand the sci
ence of life as well as any of us and
better than most.
Death has removed ex-Senator Al-
drich at a time when he was begin
ning to be talked of as a possible fac
tor in the Republican revival. That
he should be so discussed is the strong
est testimony to his inherent qualities
of leadership, In view of the circum
stances under which he- retired from
politics four years ago. .,
These qualities pushed him forward
from municipal to state and from state
to Federal office until he became the
acknowledged leader of the Republi
can party in the Senate. He was styled
by his political opponents "boss of the
Senate," but that is simply an oppro
brious term applied to an opposing
leader. He led because he was qual
ified to lead and because others were
willing to follow him. He sensed what
his followers wanted, what it was pos
sible for them to get and he developed
the team work by which they got it.
Whatever we may think of the ends
to which he applied his abilities, we
must acknowledge that the man who
held undisputed sway in the Senate
throughout the Roosevelt Administra
tion and who won the tariff fight
against growing revolt in the ranks of
his own party during the first half of
the Taft Administration was a great
man. '
Mr. Aldrich's errors were those of
tradition and environment. He sprang
from a state and- a section .where
manufactures had grown to great
prosperity under the shield of the
protective tariff, and his political
horizon was limited by lack of per
sonal familiarity and consequently of
sympathy with other interests than
manufactures. He was a member of
the New England oligarchy which had
an instinctive aversion for the demo
cratic ideas which gained sway among
Western. Republicans. . To him 'the
direct primary and direct legislation
were instruments of demagogy, and
men like Senator La Follette were
apostles of political heresy. Political
expediency caused him to make con
cessions to the new ideas, but he made
them grudgingly and fought for every
inch of ground he yielded on railroad
regulation and similar policies. He
was not quick enough to recognize the
rise of new political forces with which
he must reckon.
AT two-fold purpose seems to have
prompted his retirement from the Sen
ate. Having long enjoyed unques
tioned sway in his party, he had no
taste for the insubordination so he
would regard it which marked his
two last years in office. Indifferent to
passing popularity, he seems to have
desired to leave behind, as a monu
ment to himself, a great piece of
constructive legislation. Ho pro
cured the creation of the National
Monetary Commission for the pur
pose of investigating our entire
banking and monetary system and
of preparing a plan for its thorough-
revision. He was made "its
chairman, and, as such, he reported
the currency bill under the Taft Ad
ministration. The Commission was
composed of leading men from both
parties, but it unanimously recom
mended this bill to Congress. Yet it
was branded as "the Aldrich bill" and
condemned as such by all those ele
ments which coutd see no good in any
thing which emanated from what was
variously termed the standpat, the old
guard atid the reactionary element of
tho Republican party. For the first
time in his career Mr. Aldrich made
a tour of the country in advocacy of
the measure, but popular prejudice
against him was so strong that he won
little support.
Nevertheless, when the Democrats
took up the subject of currency reform,
the inherent merits of the so-called
Aldrich bill were so undisputable that
they adopted its main framework.
The principal changes they made
were in providing a much larger mea
ure of Government control and in
omitting a National reserve bank such
aa tho Aldrich bill provided. Exper
ience with partisan and revengeful
management of ,the Federal reserve
banks raises grave doubt whether they
improved the bill in the former par
ticular, while the elimination of the
National reserve bank was admittedly
a concession to popular prejudice
against any semblance) of a central
bank. With these changes the new
banking system has been hailed by the
whole country as a deliverance from
danger pf alternate stringency and In-.
flation, with periodical panics. It wag
one of the chief means of tiding the
country over the panic caused by the
war. Another was the Aldrich-Vree-land
emergency currency law, which
the Democrats and Republican insur
gents opposed savagely when it was
before Congress, but jvhich they re
enacted and resorted to promptly
with most beneficial results in the
crisis of last August. Mr. Aldrich was
not disposed to crow openly, but he
must have felt inward gratification
when he saw the Democrats adopt two
measures which were largely his own
creation and which they had unspar
ingly denounced. It was a practical
When public expenditures were un
der discussion during Mr. Taft's term
as President, Mr. Aldrich remarked that.
if the Government could be conducted
on business principles, it could be run
with greater, efficiency at a saving of
$300,000,000 a year. He never made
the attempt to put this idea In legisla
tive form, for he knew that, as our
Government is now organized, such a
law could not be enacted and exe
cuted. The remark, however, shows
his realization of our shortcomings and
suggests what a cleaning out of the
departments might have resulted had
he- been given the power to put his
ideas into practice.
