Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, March 29, 1915, Page 6, Image 6

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    THE MORNING OREGONIATT. 3IOXDAY. MARCH 29, 1015.
PORTLAND. ORKGON.
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PORTLAND. MONDAY, MARCH SO, 1915.
f CLOTURE AND CAUCUS.
It may be Inferred from a brief arti
i ele by Secretary Bryan in the Corn
: moner that an attempt will be made at
the next session of Congress to induce
the Senate to adopt a cloture rule, for
the purpose of putting an end to flli
fcustering. Mr. Bryan expresses indig
nation that the ship-purchase bill was
, defeated "because the minority could
1 talk indefinitely," and he finishes by
caying:
1 Let the people rule. Cloture ia necessary
to bring the Senate Into harmony with the
theory of popular government.
By all means let the people rule, but
they do not rule when a majority of
the majority party, having called a
conference, transforms it into a caucus
and binds the whole party to support
; the will of little more than one-fourth
of the Senate's membership. For in-
formation as to how this, was done in
the case of the ship-purchase bill, we
. refer Mr. Bryan to a speech made by
; that other Nebraskan, Senator Hitch-
cock.
" Mr. Hitchcock said that half the
j Senators who supported the bill in ac-
cordance with their caucus pledge
; were at heart opposed to it. The peo
' pie had never expressed their will on
! this particular measure, but they had
declared their antagonism to ship sub
! sidies, which would have been given
'. tinder this bill, and the newspapers,
; which fairly well voice public opinion,
: were almost unanimous in their oppo
' Bition to it.
Filibustering is an evil, but it is nec
"essary to counteract the greater evil
of caucus coercion. Unlimited talk by
- the minority is no greater evil than a
'caucus gag which prevents many of
' -'" the majority from expressing and vot
ing their real opinions.
MILITARISM A STATE OF MTND.
One of the best expositions extant
of the policy of readiness for defense
as opposed to that of aggressive mili
. tarism is contained in Howard D.
1. "Wheeler's book: "Are We Ready?"
He shows in graphic style our im
- potenee to repel an Invader under
' modern conditions, quoting facts and
"" figures which The Oregonian has
I already published in discussing this
subject.
Mr. Wheeler brings the facts home
to his readers by describing an im
aginary battle on the Connecticut
River with ail invading army and de
picts our Army hopelessly beaten by
smallness of numbers and lack of
artillery, ammunition, aircraft, trans
port and other necessary, auxiliaries.
Ho shows our need of a trained
reserve, of officers sufficient to com
mand it and our militia as well as a
" volunteer army: also our need of
artillery, ammunition and equipment
! for such a force. He also demonstrates
' that by stopping our present waste of
money and by shortening the term of
enlistment we can provide 600.000
trained men for the same or less
money than is spent on our present
" Inadequate Army.
The most telling chapter in the
book, however, is that in which he
dissects "The Great American Buga
"boo." as he calls militarism. He shows
that militarism Is not a state of pre-
; paredness for war, but is the motive
behind that state. He contrasts Prus
sia, where the military power is su
preme, with the United States, where
: it is subordinated to the civil power.
! He finds another contrast, for in Prus
sia every male citizen is a soldier,
while in the United States we employ
professional soldiers. He then says:
Militarism is not a thin?. It Is not a
form of government. It is not even a system,
whollv. It is a state of mind. In Ger
many militarism is surerimposed on a demo
cratic theory of national defense, evolved
fcv Prussia after Napoleon, through sheer
necessity.
! The Prussian army which arose
against Napoleon In 1813 was a citizen
: iriny. This system was made perma
nent and developed into the present-
day German "war machine." Mr.
' Whalen here observes:
The militarism so abhorrent to us is not
this machine, not the Gt-rman system of
government, not compulsory military eer
lie. ni-r vet wholly the Prussian Influence
personified in the Kaiser and his advisers.
' No d3unt all these elements go into it. but
the militarism of Germany is the state of
mind of the German people.
He quotes the Kaiser to show that
' In Germany the sovereign is the boss
and that the sovereign's reliance is on
" the army and not on a Parliamentary
: majority, and he then declares it "In
' conceivable that militarism in any
i form, as we understand the militarism
of Prussia, could gain a foothold in
. our Nation."
He finds a world of difference be-
tween Prussian militarism and Swiss
. democracy, and says:
Yet at bottom the German Idea and the
' Swtas Idea are Identical. The armies of
' Itoth. come directly from the citizenship.
' The 'difference is In the manner In which
! the citizenship has allowed the Idea to be
- applied.
He contrasts the Swiss citizen army
' of 500.000 trained men at a cost of
; J8.000.000 a year with our army which
' could put only 30.000 men in the field
at a cost of $90,000,000 a year, and
1 thus describes the Swiss view of serv
' Ice in the army:
' The Swiss youth, from his earliest school
avs. Is taught that the army is for de
. feiise onlv. Patriotism is interwoven in his
- development. He discerns no line between
civic dutv and military duty. He learns
to look upon each as essential to real citi
zenship. . . certainly he does not regard
as undemocratic or unreasonable the re
,; emlrement that he must know how to fight
In order that he mav take an intelligent
part in the defense of his country, any more
than we consider undemocratic and un-
- reasonable the requirenitm that we must
jtnow how to read in order that-we may
take an Intelligent part in the political
affairs of our country.
