Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 12, 1915)
TUESDAY, JANUARY 12, 1913.
GOVERNOR REVIEWS STRIDES AND
.Jr. i est, ii raicncu iucssogt m - - .
i . -
SALEM. Or, Jan. 1L Governor
West's message follows:
f ts Honorable, th. Mmbrs of ths
r.-t.T.'(r. r.r th. State of Oreson
OentleitK-n: In keeping with the usual
custom and with the hop of brinfrlnc to
)our attention information and sar-sj'atlon
-wbich will If 4 t lurh ajovernmenlal re
forms a make for reduced ipni ana
. ... -n -nv ' I Mm T.lea-d to sub
mit for the consideration of your honorable
body tills, my last, message as liovernor ol
The four rears Just past have riven us
..n,rtn. l,ria:atlon. While other
per.ods have b-ouht seat fundamental
-! , .... nnimfatll system, none
i... i i 1 -.--:! ton which has cov
ered such a broad field and yielded such
tv. i, ,.r....ht battle of the peop.e for
a-nendmeni. to our Federal Constitution
which would permit the Imposition or an
Income tas and the election of Senators by
a dire.-t vote of the people has been won.
Our le.s!tive bodies, were prompt to ratify
. ..r,.im.n!. and Oreroa IS therefor
i. ...i . tit. wr.tun of Drrsnive states
. i.. . - veu . r. . t reforms.
t. for eaual sufrsae and a drr
i . ...eceufuL Additional safe
tuards have been thrown around the ballot
1 1, roich eitendins; the nonvoting- period of
the newly arrived alien and the o.d bar
barous 'tern of capital punishment has
t-Mimrtlti Laws raaeL
Numerous laws have b-en parsed which
create . broad policy makins for the con
servation and development of our resources
lhe, laws have aided the lnv"tlE""7"0'
l.-r n .ml r-0T poelOl I IteS.
aid the construction of the Tumslo Irlrga
t:on tjatem; have made provision for a
fctate r-or-ster and the protection of cur
timber asalnst fire; nave r.'" 7i
....j. r e mineral resources: have made
. . t.t.,. fe ih oropasatton and
prolectlon of our f.h and same, and have
i.rolded for the publication of a booklet
... ..fn B t Inn tO OI-
""""J which carries to th.
nnv ue o. - . .
ontrol and a splendid sjeie...
reference to the purchase of supplies. The
fe4'.y..rm In ,h. State rrint.n, : Office h
been abolished and the Printer has i been
placed up.H. a flat .-.lary The state now
owns th- println. plant and la saving ".-
h, a yeir our educational Institutions
h. ."been "placed upon a nulla, u.
which Insur.s liberal support and removes
Usm as a factor In legislative log-rolling.
Bogua 1rm lHveo Out.
r-r.etir.llv all public service corporations
h.en" Placed "under t. J""'
i'i. Rallrcad foinmlesuio and a D.ue-j
uZdnr bogus corporation, from our
.t.r .Plrn.lld banking U sr
i have been i.ivcu
regulation of loan sharks.
Neeay mo!..-.- - nlie work-
n'nidlnr C.,;dP.o woTk Iti convicts upon the
PuuH'nhlrhw.vs. The ocean beach ha, been
HZ? i?- eg-ISt-"if b.
nr,.':avry,n.nroeneI'.lmi...8 ,h. sale o.
revolvers.priMo B,form rrgreeS
''Tax-.T'otr than ..ate. collected or to
itla.t.si hr the mvrrt countlo tnn
CUte nd town.-
1.1 M. "''HI
Stat (annual average 1113- rj, 1 2
7tm V'n' VherVforc. that If Poclor
Thorny ouTd V.p out th pW-mlc of
rvT.nc- an ln our tax burdens he
"irt iSJ SnTln. hi- visit, and hi. djj.
71 the ati. but muM well to th
rtumlr. and citi and road and .chool
dlMrlCtfc iNnrl Ta" lner.
K rtatrmnt .hnwinit Croth f PPu1;
, ton. abased valuation and .late tax s
. i... it .itinnL durlnr
uut. hav. been ahsolutelr
The present official
;,,..v.l from politics.
e.d, hav. : bn selected solely upon men,
ami na.o been left free to select the r stlb
"dln.Te. These men hold the safety
welfare of thousanas 01 n"i" "- -r.
J V.. -r .heir hands, and It aould be
instlt itlona back into the siougn oi V"
a . .srr:nn UDOH which the political
bTriU of prey may feed, would find bitter
Institution Berime rrieI.
Our Institutions are rapidly beln placed
n a splend.d condition through the earn.st
:.?.....;.lon of officials and employe, ana
. e nit or int r en1'.
Placed In a class or nsrii.
.n..n..titis will alve one a
A visit to tne
Idea of tne
h.sh standani which obtalrs.
The total expenditures for all purposes In
rocnertlon with our penal and eleemos nary
institution, for the biennlum ending Septem
lr SO. 1KI4. are shown by th. statement
Oresron ftate Hospital
v:as:ern Oregon State Hospital.,
btate InstUuUon lor Feeble
Oretson State Venltentlar.v. . . . . . .
tiregon State Training School....
Oregon state Industrial School
Oregon State Tuberculosis IJosp 1
tireson State School for the Blind
(rrsou Slate School for the Deaf
Oregon state Soldiers' Home....
These figures mean that for eeery In
mate an average annual expenditure or
over $-' Is necessary.