There had been some appre
hension as to Mr. Aldrich's possible
part in the campaign of 1916. The
conservatives were beginning to look
to him for advice and perhaps for
leadership, but, had he taken an ac
tive part in politics, the result would
surely have been a reopening of the
wound which is fast healing. The time
for his leadership had passed, he had
done much great work, but it is fin
ished, and new men 'with more ad
vanced ideas must be found to lead a
reunited party to victory.
The army grafter is at work sup
plying the British soldiers with shoddy
khaki which rots to tatters In three
weeks, though paid for as the best ob
tainable; shoes guaranteed to resist
moisture but which absorb and retain
it; boots which lose their heels after a
day's marching.. War certainly devel
ops not only the noblest but the basest
characters In a nation. None could be
baser than those who Impair the effi
ciency of their country's army for
tneir own pront.
Captain Charles ' MacDonald, a
United States Army medical man, pre
dicts that typhoid fever and cholera
will sweep over Austria this Summer.
He has just returned from a trip
through that country where he has ob
served the sanitary conditions. He
says they are as bad there- as in Jur
Army at the time of the Spanish War.
With germs tnriving everywhere this
means an epidemic throughout the em
War has its compensations. The
Spanish War revealed the means -of
combating yellow fever. The typhoid
fever vaccine was first used by the
Japanese in their war with Russia, Dr.
Harry Plotz now announces discovery
of a vaccine which will fight typhus
fever, the disease which is slaying
thousands . in Serbia. Thus medical
digcovery races to save life while mili
tary invention destroys it.
The rebating once so common on the
railroads has almost ceased, but now
and then, it crops out in all its old-time
vigor. The other day a New Jersey
road was fined $200,000 for rebating.
which seems to Indicate a. rather seri
ous view of the offense by the Federal
judges. :
We of this country who are accus
tomed to large undertakings in munici
pal water projects must pass the hon
ors to Italy on completion of the Ap
penine aqueduct thathas 1875 miles of
service pipe and furnishes water 'to
000,000 people.
The strike of the Chicago carpenters
is on and operations involving $100,
000,000 have ceased. By closing work
the 16,000 carpenters throw nearly
four times as many in allied trades into
If those counterfeiters had made
Mexican money,' it might well have
been worth as much as Carranza or
Villa money, which circulates only
within range of their guns.
The German air raiders went all
around London, but kept carefully
away from it. Do they fear asphyxia
tion by the fog which Is meat and
drink to the cockney?
German airmen were throwing
scares again yesterday in Kent. Their
work probably was reconnoiterlng, as
the few bombs dropped did little dam
age. Whether victory rests with Villa or
Obregon, one thing is certain there
are many more dead Mexicans than
a few das-s 'ago.
Is Germany trying to provoke Hol
land to war? If so, why? There is an
interesting subject of speculation for
the war college.
At Calumet & Heel a, where not so
long ago all was turmoil and killing,
the miners have lust been given a 10
per cent raise.
Great Britain apologizes to Chile for
sinking the Dresden in neutral waters.
Perhaps Germany will observe the rip
ple of humor.
The School Board refuses to change
the hours in the high schools and the
boys must be content to see the finish
of the games.
A Japanese seare!:wa3 about due. We
haQ had none for several months prior
to the appearance of that lurid Turtle
Bay story.
While Europe votes bonds for de
struction, Multnomah County votes
them for construction.
Pretty soon the world will tiro of
the people who are taking long walks
and other hikes.
Back in Missouri a man 101 years
old is about to remarry a nervy pro
ceeding. The carpenters' strike Is a sign of
prosperity in Chicago or it' is a sign of
The Carranza gunboat used slow
powder for the salute off Mazatlan.
" A Dallas man has patented a sani
tary cuspidor. What next?