The Australian system of citizen
'training is then described. American
manhood and patriotism are pro
nounced in no way inferior to Swiss or
'Australian manhood and .patriotism,
.tout. Mr. Wheeler says, "Spirit and
courage are about all we have in a
military way." Yet" he most truly says:
- "We are quick to resent Insult and
very confident of our ability to main
tain our position." He remarks fur
ther: Satisfied with our natural strength, we
have had but the vaguest concern, as to
what shape we should be in If we should
be brought suddenly to face the necessity
of getting together for the defense of all.
The alternative set before us is stat
ed in this forcible language:
Either we can continue to ignore the prin
ciples of our military policy;
or we can devise means whereby our whole
citizenship will have opportunity to receive
military tratninsr.
In other words:
We shall have a reserve
Or we shall not have a reserve.
f ,lll unrtthe- n V
We shall continue to throw the whole
burden of first defense on a handiui 01 pro-
Or we shall undertake to fit" ourselves
intelligently to back our hired men in time
of National peril.
Tr all means that:
We shall continue to Invite trouble by our
unpreparedness for It:
Or we shall discourage foreign trouble
seekers by being ready for any military
emergency.
Mr. Wheeler has made clear that,
in order to prove the system he advo
cates to be militarism, its opponents
must convict democratic countries like
Switzerland and Australia of militar
ism. We constantly invite a quarrel
by our Monroe Doctrine, our meddle
someness and our wealth, while Swit
zerland and Australia have no Monroe
Doctrine, mind their own business and
are poor by comparison with us. Yet
we neglect to equip ourselves for de
fense, while Switzerland and Australia
do. We are guilty of a double folly.
A MISMANAGED ESTATE.
The National Forests should be public
property for. all time. If railroads, tele
phones and telegraphs were natural re
sources, title to which vested in the Gov
ernment at the beginning and had never
teen alienated, we should believe in Gov
ernment ownership of them too but not
necessarily in Government operation. Sat.
urday Evening Post.
We Infer "from the statements that
precede the foregoing declaration that
the Post's opinion concerning public
ownership of forests is strengthened
by the record of the public timber
business for 1914. It observes that
Uncle Sam sold about a billion and a
half of board feet from the forests,
receipts therefrom exceeding $1,250,
000. From the grazing of 1,500,000
cattle and 7,500,000 sheep more than
$1,000,000 was received.
Here is a revenue from the two
sources of $2,250,000. To be exact, the
Government received in revenues from
the National forests in 1914 the sum
of $2,437,710.21. But it expended for
administration, protection and per
manent improvements $5,366,302.83,
thereby piling up a deficit of nearly
$3,000,000.
The National forests em-brace near
ly 200,000,000 acres of land. If these
lands were in one oblong tract it
would be 1000' miles long and 312
miles wide. If laid down just east of
the Mississippi it would be washed on
one end by that river and by the
Atlantic Ocean on the other, and
would form almost a perfectly fitting
blanket for the ten states of Illinois,
Indiana, Otilo, Pennsylvania, Ken
tucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Mary
land, Delaware and New Jersey.
These ten states in addition to their
agricultural crops, their factories,
their mines and their other de
veloped resources "graze" more than
10,000,000 cattle and more than iu,
000.000 sheep.
The grazing revenues and the re
turns from sales of timber seem large
until one contemplates the enormous
area involved. As a land baron Uncle
Sam has not yet exhibited marked
business ability. He is losing money on
his estate yet he will not let go of
the portion not necessary to his busi
ness of conserving the timber re
sources. Although arriving at the
conclusion perhaps by a different road,
we. like the Saturday Evening Post,
would be inclined to doubt his ability
properly to operate railroads, tele
graphs and telephones if he owned
them.
SHAD AND ECONOMICS.
The first Spring catch of shad from
the Delaware River moves an Eastern
paper to bewail the decay of the fresh
water fisheries in the lower Hudson.
Manv vears ago these waters were
extraordinarily prolific of shad and
other delectable fishes, but now they
are barren. The sewers emptying in
to them have destroyed all animal life
except that which exists comfortably
in filth and slime. New lork city
has thus lost an invaluable sourqe of
food, and life is proportionately more
difficult for its inhabitants.
The' Hudson might with the help of
science have been kept as pure as the
Delaware or the Columbia but Tam
many-governed New York was re
luctant to take the necessary troume
or spend the necessary money for that
purpose. Tammany has many otnei
uses for time and money than to
promote the welfare of mankind.
There is no excuse for a modern city
permitting its sewers to discharge in
to a river or the sea. The waste sub
stances can be dried and consumed or,
better still, they can 'be conducted out
upon the land, where they serve as
useful fertilizers. Either Paris or Ber
lin would be scandalized at the spend
thrift spectacle of our American sew
age systems.