The tottl population of thee- Institutions
on September M, 1P1I. was 30T2. being an
Increase of 4O0, or nearly 15 per cent, during
the btennium. The greatest Increase of pop
ulation ar-peara to have been In our hos
pitals for th. Insan. and our Institution
for the fcble-mlnded. The combined pop
v atlon of these two Institutlona shows an
lacreas- of JI per cenu This growth of
population Is alrmln and drives h.1" ,0
us the necessity of giving earnest tlAjught
public the needs of th. different
rnent. of state has b-en provided for .too
th. audltinB of the accounts or s al- and
county officiala handling pub.ic '"no-
nal and ciecmo. r -
I on. er single wi--i o
1. ... ' ...,...r..n..n act and nunimuiu ---
. . nih.e -niPTidld measure
.J ."e products of the past rV"ilS
' our state government V,,? J Vjt
is hut ciMtt In round numbers ''
this amount. --b ' . ny trr, and unused
tniatlon and I hew ";", annual amount
;;,.,dPr'rec,T';axV.rorn':durlng the said
i "';-" ;;:;;iii;6oo
I""' "' 100.000
v.'ij T so.'ooo
It will ba noted that while our PPU':
tlon has mcrea.e.1 K' PT cent In the last
O j.arV our direct state tai.es have ln
.'reased -t r'r rent and that while the
'". r the lt'13-14 blcnnml
I. "lr ml", a, .ra.nai mill.
! iv.3 4 our ass-seed valuation has In-
lVsTSr SZTVX: a"-
?f .0 DC- cent. It Is reasonable to assume
fiat JT sat n Increase In the cost of
cou,;.nTc.!r sovernmen, . taken plaej
in th tate government, and If so, oui
and 'sovernmen, 1. .ln
io per cent more p- r capita than In -'-
in Th.J words. !er capita .cos of enr
government was no more today "'"
4 a savins of SU.OvO.WO would resu.t an
calamity sn.m.a uir.r . , ,V. ranks
r.Milb-U of politics. There are In the ranks
!f .M parties those who believe In the old
dcH-tr re "to the victors b- lone thj 'ir'1"
Sml -hv insist that our I"";"""""
provide berths for the faithful. The ureal
majo.y. however. tr.ke a .Ulferent view of
' J t nv -ttemn. to throw these
rv... if TeiatnrA Prnisp Prison Pnliev. Warns Dry Forces to Prepare for Difficulties, Pleads for Economy
and study to the cansea which produce thia
grat army of dependents.
The records covering; the I'nlted States
appear to show that each inmate of a state
penal or elemosynar? institution represents
an expenditure of $10-0 in lands, buildings
and equipment. Oregon has been far more
liberal in thia direction than most states,
and 1IK is a very low figure upon which
ro bane an estimate. Figuring upon thia
basis, however, and from recorda available,
it will be found that we have over 3.0O0.000
invented in land, buildings and equipment
devoied to Institutional purposes.
Our annual expenditure for maintenance
runs about iW.'i.W'O, and for ordinary im
provement 2-"O.O00: taken together. It
means that when a charge la committed to
our state Institutions the taxpayer must
contribute $H0 to provide shelter and. an.
Dually ih-reafter. 73 for improvements and
repair and J 21 6 for maintenance.
These growing expenditures present ques
tion of deej concern to the taxpayer of
the state and to society in general. Prob
lems bearing upon the care of these un
fortunates are being met by the official
of our institution, but those having to do
with the removal of the causes which pro
duce these dependents are largely xor your
Drug; and Ram Blamed.
Tn :udylng this question it will be found
that alcohol and habit-forming drugs
twin vlls are larcelv responsible for the
population of our penitentiary and asyiums.
By voting the state dry the people have
taken a long step towarn removing ouv
of the cause. It I incumoenc upon jou,
therefore, to take the next step, and tnrougn
unnrunriat leelslatlon restrict, if not pre
vent, the tale of habit-forming drugs. Meas
ure aime-1 to check this awful evil have
heretofore been launched upon the legisla
tive -sea. but have been driven upon ine
rooks or sent Into port in a battered and
worthless condition. Under our law a hun
dred gates are open to those who wouia
engage in the illicit traffic of these drug.
No dimd thnuld be permitted to capitalize
th) uMkhM of an unfortunate nromer,
.ml hm hn enrasea In or nrotcct this traf
tie will have much to answer for when he
ftianrts hefor the .-rent last tribunal. Should
this lPKHlatur perform no other duty tnan
Hi.: of restricting the sale of hablt-forrolng
drug.. It will he entitled to the thank of
ail good people.
Out Hide Insane Sent to Stale.
Onlv 1.1 per cnt of those admitted to our
honi.itals for the insane during the past
bien ilium were native Oregonians; 30 per
cent were found to be natives of other
states and HI per cent of foreign countries.
Oregon has long been the dumping-ground
for the insane of all states and nations.
Th present Board of Control and Institu
tional hettds have adopted a vigorous policy
of deportation and repatriation, with a re
sult that 141! persons have been returned to
their home states or foreign countries dur
ing the pat biennlum. Had these charges
been retained in our Institutions and lived
the period of their expectancy they would
have cost the state nearly $1.10.000 for main
tenance alone. This policy of deportation
deeply concerns the taxpayers of the state
and 1 one wnicn snouia. do given cij
No other state in the L'nlon has done more
to nrovide for the treatment and comfort
of It insane and feeble-minded than Ore
gon. Commodious buildings, well equipped
and surrounded by beautiful grounds, offer
a safe retreat for these unfortunates. Broad
acres of productive land and orchard yield
ing bountifully provide a wholesome food
suddIv. One has to but visit these instltu
tlons to be impressed with the great strides
whirl, have been made in institutional man,
Prison "Bathed and Aired.
Great change have taken place In and
about the prison during the pat four years.
The Institution has been given a bath, a
supply of e'ean clothe and plenty of fresh
air. All buildings and structures have been
placed in good condition and painted. Im
nroved ventilating facilities have been in-
.stalled and the old, obsolete and expensive
system of heating has given way to an
m proved system with a central neating
plant. Forty-eight new steel cells have been
built with the expenditure of an appropria
te n Intended for but one-naic mat num
ber. An automatic telephone system now
connects all department, including the
guardhouse, and through the Installation
of a. new electrical system all wires have
been placed in conduits, A long-needed cold
storage and ice plant nas oeen auuea nu
is giving splendid results. The guards'
old Quarter, over the administration build
ing, have been turned Into a women's ward.
The guards have been provided with new
quarters through the remodeling of the old
brick stable near the prison entrance. Old
barns have been rebuilt and long-needed
shelter shed provided for the farm ma
chinery. Alodel chicken and hoghousea have
been constructed and every effort made to
develop theee industries.
(.rounds Made Beautiful.