The boy who- has the price--can be
located iius alter oooc, , s,. V-
Pioneer of Rnllrtindw Suggrttn AHerna
five to Cio vernment'a Plana.
. STRKLNA, Alaska. March SO. (To
the Editor.) Having read your ar
ticle on the purchase of Ala&kan rail
roach! and the comment from a sub
scriber in your edition of March 14, it
awanens interest In myse.f Ueeause I
am as vitally interested in the suc
cess of"a Government-built railroad as
any Alaskan can be. The writer has
been a resident of this Northern coun
try since 1901: was the oreanizer of the
first railroad ever projected or thought
of for the development of the Copper
River region, as will be seen from the
files of The Oregonian of the year
1803, and is thoroughly acquainted with
the merits of the various routes and
their possibilities of development from
a railroad standpoint.
I am in favor of the Government
buying both the Alaska Northern and
the Copper River roads. Then it should
scrap the whole of the Seward project
and all that portion of the Guggen
heim line between Tasnuna and the
coast. It should then connect Tas
nuna with Valdez and continue the
road from Chitina to Fairbanks.- Tnen,
if there is any . money left, build a
branch into the Kotsina district, an
other along the Kuskalina, and tap the
Matanuska coal with a short line from
Portage Bay. If this plan were fol
lowed and a reasonable tariff inaugu
rated, the system would be on & pay
ing basis in two years.
If the Government merely buys the
Alaska Northern it will be no more
successful in creating a business for
the line than the present owners. The
taik of the "agricultural possibilities"
may be all right on paper, but the
Sueitna. Valley is no more valuable for
farming than any of the other valleys
of Central Alaska, and when you come
down to real hard facts, the only suc
cessful Alaskan farmer is the one who
keeps as far as possible away from the
railroad, for the simple reason that he
cannot compete with the producer from
Oregon or Washington. Then about
one year In three the frost stays in the
ground too late or the rains are too
frequent, so that his crops do not ma
ture and the cold, damp Fall closes in
upon him. followed by a seven months'
Winter. brinRrinir in its wake plenty of
time for repenting of his folly In try
ing to combat the forces of nature.
Beyond these "agricultural possibili
ties," or rather "impossibilities," what
inducement is there for railroading?
There are a few quartz- mines. It la
true, hut these are close to tidewater
and afford no such tonnage as the cop
per mines of the Wrangel Mountains.
The coal proposition on the Matanuska
would be off the Susitna route, and
why the Government should build 608
miles of road through a barren coun
try when it can reach the same ob
jective point in 350 miles via Valdez,
through the most populous part of the
country, is a question that Is puzzling
the old-timers. '
If the Government's reason for not
buying the Cordova road is that it is
owned by the Morgan-Guggenheim peo
ple. I consider it a great injustice. The
Morgan-Guggenheim syndicate Is the
only combination of capital that
amounts to anything that has come
into this part of Alaska. It has spent
many millions of dollars in its devel
opment, and the United States Govern
ment never took the trouble up to that
time even to ascertain whether Jthia
part of Alaska taa-d any value or not
It was only when the Morgans and
Guggenheims entered the country with
their money and attempted to open up
a coal mine and build an expensive
railroad into the -copper ' field that
Washington took notice and raised the
hue and cry that these people were
trying to gobble up the country. Then
eame the flood of-t balderdash about
the untold billions of treasure in the
Alaska, storehouse, and the idiotic
ravings of the conservationists. The
consequence was that the inflow of
capital was stopped, the country was
bottled up 'for the use of posterity, and
the people who have invested their all
are left "holding the bag."
What Alaska needs is half a dozen
syndicates like the Morgan-Guggenheim
and they should be given a free
hand under the same laws that built
up the Western states, for be it known
that were the Rocky Mountain states
governed by the laws of Alaska they
would be where they were 50 years ago,
when Daniel Webster refused to vote
for an appropriation of $8000 for a mail
route to the Pacific Coast.
And this brings me back to the great
coal proposition of the Alaska fields.