But there are other ways at ae
Dletinsr the natural food supplies of
" state than by polluting the fresh and
salt waters. It is easily possible by
thriftiess management to ruin fisher
ies both in the deep sea and in the
rivers. The Oregon salmon fisheries
barely escaped destruction through the
unscrupulous greed of those who
worked them. The newly-discovered
halibut banks off Newport can be
injured in the same way in all like
lihood. Nature offers food to us with an
open hand but unless we use some
little prudence in disposing of ner
bounty it Is apt to fail before a great
while. There was a time when Ameri
cans talked proudly of their "inex
haustible" forests, coal mines and
vacant land. Now we are beginning
to husband what is left of these riches
and wish we had been a little less
prodigal when we had more of them.
v IS WAK NECKSSARYT
A charge by a contemporary that
The Oregonian has tried to make be
lieve that "war is necessary for us is
a curious perversion of what we have
said. We have urged and shall con
tinue to urge that adequate prepara
tion for armed defense of the Nation
on sea and land is as necessary to this
Nation as is preparedness to defend
his home to an individual. We con
tend that there are criminal nations
as there are criminal men, and that
preparedness for defense against them
is essential to the safety of this Na
tion. We have urged that. In this mat
ter, this Nation pattern not after Ger
many or Russia, but after Switzerland,
which is a nation trained to fight 'but
which has not had a war for a cen
tury, though there have been wars on
all "sides of it.
Yet The Oregonian is accused of
trying to plunge us into war. On the
contrary, we have condemned every
step which might draw us into war.
For that reason we condemned Mr.
Wilson's refusal to recognize Huerta
in Mexico, and events have corroboraU
ed our forecast of the results of his
action. We are as strongly opposed to
militarism as any man can be, but op
position to militarism does not mean
Wefenselessness or inadequate defenses.
Militarism is a motive for armament.
not armament itself. The policy of
militarism is typified by the great
armies and navies now at war; the
policy of self-defense by a nation
trained "for self-defense. Germany,
Russia, Austria, France armed for
war; Switzerland armed to keep out of
war. Each got what it armed to get.
What we need above all things for
protection of our National interests
and to insure the respect of other na
tions is continuity in foreign policy by
keeping it outside the scope of party
controversy. We have criticised the
Wilson foreign policy when it broke,
not when it maintained that con
tinuity. HOGS AS A BY-PRODUCT.
Distribution of a carload of hogs
at Hood River should start an invest
ment that will be profitable both to
the children who are to care for the
hogs and to the Union Stockyards"
Company which' sells them. It is one
more step In utilizing all the products
of the orchard.
The reputation of Oregon apples
has been built up by careful selection
of the best fruit for shipment. A great
and growing market has been created,
but it leaves on the growers' hands a
large proportion of their crop. As
beef packers depend on by-products
for a large- part, if not all, of their
profits, so fruitgrowers may depend
for theirs on the disposal of inferior
grades and culls. Canneries and driers
are making a market for that which is
not good enough to ship freslO but
there is still a residue, which makes
good food for hogs. By growing hogs
as a by-product of the orchards the
horticulturist can rival the achieve
ment of the packer in using all of the
hog except the squeal.
Care of hogs is work which can
safely be entrusted to children. They
take an instinctive interest in little
pigs, and feeding the animals is with
in their capacity. There is a com
mon impression that the hog is
naturally a filthy animal and enjoys
wallowing in filth. A noted Oregon
hog-grower has well said that the hog
will be clean if given a chance and
that, if he is dirty, the fault lies with
his owner, not with himself. He ap
preciates a clean pen and will thrive
the better for it. The young hog
growers or Hood River can prove the
truth of this assertion by giving their
porcine charges a chance to be clean
and by watching the result. It will be
a good lesson in sanitation throughout
the affairs of life.
NAVAL RESERVE CREATED.
One good thing was dona by the late
Congress in establishing a naval re
serve to be composed of men who have
served in the Navy. This measure
takes the right view of active service
as designed not only to man the ships,
but to train men for future service in
time of emergency. The Government
makes a heavy expenditure in the
training of men for the Navy, . but
practically has thrown away a large
proportion of It by losing touch with
them when their term of enlistment
is finished. It has come now to the
right view In regarding ex-naval men
as finished material laid aside for fu
ture use, and in keeping hold on them
by offering them pay for reserve serv
ice. Application of the same system to
the Army is one of the main requisites
to putting the country in a proper
state of defense. A much shorter term
of active service Is necessary to effi
ciency in the Army than in the Navy,
and by reducing the term Bom three
years to one year with intensified
training, the Army could be provided
with a strong reserve at little, if any,
additional expense. The proposal Is
not to spend more money, but to get
more for the amount of money we now
spend.
Those who have a horror of military
uniforms need not imagine that the re
sult would be constant presence of sol
diers on the streets, as in Europe.
There would be few more men in uni
form, but there would be a percepti
ble increase in the number of men of
soldierly bearing in civil life. These
men who would compose the reserve.
would be more efficient in their occu
pations because of their military
training, and in time of need would
Instantly come forward for their coun
try's defense.
THE CAPTURE OF CHARLESTON.