In the prison yard disorder has given
way to order; grassy plots, cement walks
and good roadway have taken the plac
of rubbish and debris. Roaua leading to
other tate institution have been improved,
and a large acreage of prison lands cleared,
drained and placed In cultivation. The low
ground along Mill Creek, near the prison
entrance Is being filled in and certain nat
ural advantage turned to good acocunt.
An unsightly tract of land will thu be
transformed into one of beauty.
With a view of utilizing the surplus labor
of the prison, former Industries have been
enlarged and new one established. The old
brickyard has given way to a modern plant,
the Innd and equipment for which were
purchased with prison earnings. A dram
tile plant ha hen lately Installed and Is
proving profitable venture. The shoe
shop and the tailor shop have been en-
. ..0 State tax
nied br direct rate of levy
. ; ;s2 .'!( 4 3 S.'l
l.L".'.".HH).0i) 7.06 8
4.160,000.00 4.S0 2.8
r.o.V.ui i.T ..'"
l.trged and provided rrlth needed equipment.
The blacksmith, machine, tin, carpenter and
paint shops absorb a share of the surplus
labor and produce good returns far the
state. Tit prison and other institutional
farms and the county roads jff-r further
means for taking csre ot the prison labor.
It was found that a char.se of plans
wou'd save the expenditure of a large part
of an appropriation made by the last Legis
lature for Improvements and the sum of
$'S50 mi therefore being returned to the
general fund. The revolving fund .Tested
at the last session of the legislature has
grown rapidly and now contains nearly
i:.ono in cash and stock.
The reclamstlon of waste prison lands.
Imptovement of its dairy herd and suc
cess In hogralslng have surprisingly re
duced the maintenance cost. Our appro
priation for maintenance has not only been
ample, but has taken care of many Insti
tutional neeile, which otherwise would have
necessitated special appropriations.
Critics of our prison policies hare made
much of the fact that we found 1.20O.0O0
brick on hand when taking over the Insti
tution in January. 1911. They claim we
have taken credit for products of a former
administration. For the Information of
these critics. I wish to say that notwith
standing the fact that we have manufac
tured and sold several million of brick and
delivered about 300.000 to other state insti
tutions free of charge, wo have on the yard
and ready to turn over to the succeeding
sdmlnletratioa practically the same num
ber as came into our hands upon taklog
Oregon has taken the lead In prison re
form and with most satisfactory results.
Many good people, however, through lack
of information as to our true aim and pur
pose, have thrown obstacles in the way
which have made progress most difficult.
Notwithstanding statements often made to
the contrarv. we have never lost sight of
the fact that the prison was a place of
punishment; nor have we. on the other
hand, forgotten that a prison should be a
place of reformation. Society should bs
more concerned In the reformation of the
man than in his punishment.
Tarule System Vpheld.
There is an Impression abroad that the
policy of paroling prisoners which has been
inaugurated and maintained during the past
few years has been too liheral and has prac
tically done away with punishment for crime
It will no doubt surprise those who have
h-en most critical to learn that from June
3i. lull, the lime when the new parole
law was put Into actual practice, to June
30, 11114. the average time served by pris
oners carrying indeterminate sentences wss
IS. months, and that the average time
s-rve.l during the previous four years by
the same class, most of whom were serving
a definite sentence, was IT. 6 months. In
other words, offenders of the same class
are serving a looser time under the present
law than under the old.
When we take Into consideration the fear
ful conditions which have In the past pre
vailed in many ot the penal Institutions
throughout the land and which prevail In
many of them today, and think what prison
reform means to hundreds of thousands of
unfortuna'.e Individuals, we ask ourselves
why we have been so long In coming to our
sens-s In this direction. The trouble is, we
havo from time Immemorial been giving
. ----- .................
0UTG0ING GOVERNOR, WHOSE MESSAGE TO LEGISLATURE
WaAS DISTRIBUTED YESTERDAY.
'i - - W:-
more thought to property rights than to
personal rishts; more thought to the pro
tection of the thing than to the protection
of the person. In other words, we have
been placing the dollar above the man. and
wo have yet to get away from that prac
tice. It was not many generations ago that
it was the custom across the waters to mete
out the severest punishment to those who
dared trespass In the slightest degree upon
property rights. For petty offenses men
were degraded, their ears were cut off.
their nostrils were slit and they were
branded upon the forehead or in the hand.
Sim- nf this old snlrit has been handed
down to this day and we see It breaking out
occasionally through an Insistence upon tue
lash and the dungeon and the prison labor
Otvine to centuries of effort upon the part
of many, who have controlled the wealth
of the land, to throw protection arouim
property and their unpardonable neglect
to accord the same consideration to Individ,
uals. there has grown ud through custom
and usage an overbalanced regard for prop
erty rights and an undemaiancea regaru
for the rights of the person. -A little more
thought to the protection or our unionuimit;
hrnihpr and less concern for the aitniehty
dollar would go far to strengthen our Gov
ernment and spread happiness throughout
As a rule, men d not become criminals
from choice. They are largely victims 01
circumstance. Health, prosperity and hap
piness usually follow the route of an up
right life; no normal human being will,
therefore, deliberately turn from this pleas
ant pathway to the byway of crime, which
he knows will lead only to his downfall.
Prison tabor Is Problem.
Day by day the factories of poverty, vice
and greed are grinding out a steady stream
of criminals and defectives. Heroic work
is heine- done by unselfish workers, who
seek these floaters upon the sea of life and
bring them ashore, but tl.ose tn touch with
the situation know that for every one res
cued a dozen are carried to sea. As far
as tho care of the prisoner is concerned,
the fight in this state has been won, but the
big. never-ending battle Is for the removal
of the causes which make criminals and
One of the most annoying questions m
connection with prison reform betore tne
people today is the utilization of pur prison
ithnr R.lievina organized labor to be op
posed to tho working of convicts, the po-
itlcally ambitious nave Deen uiiaiu, o
role, to take hold of tho matter. i nese
gentlemen would undoubtedly be surprised
to learn that organized labor has done more
toward the solution of this problem than
any other agency, although It Is bitterly
opposed, and properly so, to tho contract
system and the placing of convicts In direct
competition with free men. The reason for
thi. oiinnalilon is that the nrlson contractor
can produce cheaper than the manufacturer
who employs tree laoor si living -s
Is in position to undersell In the markets of
the world. His price, therefore, becomes the
price at which all must sell, and the em
ployer of free Inbor Is driven to reduce
wages to meet this unfair competition.