Granted that the Government builds a
railroad to them, who is going to op
erate them? A leasing law was passed
by Congress a year ago, but I have yet
to hear of the first applicant for the
privilare of mining coal under this
"liberal" piece of legislation. Shall I
tell what is the general opinion? It
is that were the Government to throw
open these lands free to any one who
wanted them, there might be some coal
mined on a small scale, for local use,
but nothing in the way of a tonnage
necessary to keep up a railroad. There
will be no market for it outside a few
Coast towns, and nobody believes the
coal can be sold any cheaper than Brit
ish Columbia coal is now. None can
be exported because steamers will not
come to Alaska In ballast to get a
cargo of Matanuska coal at higher
prices than it can be gotten at Nanai-
mo. The railroads don t use it for the
reason that crude oil is cheaper, and it
is only a question of time when Uncle
Sam's Navy will burn nothing but oil
fuel. Jn view of these facts, why
chould a coal operator invest large
sums of money in an Alaska coal lease,
subject to the whim of every new Sec
retary of the Interior that goes into of
fice? And if the mines are not to be
operated, why spend money on a rail
road? The great Industry of Alaska is
metal mining, and the most important
section now under development Is the
Chitina copper district. This is al
ready tapped by the Copper River &
Northwestern, owned by the Morgan
Guggenheims. It is used by them os
tensibly as a public carrier, but really
as an ore road for their mines. They
are not Interested in the rest of the
district, and would probably rather see
it remain undeveloped. As a conse
quence, the freight and pas-senger rates
are prohibitory, and the country is re
tarded. - With the district only frac
tionally developed, there is tonnage
sufficient for two railroads, but. as
the Government does not care to build
a competing line, it should buy the
Copper River line, abandon Us objec
tionable features and make it a trunk
line to Fairbanks, with branches to
the coal on both sides. This can only
be done by making the Coast terminus
at Valdez. tho only town on the Coast
that in self-sustaining.
We of the copper district have no
fnterest in the Coast towns. AVe need
railroad transportation and' we need it
over the shortest route and one that
can be maintained within a reasonable
cost. This is impossible with a line
over the Copper River flats. The pres
ent road has always been run at a
loss, and the outlook for it under Gov
ernment control is no better. The CJov
ernnient cable to Alaska is supported
by the Alaska business and the charges
are high for the service. If the Gov
ernment intends that tho railroad shall
also be maintained by Alaskans we
ought to eee that the road is built over
the shortest and cheapest route. If the
commission and" writers on this sub
ject, in designating their choice of
routes, would eliminate the personal
interest, there would he little difficulty
in selecting a Coast terminus, and we
should then pee some real development.
Alaskans want a railroad badly, but
they also want it along the most pop
ulous route and one that will be a
financial success. ALFRED B. ILES.
I-'otly of Btsr Words.
Washington (D. C.) Star-.
'Some men uses big words," said
Uncle Eben, "de same as a turkey
spreads his taUfeathers. Doy makes
an elegant impression, but dey don't
reppersent no real meat.'
Half a Century Ago
From The Oregonian. April 17, lSGo.
The Oregonian is published this
morning with heavy black column
rules, their heavy black luces turned
up in mourning over the assassination
of J-resldent Lincoln, which occurred
in Washington on the. night of April
1 as the President sat in his box at
the theater witnessing the play, "Our
American Cousin."
Secretary Seward was also stabbed
by an assassin In his home on the
same night.
It is not known whether it 'was the
same assassin that shot President Lin
coln. President Lincoln died, according to
reports, at 7:20 o'clock on the morning
of April 15.
Andrew Johnson, Vice-rresident, on
the morning of April 15 assumed the
office of President, taking the oath
before Chief Justice Chase.
J. Wilkes Booth is the name of tho
assassin of tho President. lie is an
actor and the brother of the distin
guished actor, Edwin Booth.
It is reported that Quincy A. Brooks,
of Portland, has been appointed United
States Aseeasor of Oregon, in the place
of Thomas Frazar, whose term of of
fice, it is said, has expired.
The Canyon City stage had trouble
with Indians at Birch Creek on Its
last upward trip, but the Indians fled
in fright before they accomplished
what seemed to be their purpose.
Mr. Harrison Olmstead and family take
their departure- for the F'aat today on
the steamer Brother Jonathan.