Tbp wpr manv reasons, some sen
timental, some practical, why the Fed
eral Government would have been glad
to capture Charleston, S. C, early
in the course of the Civil War. The
teg. hncmn therfi hv the attack on
Fort Sumter, an event which moved
the North to profound indignation ana
which seemed to deserve condign and
cnocrtv minlshment. The city was the
commercial metropolis of South Caro
lina, which had been more viciously
sKivi than nnv other state in promot
ing secession. But no doubt the chief
nrar-Hrai reason for reducing Charles
ton was the shelter it afforded to
Kinr-i-nria runners. The entrance to
the harbor -was narrow and difficult
and might apparently have been
securely guarded, but even when the
blockade was most effective vessels
slipped in and out with a certain
freedom. After Morris Island had
hn tairon hv the Federal troops and
Fort Sumter reduced to a heap of
ruins, Charleston still maintained a
fugitive communication with the outer
nriri hv sea. Twenty-one vessels are
known to have run the blockade be
tween that time and the evacuation of
the city.
Charleston is admirably situated for
defense. The difficulties of its harbor,
hich act as an impediment to com
lerce, became of inestimable value
hen the city was attacked by the
Federal fleet. To nature's defenses
muria imnortant additions, while
the Federal Government was hindered
by various causes from investing tne
city. Upon the long sand spit which
curves inward from Sullivan's Island
at the harbor's mouth a continuous
range of batteries was erected, with
t xcmiit-rio in snriDort them. To
the southward across the narrow en
trance on Cumming's point stood r on
Putnam. Fort Sumter lay about half
, KntwAAn Moultrie and Putnam in
the middle of the channel and a little
nearer the city. The main approach
f .,ocaio runs alone Morris Island
from the south, and this had been
obstructed by torpedoes, while on tne
island shbre Fort Wagner naa oeen
at a strateeic point to guard
the passage. Thus defended, Charles
ton defied the ertorts 01 tne tiovern
ment for almost two years after it
had been invested by Dupont and his
ironclad fleet. The city itself is sit
uated much like Constantinople, it
nn a Dointed peninsula between
the Ashley and Cooper rivers. The
Cooper on the north corresponds quite
accurately to the Hellespont and the
Ashley to the waters of the Marmora
Sea, which wash the southwest side of
Constantinople. Even - the famous
Golden Horn of the Turkish capital
has its analogue in Town Creek,
which separates Drum Island from
Charleston, though there Is no beauti
ful suburb like Galata on the opposite
shore.
The Government at Washington at
last found itself ready to move against
Charleston early in April, 1863, and
Rear-Admiral Dupont was sent with
a fleet of monitors to capture it. He
began, operations with a spirited naval
attack, made evidently in complete
ignorance of the strength of the de
fenses in the harbor. His vessels re
tired more or less damaged, leaving
the forts about as they were before the
attack. Dupont was then ordered to
annrl all hia monitors but two to New
Orleans, and little more was done at
Charleston until July, when Dahlgren
succeeded him. Operations were now
resumed with vigor, but not very ef
fectively. The defenses on Morris
Island were shelled at Intervals during
.Tnlv anrl on Aueust 17 the monitors.
which had returned to - Charleston,
opened on Fort Sumter. On the 19tn
of August a fleet of five monitors
mnxroH tn within 800 vards of the fort
and shelled it so ferociously that the
walls were reduced to a neap 01
ruina However, it could not be en
tered on account of the Are from sup
porting forts and batteries, ana Deiore
a great while the damage was suf
iint!v rpnaired to make it defensible.
Having no modern searchlights the
ironclads could only operate Dy aay
light and at night the injury they
effected was regularly repaired. Fort
Sumter held out long after it had lost
all semblance of a fortification. Its
ruin was so complete that the rub
bish acted as a species of protection
to the garrison. The walls were bat
tered into great heaps, which afforded
a shelter impervious to the missiles
from the fleet.
TvTrvei-ia Taiarid hecame untenable
oorltf in SBntember. 1864. and was
evacuated on the night of the 6U1.
By that time all the guns m fort
Sumter had been dismounted and the
walls demolished, but it appears that
the fort was practically as defensible
as ever and work at night kept the
garrison in a position to repei aac..
After taking Morris Island the
iTWloral forcfis made no more advances
for several months. The fleet ceased
its active onerations and occupied
itself with the blockade of the port.
This should have been impregnable,
hut as we have seen, it was not so
by any means. There is nothing more
difficult, in ract, man to Keep up au
impassable blockade. History shows
that it has often been attempted, but
seldom accomplished. No doubt, the
Confederate ports were as nearly
sealed as those of any belligerent
country ever were and yet vessels
passed in and out at many points.
The Confederates torpedoed one of
nahlETsn's monitors in February, 1864,
but nothing of importance was done
on either side for the next year, until
Sherman began to be heard from in
the farther South. He appeared at
Beaufort, S. C, on January 24, 1865,
and immediately Charleston became
inriefonaihle. His approach closed to
the city its sources of supplies and
nothing remained but to evacuate it.