If a careful classification 01 .no pn.-
ers Is made and those who can mm
placed In "honor camps" and employed at
institutional farm work or in the construc
tion and maintenance of public roads, and
others employed In the upkeep and main
tenance of the prison and In the manufac
ture of articles for the use of state Institu
tions it will be found that prison labor
,i...rh,il in a direction which
will reduce to a minimum competition with
Employment Plan Laudel.
Those who have given the question care-
1.. ihoi the state use system
offers one of the best solutions to the prob
Our laws provide:
-am u-a,-a nf the state who are capable
of a reasonable amount of work without
physical or mental injury 10 ii.uj..
shall he used as fully as possible In the
production and manufacture of articles for
the use of, and In the performance of labor
for the state, but It shall be unlawful .
. to enter into any agreement or con
tract with any private person, firm ot cor
poration for the employment of convicts .
or to place prison-made goods on sale
in open market In competition with prod
ucts of free labor."
With the view of providing employment
for the men left Idle through the abolish
ment of the stove foundry contract, various
industries, as heretofore mentioned, have
been Installed for the purpose of supplying
certain institutional needs. If the system
is extended the state will be In position
not only to absorb Its prison labor, but to
offer a variety of employment to the pris
oners and by "assigning to each a task for
whi-h he la best suited, prevent that great
economic waste which prevails in those
prisons where no particular thought Is given
to such questions.
The prison is surrounded by several hun
dred acres of productive agricultural land,
where outdoor employment is given to a
large number of men. Hogs, poultry and
a fine dairy herd, together with an abund
ance of farm and garden products, enable
us to provide good, wholesome food for the
lnmstes of the Institution and at the lowest
Work on Bond Beneficial.
Tho voters of this state recently declared
in favor of working prisoners upon the
county roads, and at tho several state In
stitutions. The law provides:
Upon the written request of the County
r-,,et nf RDt count v in the State of Oregon,
or any superintendent of any state lnstltu-1
tion. the Governor may aeian irum iu
State Penitentiary such convicts as In his
Judgment may seem proper for use on the
public highways, or on or about any state
institution. Said convicts shall be delivered
to any County Court, or the superintendent
of any stats institution on such terms and
conditions as shall be prescribed by the
Parole Board and approved by the Gover
nor." We have from time to time worked
large number of our prisoners upon the
county roads, and our experience convinces
us that, beyond a doubt, road work offers
a profitable and desirable means of employ
ment for a large portion of our prison pop
ulation. Until recently we have had but few Idle
men at the prison, but the recent closing
down of outdoor work on account of Win
ter has placed 150 men upon the idle list.
These men will be returned to work as
soon as the weather permits.
In past years- the duty of delivering in
sane and prisoners to our state institutions
fell to the Sheriffs of the several counties.
A few years ago tho transportation of
Insane was taken from their hands and
given over to the hospital officials and the
change has resulted in reducing the ex
pense more than 00 per cent. Convicts,
however, are still transported under the
old system, and their delivery at the peni
tentiary is costing the taxpayers three times
as much as for the delivery of patients at
the state hospitals. Several efforts have
been made to secure reform legislation along
these lines, but the ever-present Sheriffs'
lobby has prevented it. Tho interests of the
taxpayers demand that this old expensive
system be changed and the transportation
of convicts given over to tho penitentiary
Land Office Work IJsted.
The State Land Board has control ot all
lands granted to the state for the support
of its educational institutions, and the in
vestment of funds arisii.g trora the sale
thereof. The grant from the Federal Gov
ernment amounted to nearly 4,000,000 acres,
Capitol buildins grant
Prior to the year 1903 these lands were
sold without regard to their true value, the
ruling price being:
$1.25 and 2.30
Swamp lands . .
College lands . . .
The records of the State Land Office ap
pear to Bhow that upon January 1, 1903, 3,
000,000 acres, or three-quarters of the en
tire grant, had been sold at an average
price of $1.40" per acre.
Little was ever realized from the sale of
our inamp lands, as the greater part of the
proceeds from legitimate sales were used
In the payment of interest upon awamp
land warrants which had been issued in re
payment of moneys paid upon lands to which
the state could not convey title. Some of
the money thus derived was also used In
construction of the old Dalles-Portland
wagon road. The state is still entitled to
several thousand acres of land under the
swamp grant, but it seems next to im
possible to secure patent on account of the
red tape entanglements which surround the
General Land Office.
Since January, 1903, the State Land Board
has made an effort to realize something near
the true value of our lands. Notwithstand
ing the best has long since been sold, the
minimum price has steadily advanced and
handsome figures have marked the sale of
many tracts. The average price received
during the past 10 years has been about
$5 per acre.
Clearings of Titles Proceed.
As a result of an early-day practice of
selling lands and issuing deeds before patent
had been obtained, the state had outstand
ing many defective titles. Through check
ing the records all such titles have been un
covered and every effort is being made to
reach the claimants and repay the purchase
price. When a few remaining transactions
have been cleaned up a deed from the state
will always stand as an evidence of good
The state has pending in the General Land
Office at Washington school Indemnity lists
covering about $14,000 acres of land selected
in lieu cf a like amount of surveyed and
unsurveyed sen op lands within the bounda
ries of Federal forests. The Government
questions the validity of the base offered
for these selections, but the state Insists
It is valid and that patents should issue In
due course. The compact entered Into with
the Federal Government at the time of the
state's admission to the Union provides:
"Sections 16 and 36 In every township ot
public lands In the state, and where either
of said sections, or any part thereof, has
been sold or otherwise disposed of, other
lands equivalent thereto and as contiguous
as may be, shall be granted to said state
for the use of the schools."
An act of Congress, approved February 23,
"Lands of equal acreage are ....
hereby appropriated and granted and may
be selected by said state. . . where sec
tions 16 and 36 are . . . included within
any ... reservation."
Timber Instead of Land Asked.