W. H. Newell, editor of The Dalles
Mountaineer, has returned from Wash
ington. He says the appointments for
Oregon are substantially as follows:
Colonel William Logan, Superintendent
of the branch mint; Captain John
Smith to succeed Colonel Logan as Su
perintendent of the Warm Springs Res
ervation; Quincy A. Brooks to succeed
Thomas Frazar as Assessor; A. G. Ho
vey. Receiver for the new land office
at La Grande; Owen Wade to succeed
Mr. Starkweather, resigned, as Reg
ister of the land office at Oregon City.
Saturday morning A. D. Shelby's
store on Kirst street was robbed of the
crepe hung there in mourning of the
terrible calamity at the National cap
ital. Mr. Shelby wan known to be un
sympathetic, to the Union, but the
thief's act is a dastardly one.
Through the courtesy of Purser
Hoyt, of the steamer John H. Couch,
we are in receipt of a new paper pub
lished at Honolulu. Sandwich Islands.
It is called the K& Nupepa Knokao.
Buke- 1 Helu 1, and is replete with in
teresting matter concerning the na
tives and the islands.
The Democratic convention of Wash
ington Territory, which mt at Olym-
pia last week, after a session of three
days nominated James Tilton, of that
town, as delegate to Congress.
Slasi Would Give Tno I- Usrk.
PORTLAND, April 15. (To the Ed
itor.) I was actually afraid Wednes
day the bond issue would not curry. 1
telt disappointed and as if I didn't
want to live amongst a class of
people that would sacrifice their every
interest that they might work a hard
ship on others.
I ought to have known the bonds
could not fail, even if there were many
uniruins ana aosurd statements being
made. The results of the election
mean more to Multnomah County and
Portland than the people seem to
realize. Let us all rejoice.
l am anxious to give two davs' work
wherever It will Io the most good.
An After-Dinjier Sprr-b.
Mr. Haberdash (preparing an after-
uimier speecnj family, who was it said
Kjive me noerty or give me death!"?
Mrs. Haberdash Harrv Tlmr
Goethals, the Canal Builder,
in the v
Sunday Oregonian
Joseph B. Bishop, who for nine years was secretary of the Isthmian
Canal Commission, presents an intimate view of the personality and
the characteristics of General Goethals, the modest Army engineer,
to whose energy and genius the Panama Canal will be a lasting monu
ment. Mr. Bishop was for seven years in close daily relationship
with General Goethals and knows more, probably, of his manners
and his methods than any other person. This story is preliminary to
a series of stories "by Colonel Goethals himself, in which the Canal
builder will tell in his own words how the Canal was constructed and
what effect it will have on world commerce.
Under the Sea in a Submarine.
This strange tale of the sea was written several years ago by tha
late Morgan Robertson. It tells the story of an accident on a sub
marine similar to the recent disaster to the F-4 at Honolulu. Tho
manuscript for this story was found among Mr. Robertson's effects
after he died.
Students of Naval Warfare in Portland.
. Did you ever know that right here in Portland young men are being
trained every day in the arts of naval conflict? Did you ever know
that they have estimated with scientific precision the effects of an in
vasion by a hostile fleet and that they have calculated what action
will be necessary to meet any such emergency? Members of the
Oregon Naval Militia on board the Cruiser Boston are doing these
things and an Oregonian staff writer tells in an interesting and en
tertaining manner the story of their accomplishments.
A Battleship Built on Land.
Modern nations, in protecting their shore lines, arc building sta
tionary battleships to form a first line of defense for their exposed
cities and fortifications. These structures really take the form of
artificial islands built up from the bottom of the sea. They arc
equipped on top much like a modern superdrcadnought and fitted with
mighty guns. An illustrated story will tell all about them.
Predatory Animals Must Be Exterminated.
Uncle Sam is making constant warfare against beasts of prey that
infest the National forests and that destroy domestic animal and
crops. The forest rangers and other employes of the National for
ests are engaged in this systematic effort to rid the country of theso
pests. A full-page story, with photographs, describes this work.
Moulin Rouge Is Destroyed.
Paris' famous dance hall, recently burned down, and its passing
recalls some of the interesting events in connection with the place,
which really was an institution in Paris. Sterling Hcilig offers an
entertaining story describing the place and relating some of its past
Donahey's Full Page.