This was done on February 18, amid
terrible disorder and destruction Dy
tiro it is interesting to remark that
Charleston, where the war began, was
one of the last Southern cities to fall
into the possession of the Government.
Th "Rnhpmian heroine of "Ruggles
of Red Gap" always knew infallibly
"what to put on her head" and conse
quently captured an . Earl. Women
who lack this knowledge are apt to
look dowdy. The finest attire with
tasteless headgear to cap it is like a
discord in music.
Annther lrvhhvine- inauirv has fizzled.
The Democrats, in their suspicion of
conspiracy every time they are beaten,
closely resemble those afflicted persons
who are consigned to a puDiic institu
tion for their own and the public's
safety.
It is to be hoped that, now the
French have taken Hartman's Weiler
kopf. they will keep it; otherwise the
newspaper head writer will have brain
fever through trying "o put it in a
headline and say what happened there.
Th "Mnvirans at Matamoras are at
iio rtiri e-amA of shootiner at each other
and hitting Americans. A simple way
to stop this nuisance mignt De to sena
over some Americans who would teach
them how to shoot straight.
t
"Paul Currv. the boy who shot the
outlaw Starr, stands a good chance to
succeed his father as town marshal if
tho voters of Stroud. Okla., can keep
his explqit in mind until he grows up.
w.nrir Starr inherited the tendency
to outlawry, aided and developed by
environment and infatuation. He had
been paroled too often, but is at last a
"good Injun.
tf nennin in this Keneration felt as
did those of North and South fifty
years ago, the celebration ot tne anni
versary of Lee's surrender would be a
joyous affair.
The Albanians are having a little
war of their own. How could they
possibly keep quiet when all their
neighbors are engaged in their favor
ite sport?
nra i onnnrtunitv for real Brvanic
diplomacy in overriding the Spokane
ordinance to prevent the Chinese laun
drymen from working overtime and on
Sunday.
f hierh grade of civili
zation is shown in the elopement from
Washington of tne Doy oi h ana me
girl of 15. Cavemen had no such pre
cocity. Cnain riartirot hostile intentions
toward Portugal, which is easy to be
lieve. After the war tne victor win
bump their heads to keep them docile.
The "Prinz Eitel is the mouse in the
with the terriers ranged outside
watchfully waiting, and the mouse may
put one over in tne scramDie.
Rnenio River fruitgrowers will not
take chances and are loading up with
smudge oil to combat late irosts.
Th innocent hvstander at the Mex
ican border continues to figure in the
casualties.
Postponing the fight at Havana a
day merely prolongs the agony. " .
. March is making feeble effort to go
out like a lion. . ,
Twenty-Five Year Ago
From The Oregonian, March 29, 1890.
Louisville. Ky, was hit by a terrible
cyclone the night of March 27. and the
western portion of the city practically
destroyed. It is supposed about 100
people lost their lives. The information
came from Jeffersonville. Ind. The
storm was general through the Western
Central states according to advices filt
ering in.
Spokane Falls. Jack Carrere, a well
known newspaper man and recently
secretarv of United States Senator W.
C. Squire, has filed suit for divorce
from his wife Ellen.
Washington. The Wyoming admis
sion bill was passed in the House
March 27; the Democratics putting up
solid opposition. McAdoo, of New Jer
sey said the constitution, if not the
worst was abreast of the worst ever
written for a state.
Olympia. Wash., March 27. This af
ternoon, Charles J. HaileB, of the Ta
coma Ledger, Vincent A. Ryan, of the
Seattle Press and Edgar B. Piper, of
the Seattle Post-Intelligencer were each
presented with a beautiful gold headed
cane and gold pen, by members of the
House, as a token of appreciation of
their work, during the session.
. By personal request of the pastor.
Judge George H. Williams on Sunday
evening at the First Congregational
church will deliver his address, "Is
the Bible the Word of God?"
The long continued absence of Nicho
las Luguft, who was employed as confi
dential clerk by M. G. Griffin, real estate
agent, is causing his many friends much
anxiety. He left Portland about two
weeks ago for Astoria to meet his
mother who was to arrive from Russia.
His mother is known to be quite
wealthy and his father is an officer
In the Russian army. Luguff had no
reason for disappearing; his accounts
are perfect and there was no woman in
the case.
Eugene is excited. The Council
passed a cow ordinance - a few days
ago but for some reason his excellency
the Mayor vetoed It. Now the Council
has put the ordinance over the Mayor's
veto, and no longer may bossie cavort
or browse along the boulevards.
Vice President Holcomb, of the Union
Pacific, and his party were accommo
dated with rooms at the Portland yes
terday when they arrived, but Manager
Leland said he could not take board
ers yet.
4
L. L. Hawkins has received a letter
from Captain Noyes, of the Colons,
stating that Ralph Hoyt, who went
across to Hongkong for the benefit of
his health, has grown so fat that in
order to bring him back it will be
necessary to leave some of the cargo.
Dr. George H. Chance has returned
after a two weeks' visit in the East.
The Chamber of Commerce building
is an assured fact and it will be one
of the finest buildings in the City, as
it should be. The funds necessary will
be forthcoming frfm the business men
and the question'of a site is now the
only obstacle.