Tho department, according to Information
received, is inclined to follow a ruling In
a State of Washington case (State vs. Whit
ney, 120 Pac. 116), in which the court held
that the school grant was a grant in praes
enti and took effect on the date of the
adoption of the state's constitution and the
affirming of the enabling act. It was also
held that Congress could not change the
provisions of the grant. If this ruiling is
followed it will not only prevent the making
of further selections upon surveyed forest
reserve base, but will cast a cloud upon
titles covering thousands of acres of in
demnity lands heretofore selected upon
similar base and patented to the state
The state has been endeavoring to secure
the permission of Congress to exchange
about -45,000 acres of scattered school sec
tions In the Federal forests of this state for
a compact body of timber. Should the
exchange be affected upon the proposed acre-for-acre
basis, it will prove a very profitable
transaction for Oregon.
It being discovered that the beds and
roffri of Summer and Abert Lakes, In Lake
County, contained valuable deposits of min
eral salts, and there being numerous appli
cations to lease these proprieties, tn btate i
SETBACKS OF THE STATE
Land Board advertised for bids Ihowj
Mr. Jnson C. Moore was me buwc-"
der. The lease, which was made subject to
vour approval, will run for a period of 40
years. The state is to receive royalties as
follows for all commercial salts:
Fifty cents per ton for potassium salts.
Ten cents per ton for sodium chloride
Twenty-five cents per ton for other salts.
Should the royalties fall below SH.VOOO In
. .1 I A cum etVldl I be
any one year, iue -
paid in lieu thereof, and as a renuil for tne
premises for the said year.
A report made by the State Bureau or
Mines and Geology covering these deposits
is on file with the clrk of the btate Land
Board. . ,
T-he beds of our navigable streams belong
. . . i 1 Vi on rrrv de-
IO tne smie it-iiu 3
posits of sand and gravel having conslder-
a.Oie commercjai wmuc a.,-.. - -concern
engaged In the sale of such ma
terials. ODiaimns men buf.
- . r .-lAlrlintr rov
Deas ot earn L.eix.B wi.-v i - -
alties to the state. While it is true that
the removal of such materials aids naviga
tion at BOme pomus, jtri ... o u" " " . 1Z
right that the common school fund or tne
state snouia snare in ie PIU111D ,
from auch sales. Legislation, therefore.
making it uniawiui iur :
materials for commercial purposes without
, , 1 . -nm fitntsk T.nnd
first ODtammg a permit. -
. . t j 1 . 1 a xnna liarfth a rev
iJOara WUUIU reouu iu a. - -
Large sums are lost to the state annually
tnrougn tne unbusinesslike m-m.a ,
escheats are bandied. Inasmuch as the school
. ... . . y : i . aii B,iih sxtrntes.
tuna is tne oeneiiwBU ' "a-"
the matter should be controlled by the
State Lana uoaru, ah "iisaiwu "'"
be under the direction of the Attorney
General, who should have authority to call
upon District Attorneys for assistance.
According to official reports, tho amount
of cash and securities on hand September
GO 1914. in the educational funds, was
$6!"09,r.S9.Sl. The manner in which these
funds are invested is snown oy me j-u-lowing
Common School Iund Principal.
Loans secured by first mortgage
Certificates of sale -s",-?Sf'
Agricultural College Fund Principal.
Loans secure J by first mortgage
eool r,ir1v S 1S9.176.47
Certificates of eale 1,960.00
V'nlverslty Fund Principal.
Tann sociirprl Yv first niortcace
on real property $
cives the State Land
Board full control over the investment of
the funds arising from the sale of state
lands. Our courts l ave held that this power
of control cannot be taken from the State
Land Board and placed in other hands. A
customfof turning these securities over to
the State Treasurer has grown out of the
pat, with a result that tncir conuiuon i
never known to tho other members of the
board. This practice leads to neglect of
duty upon their part and practically leaves
tho matter of calling and extending pay
ments to the State Treasurer. While State
Land Boards, past and present, have made
reports covering these securities, none of
them has ever been based upon first-hand
information, but solely upon data furnished
by the State Treasurer's office.
For tho purpose of securing a further
ruling of the courts upon this most im
portant question, an order was entered by
the board, under the date of November 13.
1913, directing the transfer of all sucn
otes and securities from the office of the
State Treasurer to tne oinoe oi tne owiw
Lund Board. Upon the State Treasurer's
refusal to turn over the securities man
damus proceedings were instituted that the
questions Involved might be adjudicated at
an early date and needed legislation se
cured at the hands of your honorable body.
Big School Fund Involved.
While the matter was heard by the Cir
cuit Court and an early decision favorable
to the State Land Board rendered, it was
the gossip of tho street that an appeal would
be taken and an endeavor made to delay
the hearing until after the fall election,
and, If possible, until after the adjournment
of the Legislature. It appears this rumor
was well founded, for th State Treasurer,
aided by the retiring Attorney-General, has
interposed delays until the contest Is all
but forgotten. Had the proceedings been
expedited it would havo been possible for
the Supreme Court to have heard the mat
ter and rendered a decision prior to the con
vening of this Legislature.
The .safety of $6,400,000, the heritage of
the school children of this state is in
volved In this contest. The Circuit Court
has held that the State Land Board la
the lawful custodian of the securities. They
are, therefore, being arbitrarily held with
out authority of law by the State Treasurer
and without being protected by a bond.
Tho State Treasurer is bonded only for
the faithful performance of the duties of
his office, and since the Investment of the
school fund and the custody of the secur
ities is a constitutional duty imposed upon
the State Land Board, the State Treasurer's
bond would not insure protection. The clerk
of the State Land Board Is the lawful
custodian of all records and securities and
is the only one from whom the board
appears to have authority of law to demand
a bond, and which may be fixed In such
a sum as the board sees fit. While these
securities may bo in safe hands today, they
may be In unsafe hands tomorrow. The re
cent experience of a neighboring state
teaches us that even State Treasurers go
wrong. It Is your duty, therefore, to take
such action in tho premises as will in
sure the school fund protection.
Old System Called "Graft."