William Donahey, the gifted artist, has prepared another full page
of entertainment in which the adventures of Prince Ahmed and of the
Teenie Weenies are given due attention.
Anniversary of San Francisco Earthquake.
Next week San Francisco will observe the ninth anniversary of its
disastrous earthquake and fire. How the city has recovered from its
ruins and how it has manifested its perseverance by completing the
most wonderful exposition in the world's history will be told in a
complete descriptive story.
Much Additional Reading.
Other Sunday features will include another instalment of the Ex
ploits of Elaine, a front-page colored cartoon showing Uncle Sam in
the attitude of opening the season's baseball game while the war
ridden nations of Europe look on in wonder and awe; the sections
devoted to schools, society, dramatic affairs, automobiles, real estate,
Twenty-Five Year Ago
From Th Orrgonian April 17, 180.
Washington Tho tariff bill was final
ly reported to tho House yesterday, and
the most encouraging feature of it is
that it places sunar on the free list.
This, of course, brought out a strong
proles: from McKenna of California.
James Lotan Js now the supreme boss
of the Republican machine" of Oregon.
He is chairman of the Stale Central
Committee, and occupies the throne so
long occupied by his political adver
sary. Joseph -Union. The new boss
seemed to be quite popular with the
convention which met yesterday and
put up the following ticket:
Congressman Linger Hermann, of
Governor 1. P. Thompson, of Port
land. Secretary of state George W. 11c
Bride, of St. Helens.
Treasurer Phil iletschan, of Baker
Supremo Judge It. S. Loan, of Eu
gene City.
State Superintendent E. B. McElroy,
of Salem.
State Printer Frank C. Baker, of
Washington In the Senate, Mitchell
has given notice that Tuesday he will
address the Senate on his constitutional
amendment for the election of Senators
by the people. .
Mc.Mahon'd circus opened its wo-ek'fl
engagement here yesterday, and, despite,
the threatening weather, there was a
larere crowd on hand, which went away
well pleased.
A balloon ascensioD was made In
Portland yesterday by William Lange.
an amateur, who gave one of the bert
ascensions of the season. In making
his descent he oh mo down on the roof
of a house near the motor line, and the
lady inmate was much frightened by
the unusual occurrence.
The article in the L'vcning Telegram
yesterday an to the diss ppea r nee of
Wilbur F. Knapp, the bicyclist, may
give apprehension for which there is
no occasim. Knapp Is rusticating out
in the country.
The northeast corner of Washington
and Seventh streets hoa ben sold for
$55,000 cash; the Quarter block at the
northwest corner of Fifth and H streets
has been sold for JSl.r.nO rash; and 320
feet of river front (n Watson's Addition
has been old for $12,000 cash. All of
these sales have been reported by Run
sell & McLeod'e office. 147 First street.
Of Zola's new novel. "La Bete llu
maine." -45.000 copies were sold on the
day of Issue, it is reported a record
that has not been quite equaled since
the days of "Nana."
I rider New Probibitloa l.mrr.
HKW'NKH, Or.. April li. (To the
Kditor.) Would you answer throutcn
the columns of your paper the follow
ing question? How much intoxicating
liquors can a man have in his posses
sion at one time under tho new pro
hibition law which was enacted by the
recent Legislature? The question aros
here yesterday, one party staling: that
it provided for two qitnrts of -whisky
and 24 quarts of beer. iid another party
was of the opinion lhat you could pro
cure two quarts of whisky or 24.
quarts of beer.
TWO itKGL'LAR -ettvADERii.
Two quarts of whisky or 24 quarts
of beer.
Standing; Timber.
PALMKR, Or.. April 13. (Tn the Kdi-
tor.) Will you kindly inform me
through your paper which state in the
Union has the most standing timber;
also how the first four rank?
j. i r. coii.
OrBi-in h.-is nearlv one-fifth of the
standing timber In the United States,
or about D43.OOO.0OO.OU0 feet; Washlng-
ton is next, with ; i .uuu.vuu.uuu ieei;
California, with 381 .000. 000. uou ieei and
I iduhr, .lth 1 " feet