DESIGN AS STUDY IV SCHOOLS
Process of Conatroction Is Taaaht and
Interest In Aroused.
PORTLAND, March 28. (To the Ed
itor.) A few years ago design was un
known in the public schools. It was
not thought of in connection with the
education of children. Now It la con
sidered a necessary and valuable asset
in the curriculum, and no school Is
without it.
The country schools treat it superfi
cially, for several reasons. First, the
teachers available are not trained for
it, and teachers on a small salary do
not spend it on expensive tuition dur
ing vacation. Second, the funds to run
a small country school are always In
adequate for -ft specially trained
teacher, materials and equipment.
Third, the individual expenses of the
child have to be kept next to nothing,
and requisites for designing are num
erous and expensive. Fourth, parents
do not see the advisability of study and,
when acting on the School Board, vote
against it.
But former President Elliot, of Har
vard, speaks 'ery decidedly for de
sign in all the schools, and makes a
positive plea for it In an address in
which he says design is one of the most
important studies and should be classed
with the three Rs and on no account
should it be slighted. It is a little
surprising to hear this from him.
Should we follow the work done In
the city schools by the children we
would see their delight in producing
something at once useful and orna
mental, and the amount of planning
carried on by the very children who,
perhaps, pay little attention to studies
when thought of as such, do exoellent
production work. The children of the
city, especially, need the training to
supplement the lack in the home,
where everything is done for them and
everything comes to them in the fin
ished state. They seldom see processes
of construction. The country children
have the advantage, there, they are
accustomed daily to watch and take
part in handling raw material and
fashioning it into something for use.
If the teachers all over the country
could study design in some of the best
normal schools, such as the Normal
School at Engiewood, 111, at Pratt In
stitute, New York, or the Chicago
School of Design and Applied Arts,
then they would understand the
psychological reasoning of the prob
lems and take a greater interest.
When the teacher has interest the
children do creditable work. There is
no doubt that this is the secret of the
good work done at Columbia College
and at the Chicago School of Design.
There is so much good in this study
that it has spread in all directions,
and the realization of this is noticed
in the colleges, -where it Is taught, not
necessarily as normal work, but as a
part of the general curriculum, to
train the observation and feeling.
Design is that which makes a work
of art a unit, a whole rather than a
collection of unrelated things.
This general spread of taste will be
shown in purchases and, as better
goods are demanded, the stores will
handle more artistic things. Examples
of this are mission furniture, Morris
patterns in chintz, conventionalized de-'
sign and simplicity in all things.
CHERIE M. DUPEE.
Coarse In Salesmanship.
PORTLAND. March 23. (To the Ed
itor.) Please tell me if a person can
take a salesmanship course at night
school and if he can start now, and
where the school is. Do you also know
the fees that are to be paid?
"A READER."
A new class In salesmanship Is form
ing at the Y. M. C. A. night school. The
complete outline of the course and all
particulars as to class work can be
had by application to A. J. Robinson,
business education secretary. Y. M. C.
A.
College Education Helps.
Baltimore American.
"Do you really believe college educa
tion helps a young man in business
life?" "I know it does. At college my
boy was the champion sprinter of hia
class, and now he has a Job as bank-
rjjaner.
4
THINGS THAT CAUSE DEPRESSION
Labor Coatroverelra and Tariff Revi
sion Are. Held to Blame.
PORTLAND, March 27. (To the Fdl
tor.) Wherever two meet nowadays
the question, "what's the matter with
the country?" is almost sure to
asked. The present condition of busi
ness is a riddle. Our acres are broad
and productive; our mines are not all
worked out: transportation facilities
were never better; new lines of railroad
span the continent; the Panama Canal
is finished: our factories are well
equipped with modern machinery. Why
should we not have general prosper
ity? Certainly with such resources all
industrious Americans should be living
in content and comfort. And yet pros
perity hangs back.
Money is plenty In the banks, food
stuffs abundant, with farmers getting
sky-high prices for wheat and meat,
and yet In the midst of it all; an in
dustrial and commercial depression
overspreads the land. "Manufacturers
and merchants find it Impossible to
market their goods, while the rail
roads, the best index of the country's
condition, are pushed for money to
meet operating expenses, and to pay
interest on their bonds. The situation
is not only perplexing, it is pitiful.
Who is responsible for all this? Why
should the industries of the country
thus be crippled, trade everywhere
paralyzed, capital idle, and thousands
of laboring men with their families
starved in this the most bountiful coun
try under the stars?,
Can It be charged to the European
war? That no doubt In some ways ag
gravates the situation, but we were
swamped before that war broke loose.
What, then. Is the trouble?
A number of things have contributed
to the present anomalous situation.