Bookkeeping methods adopted In the
early fee-ystem days of the State Treas
urer's office provided for a number of
separate "funds." When the cash on hand
in any "fund" became exhausted warrants
drawn thereon were "indorsed." and,
through underground methods, taken up
with cash available in other funds and
the Interest earnings turned to personal
While the said system of graft has been
done away with, nearly 60 separate "funds"
still exist. Although there were several
hundred thousand dollars in cash in the
hands of the State Treasurer at all flmea
during the past year, the state paid over
$24,000 In interest upon "indorsed" warrants
drawn against tneso - mere oooKKeepmg
"funds." While there can be no objection
to tho maintenance of separate funds mere-
lv as a matter of bookkeeping, most of I
them should be eliminated as far as segre
gation of cash Is concerned. Such action
would practically put an end to the indorse
ment of warrants and the payment of in
terest. The act appropriating moneys for the
aupport of the State Treasurer' office
provides that the appropriated sums, and no
more, shall be used. It appears, however,
that for a number of years the Treasury
Department has drawn upon the common
school fund for additional aums for the
payment of clerk hire. Expenditures from
the said fund to the extent of $30,000 have
been made from time to tlmo for such
purposes. It seems impossible to end this
practice, as $9600 has been taken from the
common school fund for the support of
the said department during the term of tho
Fond Method Opposed.
The full amount of the said expenditures
should be returned to the school fund, as
under the terms or tne x eaerai grant an ,
funds arising from the sale of school lands
must be used only for the support of the
common schools. The procuring of funds
for the use of a department by Indirect j
methods Is one of the abuses which lead j
to extravagance ifi our state government.
Departments snouia De maae to aepenu
upon the Legislature, for support.
State Printing Department.
It Is with pleasure that I report the
progress which has been made in the direc
tion of a more businesslike ana economical
administration of the affairs of the State '
Printing Department. The old fee system
having recently been abolished, the State
Printer is at last on a flat salary and ,
the state Is the owner of a well-equipped i
ThnM who have honestly opposed the
state ownership movement have based their j
opposition largely upon tne tneory mai mo
change would lead to extravagance and (
graft. Whether this charge shall prove :
t-n rMtK entirely with the Governor, Sec
retary of State and State Treasure!- the
board Having tne coairui auu iuus .
of this department.
There is bouna to do preesuio ui""6i
bear from time to time by those who have
somathinif tm noil to induce the Leeislaiure
or the board to make liberal, if not need
less expenditures for equipment. ims
something which must be guarded against,
as the plant is now large enough to meet
the ordinary legitimate demands of the
-.r sHnuid an emergency arise at any
time, the board Is in position to meet the
situation by contracting mouxv ui mo ww
to commercial printers.
Th r.ior.r a it stands today represents In
mimhon an investment of $20,000,
and while there is no occasion for increasing
rhsi ms nrOVlSlon BHOUia DO UlaUB m iu
time tor taking care of the depreciation!
and Recommends Abolishment of Several Bureaus.
-hlr)i to KntiTtrt in Appur. and to this end I
would recommend that the board be author
ized to set aside each year out of the earn
ings of the plant a limited amount say 10
per cent of Its value, or SHOOO for tne
., Kl sn r and m s i n t an nn OA nt M. deDreda-
tlon fund, out of wbiih shall be made all
necessary renewals and repairs. This ar
rangement will Insure the keeping of the slse
of the plant within reasonable bounds and
oreveat the possibility of the Legislature
being annoyed with requests for appropria
tions for needless equipment.
Th niH rnstom of nDaroDrl & t in k large
sums for public printing and permitting de
partments to alp tn to tneir neari cwi'i"".
should be forever ended, as such a prut tie
makes for waste and extravagance. Each
rten-rrment should pay for Its printing from
Its own appropriation, and if this change is
adopted it will result In more thought be
ing given to economy ana a. icmii
belnir made in our annual outlay for printing.
A statement recently issued by the State
Printing Board, and which follows, will fully
advise you as to the expenditures which have
been made for printing (exclusive of the
purchase of the plants during the last two
biennial periods, and some idea of the sav
ing which is being made under the new
"State Capitol. Salem, Oregon, November
20, 1914. To the Public: Owing to the con
fusion which exists in the mind of the pub
lic In reference to the cost of state print
ing, the following statement has been pre
pared with a view of showing Just what has
been expended during the past two biennial
Cost of Printing. 1911-1913.
Printing, ruling, binding, paper,
etc. (printing fund) 1102,202.57
Printing and binding Supreme
Court reports 12.600.00
Printing paid for by departments
Printing, ruling, binding, paper
etc. (printing fund) $ 84.299.28
Printing and- binding Supremo
Court reports 7.425.00
Printing to be paid for by depart
ments (approximate) 31,275.72
"'Although the demands upon tho State
Printing Department are increasing from
year to year, it will be seen that the ex
penditures for printing during the 1913-1914
biennial period will be 117,000.00 less than
"The reduction of expenditures for the
present biennial period Is due to tho present
system of handling state printing. The
records show a saving of over $30,000.00 to
have been made during the past year as a
result of the change. In other words, had
the old system remained In effect, tho ex
penditure for this biennial period would have
been at least $30,000.00 In excess of the
amount set forth in the above table.
"The State Printing Board will have on
hand in the general fund at the first of the
year something over J31.00o.00. This money
is being paid to the printing department by
the difrcrent departments of tho state and
the amount is included in the above i913
1914 cost table. Owing to an oversight In
drafting the law no authority was given
the board to use these funds, and It was.
therefore, driven to ask the Kmergency
Board for authority. While It appears, there
fore, on the face of the record that there
will bo a deficiency to meet on January 1,
it must be remembered that there will be
ample funds on hand to cover this defic
iency, and that Its existence is due only to
the lack of authority on the part of the
Board to wipe it out.
"STATE! PRINTING BOARD:
"OSWALD WEST, Governor.
"BEN W. OLCOTT, Secretary of Ktnte.
"THOS. B. KAY, State Treasurer."
State Library Active.
A fortunate consolidation was effected by
the last Legislature when the Library Com
mission was combined with the State Library
under the management of a board of true
tees who had previously served the state
for years as library commissioners, ex
hibiting rare public spirit In their devoted
care of the library interests and the gener
ous financial contributions to it. The state
lending and traveling library was combined
with its reference document and school col
lections making a unified system with over
85.000 volumes. These books reach the re
motest regions of the state through over
500 distributing points in which collections
are kept, and by means of a mall-order serv
ice from Salem, which takes thousands of
books each year to people on farms and in
villages who have access to no other library.
The report of the Library shows that
nearly 60.000 books were shipped out dur
ing the last biennial period, with an es
timated use or 300,000. Many or these
books are of the most practical nature and
carry the help of the expert to the man
who Is striving to lncreaso his efficiency
as a worker, and who is. by this means.
given an opportunity for self-education.
Hundreds of farmers are reading the books
on agriculture, and workers, students and
people in isolated places are using the
Library so extensively as to exhaust Its
resources at times during the Winter.
School Districts Served.
Tho Library renders direct service to 2300
school districts by the selection and pur
chase of the books for their libraries. As
a consequence, Oregon has the best school
library in the United States, and the low
est price on school library books. Each
city in the state Is sent books to supple
ment Its local library. Men in public life
have access to the reference and document
collection and the state generally is served
by a system which provides for the eco
nomical and satisfactory distribution of its
This successful Institution, the benefits
of which are felt In every part of Oregon,
represents state effort at Its best, by mak
ing it possible, through legislative enact
ment, for its citizens to co-operate In the
maintenance of a central book supply with
a well-organized service for the public wel
fare. Many state institutions reach only
the afflicted and the unfortunate with their
well-defined and limited needs, but this
educational department helps ana appeals
to the able-bodied and ambitious, and gives
them equality of opportunity. The Library
is a great asset for the state in helping
to overcome the disadvantages of Isolation
and poverty. In Increasing the efficiency
of its workers and in adding to Its recrea
As the work of the Library Is construc
tive and widely extended, and lta useful
ness, is limited onlv by its means, it should
be put on a permanent basis, with a suf-
ficent appropriation to auow ine iruie
to form a settiea policy 01 exieneiun mm
to acquire the store of valuable books
needed to meet the demands made upon
it, as the library center aepenaea upon oy
the entire state. The present appropria
tions, amounting to $17,700 annually, could
not be-decreased without directly affecting
the interests of thousands of our people. 1,
therefore, respectfully urge that you give
tho recommendations of the trustees your
thoughtful consideration and cordial support
Board Termed Extravagant.
A Fish and Game Commission, having
control of all matters pertaining to our fish
and game, was created by the Legislature
of 1911. The board Is supposed to be non
political and the members to fairly repre
sent the different sections of the state.
Good men have been appointed from time
to time upon this board, none of whom,
however, has been able to curtail the ex
travagances which, like barnacles to a ship,
cling to the department.
The division of commercial fisheries Is
under the immediate control of a Master
Fish Warden and there appears to be no
complaint as to extravagance In his de
partment, which Is supported by direct ap
propriation and certain license fees collected
from those engaged in commercial fishing.
The game and game fish department Is
under the Immediate control of the State
Game Warden When the commission was
created there was on nana in tne game
protection fund $67,000. The law provided
that the said sum and all revenues there
after derived through the sale of fishing
and hunting licenses should be given over
to the uses of his department. Since the
passage of the law the recepits havo rolled
in so rapidly that they have become a bur
den to the commission, and it has taken
great ingenuity, coupled with unpardonable
extravagance, to prevent an accumulation of
funds. The game department alone ha
spent nearly $450,000 during the three and
a half years the Commission has been in
existence. . . .
Abolishment Is Advised. v
The receipts of the game and game fish
department for the year ending October 31.
1914, amounted to $119,000. The balance
on hand from the preceding year was $.3,
000. making a total of $162,000. The ex
penditures for the said year ending October
SI, 1914, were $134,600. Thus It will be
seen that while the expenditures exceeded
the receipts by $25,000, the commission was
obliged to carry over a balance of $H8.O00
to remain a burden unless your honorable
body comes to the relief and turns it into
the general fund. ....
The personnel of the commission has con
sisted of high-class men men who have
made a success of their own affairs and
who have had an earnest desire to make
the department a success. The members
draw no salary and are obliged to make
great personal sacrifice when called upon
to attend the monthly meetings of the com.
mission, where they must pass upon a large
number of vouchers covering expenditures
of the department. When thesa eapemll-
tures appear ex trava saint, tncy "rni it
protest, and then approve. The claims are
then paid In due coure.
The commission hnuld ba abolished. Th
Governor shouhl l.e given power to appott.t
a State KIMi Warden, who would be ti.e
administrative head of tho department or
Commercial Fisheries and a tiat name
Warden, w ho would be the artmlnlstrsi
head ot the Game and Game Fifth Depart
ment. Wider Police Duties Favored.
Thete two departments should b sup
port e.t through direct appropriation by Hie
Legislature all leva collect.-! being turnrd
in to tho state treasury. While each de
partment head should be supplied with
few deputy wardens to aMst in the enforce
ment of the law and the performance of
other duties connected w 11 h the work of the
department, the usual police duty ahotiltt
be taken over and performed under ih"
immediate direction of th Governor, whi
ts charged with the enforcement of the
law. There is no good reason why the
taxpayers money ahuuM be uned to em
ploy an officer whose sole duty ts to watt h
violations of the game law. The general
public is interested not only in Xhm enfon.
ment of the fish and gamo law s of the
state, but of all penal laws. A man, there
fore, employed by the state, to perform
police duty should not devote his time to
tho enforcement of particular law s, but to
The general police duties of these depart
ments should be performed by a fnrto un
der the direct control of the Governor's
office. This force might be called a stat
constabulary, it at police, special a urn is
or may be given any name which would
please the fancy of the power that crraus
When the dry amendment goes lnt ef
fect tho Governor will have many additional
burdens in tho direction of law enforce
ment thrust upon him. Such an rrnr
mnt as above bus cent eri would pro ll
him not only with tho machinery necessary
for enforcing the liquor laws of this Mat,
but such as will insure a strict enforce
ment of our fish, game and forestry Ih
and w ithout throwing a dollar of ad. tit lon:l
expense upon the taxpayers. The number
should be sufflicent to provide a dput y
for each county and several deputies fur
special field work.
$.'.0,000 Saving roaalblr.