1. The numerous and vexing strikes
a few years back by labor, ghuttinn
down factories, catching them on the
hip, mills, railroad shops, the normal
moving of trains, and other industries,
Jieldlng workmen a livelihood, wnen
their demands for additional wages
mean bankruptcy to their employers,
who were getting out of the business
no more than livelihood for themselves,
were one cause of the present demor
alization, i
2. A disposition? upon the part of
capital to force and hold the rate of
wages down to a point at which all
business was affected was another con
tributing cause. Cheap labor may bo
after all a doubtful boon to the em
ployer himself. If labor Is shabbily
paid trade must be dull. Wage work
ers are the consumers of goods. If
they can have money to spend there Is
always demand for the merchant's
wares. It Is when the laboring classes
have money in their pockets that every
thing else moves apace.
3. At the most inauspicious time
conceivable the equilibrium of business
was wholly upset by a policy of Na
tional administration which invited the
dumping onto our markets any and all
surplus produced cheaper abroad than
if made here at home. In other words,
it is a policy that for a time may get
foreign commodities at cheaper rates,
by bartering for them the very power
to produce such commodities. This
policy, tested more than once, has al
ways proved disastrous.
The result is, the men and concerns
able to produce business are chary,
and with their money have gone into
hiding. Capable men are afraid and
don't know what to expect. The pres
ent Administration in its frantic efforts
to restore business prosperity la like a
party hunting deer with brass band.
4. In the last analysis, the present
widespread business depression con
tinues, because of a general distrust of
the capabilities of the ruling Adminis
tration to run the country.
C. E. CLINE.
UNITY IN CHILD WELFARE WORK
What's Good for Commercial Organisa
tion Is Good for Sorlal Kntrrprlae.
PORTLAND, March 28. (To the Edi
tor.) The need for centralization and
unification Of our commercial activities,
which is receiving so much publicity at
this time, might, if I mistake not, be
very beneficially applied in some re
spects to child-welfare work. Efforts
should be made to standardize child
welfare activities and at a recent con
ference on child labor in Washington,
D. C, it is reported that there was
urged the compilation of a National
children's charter.
We seem to be working entirely on a
basis of individual effort and co-operation
is practically a dead lutter.
For example, some society interest
ed In education has a school bill
introduced into our Legislature and
lobbies actively for its support. An
organization interested in depend
ent children urges a mothers' pen
sion bill. A child labor committee ad
vocates an amendment to the child la
bor law. Each works Independently of
the others and ignores the close rela
tion that exists among the various in
terests they are seeking to further.
Through the medium of a general
children's charter there could be
grouped all the recognized standards
for work in behalf of children, the
baBic principles of each department
could be clearly set forth, the best
methods of dealing with each problem
prescribed and the relationship among
all the branches of social work for
children defined and emphasised.
In Ohio two years ago all the state
laws affecting children .were codified
by an official commission appointed by
the Governor and today that state las
the only children's code in the United
States and marks the first official step
taken in this country toward standard
izing, simplifying and classifying child
welfare laws by a logical plan.
A National children's charter would,
I believe, not only serve to educate the
public in matters of child-welfare, but
would bring social workers together on
a broad platform and help promote a
sane solution of all these related prob
lems upon a sound foundation of co
operation and Increased Intelligence.
J. G. KILPACr
SOME LIVE WIRE
Knew a boy once.
He was in my class when I was going
to school;
He wasn't very brilliant and he
wasn't nary fool.
Nine times out of ten, he d get his
problems wrong.
But the tenth time, he got 'em right.
He wa'n't never discouraged, but plod
ded right along, .
Alius put up a dandy fight.
We kinder laughed at him. Called
him "Plodding Turk."
He didn't seem to care a bit but kept
risht at his work.
And I:U be darned, while we've-stood
Btill, he's kept on going higher.
Till now, we doff our hats to him.
By gosh, ,
He's some live wirel
Knew a girl once.
She wasn't very pretty, like maybe
you've knowed some.
She wasn't very witty, and she
wasn't very dumb.
Nine times out of ten, she'd never a
word to say.
But the tenth time, she said it right.
She wasn't very assertive, that never
was her way.
Just listened well, and thought a
, mite.
We kinder smiled at her. Called ner
'Just old Nell."
She didn't seem to mind a bit, not so's
we could tell.
But the other day, a book came out,
full of wondrous fire.
And now, we bend the knee to her.
And say.
She's some live wire!
HORACE WILLIAM MacNEAL.
One of the Earlr Settlers.
Judge.
"I hear that they belong to the early
settlers." "Well, you wouldn't think so
if you could see the bill collectors
climbiCsT their front steps."
Half a Century Ago
From The Or;onln, March 2, ISM.
The policy of the Government under
the present Administration Is laid
down in the past. We have still Lin
coln and his Cabinet, with Seward to
guide and wield the diplomacy t'.m
makes the foreign policy and the same
efficient Cabinet offlcerfc and Generals
to handle the Army and Navy. Tlwro
is success in every action of the pres
ent; and achievements for the National
arms wins for the Government conn
dence at home and credit abroad.
New York. Kennedy, who was ar
rested at a concert and since convicted
as a spy. is to be hanged at Lafayette
Saturday next.
Fortress Monroe. In pursuance of a
call of the Mayor of WilmlnKton a
large mnss meeting has been held, tbo
sentiment of which was that the Union
Government would be recognized.