An appropriation of $:to.tHH would be
required to maintain this force. This sum
Is si.'t.ooo less than was paid for the salary
and expenses ot the deputy game wardens
for tho year ending November 1, 1W14. An
appropriation of $.'.0,000 ahould b made for
the support of the Gam and Ganio Flub
Department. Thta would ni-an a saving
of at least $,'.0,000 per annum in thta de
partment lon. The uhuhI liberal appro
priation should be made for the support of
tho Commercial Fisheries Department.
The reduction of fire lot-s during the pt
few years has more than justltted th crea
tion of tho Deportment of Forestry. The
State Forester has perfected a splendid or
ganization, whereby all Interested aacncles
are brought to co-operate In fon-at protec
tion and the cost is thus reduced to a min
imum. With a view of securing a more, enu'tsbt
distribution of tax burden, a fairly accu
rate cruise of standing timber lias born
made by tho authorities in a n umber of
our counties. In other counties th ciul
ha, been made only after a faith Ion and
cannot be accepted as correct or cuc!.
Aa this information In much needed (io:n
time to tlmo by both state and countv
officials, it would appear mont advlnahi
to obtain, through the office of the tit it in
Forester, a reliable cruise nf all standing
timber in the state. By checking the In
formation already secured by th rounifi
and that which may be received from other
reliable sources, this work could b com
pleted within a -reasonable tlm and at a
low cost. Data, covering the Government's
holding could no doubt bo obtained from
the Federal authorities If desired.
National Guard K tolled.
Through the passage of our mlfltarv cod
and the co-operation of th War lepn
mont. the efficiency of tho ores on National
Guard has been greatly increased durln t
the past few years. 1 have found the of
ficers and men ready and willing at all
times to respond to duty. They desr
great credit for the sacrifices of time and
money they are obliged to make in tho
interest of the organization.
As there Is more or leas objection 1
members of the Guard being called upoc
to perform police duty, it has been sug
gested that a state constabulary be pro
vided for. This suKKeat ion van b met
with. nit additional expense If the recom
mendation as to reorganization of th Flslt
and Game Commission la carried out
In the Interests of economy the offic of
tho Adjutanl-Generni should be moed to
the Capitol and provision mud at the
Clackamas rifle rang for the storage ot
state and Government supplies and equip
ment. In the Naval MlMtla discord has given
way to harmony. Increased rffleicney ha
brought recognition from the Navy lpart
menl and a splendid organization Is being
An effort Is being mads to have the
Navy department substitute th battleship
"Oregon" for tho cruiser "I.oston." now
under lease to this state as a training ship,
ComprnNatlwn Art IJkrd.
Tho last Legislature passed, and th po.
pie approved by a largo vote, a workmen's
compensation act. Automatic workmen's
compensation is a recognized principle In
the industrial life of tho Nation, and It is
gratifying thut Oregon lias placed Itself
in the forefront throuKh the enactment
of legislation of this character. Tho act,
while making ampin provision for th work.
Ingram and his family, relieves the em
ployer of onerous burdens mid legal uncer
tainties. Experience will demons! rate the
correctness ot the theory upon w hich nui a
legislation is based.
While tho life of tho act has been short,
it has been of sufficient letiath to develop
its strength and uncover its weaknesses.
Every apparent defect will he seized upon
as ammunition by the casualty IriKuranee
companies In their rampHign of destruction.
It. therefore, becomes the d uly of tho
who would aid legitimate business and ex
tend protection to those who toll to Join
hands not only In withstanding auch as
saults, but In supplying amendments needed
to insure the stability of the act.
There are a few among those who are
still unwilling to allow equal rUhts and
opportunities to women, that question the '
advisability of naming a woman as a mem
ber of the commission. The purpose of the
act Is to Insure relief to the wives and
children of killed or injured working mn,
and no one can be better qualified to csrry
out the true spirit and purpose of ths law
than a woman commissioner.
In the construction of state buildings It
has been the custom, In years past, to
employ architects and pay them the usual
charge of 5 per cent for their aervtees. The
State Board of Control believed, how aver,
that it would be In the Interest of 00000111
to employ an architect at a fixed salary
and havo him devote his entire time to
the state's interests. During the period the
present State Architect has ben employed
he has had charge of ninety H0) building
projects, entailing an expenditure of $ I.
39r,iM9.10. The operating expense of the
architect's office during the said period has
been $42,4.-7.&K, or Just a llttl over 3 per
cent of the building expenditure. Under
the old fee system ths cost would have
been $!-, 4113. 78. It will thus b seen that
a saving of $?2.o.'t7.7i has been mad
through this board' policy of mploylng
and placing its architect upon a flat salary.
Utilities U nder Htat Rule.
For nearly half a century the penplo have
waged a continuous fivht to determine
whether this country should have a govern
ment controlled by the rail toads or , ra M
roads controlled by the Government, Th
smoke of the battle la now clearing sway
and victory seems to perch upon the ban
ner of the people.
In this state not only th railroads, but
practically eery public utility has been
placed under tho control of our Ha 11 road
Commission. All disputed legal questions
have been adjudicated, and, as a ruin, the
results have Deen lavorabie to the people.
The railroads are becoming reconciled i
the change and are allowing a diipoaitlon
to meet the now condition. It 1 incum
bent upon the people, therefor, to meet
them half way and accord fair treatment.
During the last decade Hit hav hen
passed In the I'nlted mat? about oiio atatn
and National laws having to do wiih the
regulation of railroads and extending to
almost every detail thereof. VV rs.u:se
their rates, service, facilities, safety app
ances, hours of labor, at em of account In a
and the amount of their taxa. We lea.
them but ons unrestricted duty th duly
of finding the money to pay ths bUIs.
The people's fight anlnt th railroads
grew out of unjust treatment, discrimina
tions and the piratical operations of thop
early In control. Those days are past, how
ever, and so long as th railroads lm a
disposition to perform their true functions
that of rendering ths public adeq iate serv
ice at reasonable rates and without discrim
ination their problems snd tl.elr needs
should always receive courteous console ra
tion at the hands of th pop. Fuch
laws as may be ndd from t m to tlm
to iusure adequate control should be favored,
but ail "pin-sticking" legislation, serving
no useful purpos. and tending only t ctcal
additional buidens and expvuso, to be luit