David E. Swan, of Portland, and Miss
Mary Buttle, of Brooklyn, N. Y wese
married at Brooklyn by the Kcv. Lea
Luuueer recently.
Dr. Charles Blach has come to Port
land to reside and practice, lie has
practiced for the last 10 years In New
York.
Chief Engineer Buchtel a few even
ings ago went out gunning a short
distance from the city along ttio Wil
lamette and had just raised his gun to
shoot a bald eagle when the doas cim
rushing by In chase of a fine deer.
Buchtel, thinking the deer more likely
to be brought down, changed his pur
pose and In about an instant killed the
deer. The gun was charged with shot
for ducks. The hide of the deer will
be put on exhibition at Woodard's
gallery.
It la rumored In high circles In the
East that General Joe Hooker Is about
to lead to the altar an accomplished
lady residing within his command.
The trial ot George P. Brals and U.
Baker for the murder of Daniel Do
laney. Sr., on January f last, com
menced In the Circuit Court tf Marlon
County, Judue Boise presiding. March
2V. The jury was obtained the first
day without trouble and the trial Isated
a week, resulting In conviction of both
prisoners. A mors Interesting case of
circumstantial evidence conclusive of
guilt has seldom appeared in criminal
cases hereabouts. When hs reached the
jail at Salem, after the verdict aasini!
him, Bealc went Into fainting fits and
spasms m'hlch lasted an hour. Besle Is
a man of sensibilities and has suffered
intensely during the trial, whllo his
partner in crime has gained flesh dur
ing his confinement.
SCIENTISTS DO NOT IGNORE KVIL
How Mrs. Eddys Followers Look Upon
War and Crime Is Explained.
PORTLAND. March ". (To the Edl.
tor.) In The Oregonian March 34, a
writer makes a very misleading refer
ence to Christian Science. Our friend
conveys the Impression that Christian
Science teaches us to Ignore "warfare,
crime, poverty and sufTorlug" because
they are declared by this science to be
unreal. The word "unreality," as used
In Christian Science, has reference to
that which Is not God-created. The
scriptures teach that' God made ail
things good, and furthor than that ha
is "of purer eyes than to behold evil,
and canst not look on Iniquity. " From
the divine standpoint, therefore, all
forma and phases of human discord
are unreal, even as from the standpoint
of the science of numbers ths state
ment that two and two maks five is
non-existent unreal. The mathema
tician progresses not by Ignoring his
mistakes, but by correcting them, snd
a clear perception of the truth Is the
means by which they are corrected.
Christian Scientists do not Ignore ll,
and discordant human conditions, bill
endeavor to correct them by knowing
the truth about God, and man In Ills
Image and likeness.
In regard to the question of war. the
Christian Scientist's attitude is well
expressed by Mrs. ttddy. Hha says:
"For many years I have prayed dally
that there be no more war, no more
barbarous slaughtering of our follow
beings; prayed that all the peoples on
earth and the Islands of the sea havs
one God, one mind; love God supremely,
and love their neighbor as thsmaelvss."
(The First Church of Christ, Scientist,
and Miscellany, page 2K6.) Again, on
page 27a of the same book, she snys:
"God is fhther. Infinite, and this great
truth, when understood In Its divine
metaphysics, will establish the broth
erhood ot man, end wars and demon
strate 'on earth peace, good will toward
men.' "
From what has been set forth In this
article concerning God and his crea
tion, it may be seen that Christian
Science teaches that "God's will" la al
ways good: that he never wills nor
sends evil or suffering upon any living
creature. "The Christian Science Hod
is universal, eternal, divine love, which
ehangeth not and causeth no evil, dis
ease, nor death." (Science and Health,
page 140.)
F. ELMO ROBINSON.
Christian Science Committee on Publi
cation for Oregon.
Figure on Measures.
FOREST GROVE. Or., March S7.
(To the Editor.) Please Inform me
whether the Interest of the voters In
Initiative and referendum bills is be
coming greater. Where may the fig
ures be found, showing the vote for
the past few years on these measures
in comparison with the vote for Gov
ernor? N. M.
The Oregon Blue Book, obtainable
on application to the Secretary of
State. Salem, gives the total number or
ballots cast at each election and the
number of votes recorded for and
against each measure.
Self-Drnlal In a Strtrar.
Buffalo (N. T.) Express.
"Mr. Jlggs is so polite; he always
gives me his seat In the streetcar."
"Gee, some men will stand for almost
anything."
Ymsatlent Diner C nrfced.
Boston Transcript.
Impatient Diner (to passing waiter)
Hey!
Walter Don't serve It. sir. (Ones nn).
Putting the Cash
In Cash Registers
Every time a manufacturer adver
tises a National product in this
newspaper, he is cre&tlng business
for local merchants. .
He Is putting the buying Impulse
Into possible customers.
Wise merchants sense this as soon
as they see the manufacture rs'
newspaper advertising.
They let the public know their
store Is the beat place to buy theae
particular goods.
They show them In their windows
,and on their counters.
They push while the manufactur
ers' advertisement Is pulling.
And the cssh goes In their own
cash registers.