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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 4, 1914)
VOL. LIT. XO. 16,780.
PORTLAND, OREGON, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
JOIN ALLIES BY SEA
Czar's Legion Goes
OSTEND IS OBJECTIVE POINT
Army Is Transported Stealthily
GERMANS CAPTURE AMIENS
Army Betires on Picquigny, Eight
3Iiles Northwest, Cutting Off
Pursuit Across River Somme.
Casualties Are Two.
NEW YORK, Sept. 3. A Russian
army of 72,000 men, transported from
Archangel, Russia, was landed at Aber
deen. Scotland, August 27, and con
veyed on special trains to Harwich.
Grimsby and Dover, where transports
were waiting to take them to Ostenu,
Belgium, say officers and passengers
of the Cunard liner Mauretanla, arriv
ing here tonight from England.
Every precaution was taken by the
English and Russian military authori
ties, persons on the Mauretanla said, to
keep the fact that foreign soldiers were
being transported to England from be
coming known and the service on the
coast railway lines was suspended dur
ing the 17 hours the troop trains were
on their way.
Marines Expected to Join.
It was generally believed Dy tuse
on the Mauretanla who made these
statements that the Russians would be
joined at Ostend by British marines
waiting there to receive them, and that
the combined forces would operate with
the Belgians at Antwerp.
LONDON, Sept. 3. A dispatch from
Amiens, France, to the Dally Mail,
dated Tuesday, September 1. declares
that the Germans have taken posses
sion of Amiens after three days' fight
ing. The dispatch to the Daily Mail from
Amiens adds that the success of the
Germans at Moreull made the capture
of Amiens certain. The entry was not
contested. The Mayor, after receiving
a German envoy, announced the sur
render of the city and urged the cit
izens to make uu disturbance.
L'hlanM Reconnolter Town.
It was 7 o'clock Sunday night, says
the Mail correspondent, when a party
of Uhlans entered Amiens by the Rue
Jules. After a brief reconnolssance,
tl ey retired to the German main body
at Camon. A half hour later they re
turned, accompanied by an envoy bear
ing a white flag. The latter Inter
viewed Mayor Figuet at the town hall.
After an hour's discussion the Mayor
appeared in front of the town hall
with trumpeters and officially an
nounced the surrender of the city. He
urged that the citizens make no dis
turbance. Mayor and Councillors Responsible.
Later the Mayor and the municipal
councillors drove in carriages to pay a
formal visit to the German commander,
who told them that they would be held
personally responsible with their lives
for the good conduct of the citizens.
The Germans thereupon went to the
town hall, where they hauled down the
French flag and hoisted the German
colors. The German troops began en
tering the city about midday Monday,
singing as they came "Die Wacht am
Rheln" ad "Deutschland ueber Alles."
No time was wasted., however, as or
ders were to move swiftly out on the
high road to Paris. Only a few men
were left to guard the city.
Casualties Number Only Two.
The only casualties in connection
with the German occupation were those
of a chauffeur, who was shot at the
gates because he did not stop quickly
enough at the order of the sentry, and
that of a local sausage-maker, who got
Into a war of words with some troopers
over the price of his wares.
When the Germans entered Amiens
the French retired to Picquigny (eight
miles northwest of Amiens), blowing up
both bridges over the Somme.
Amiens is the capital of the Depart
ment of Somme. It Is 70 miles directly
north of Paris. It is a manufacturing
city and lias a population of 90,000. it
is on the line of the railroad to
Boulogne and about 50 miles to the
west of La Fere and other points in the
Department of Aisue. where there has
been fighting the last few days between
the allied armies and the Germans.
rOS EXPECTED IX COMlPrEGXE
British Leave Town 45 Miles From
Paris, After Destroying Bridges.
LONDON, Sept 3. The Paris corre
spondent of the Mail sends the follow-!n-
"I have just returned from Compl
egne. The British have left town. The
bridges over tne Oise were blown up
this (Monday) morning. The Germans
were expected hourly.
"On important section of the battle
which drove back the allies' left was
fought at Papaume Thursday and Fri
day. On Friday the Germans brought
up many machine guns in a dense fog
and in a six hours' battle the French
suffered severely. A British force un
expectedly arrived and occupied the
French position and allowed the weary
French to retire. Then, though hard
pressed, the British continued to tight
rax guard action.' .' -
ROME, Sept. 3. A telegram from
.Nisi.. Servia, says that In a battle at
Jedar between 300,000 Austrlans and
1S0.000 Servians, the latter pat 140,000
Austrlans "hor de combat'
HUME, Sept. 3. The Russian Em.
bassy has been notified that, the Aus
trlans were overwhelmingly defeated
near Lemberg, losing more than 100,-
OOO men and 57 cannon. The occupa
tlon of the City of Lemberg was said
to be Imminent.
PARIS. Sent. 3. An Immense and
complicated system of tntrenchments
Is being constructed outside the city.
It in reoortetl the engineers In charge
of the work are keeping several hun
dred thousand men busy.
LO.VDOS, Sept. 3. A dispatch to the
Central JVewa from Amsterdam saya
that fresh fighting Is taking place
near Mallnes, Belgium
HARWICH. England, Sept. 3. The
boat service between this port and
:int.werp. """' Z
LONDON, Srpt. 3. A dispatch to the
Hveningr eir from Copenhagen mnyttt
"Great numbers of Troanded are ar
rlvtngr in Berlin dally. The trains are
not unloaded until dark In order to
avoid undue curiosity on the part of
the public. The wounded are coming:
mostly from Kast Prussia."
BERLI.V, Sept. 3. (Via London),
The Imperial Bank has begun its first
day's output of one and two-mark
bank cotet to satisfy the need for small
chance. The output of sliver coin al
rendy has been augmented notably.
WASHJCTO, Sept. Ct. The first
cablegram received from Ambassador
Murjanthan at Constantinople. In sev
eral day., reached the State Depart
ment today. It made no mention of
any declaration of war. It was dated
September - and said the Ambassa
dor had succeeded in sendlug home all
Americans who desired passage.
TOKIO, Sept. X The Emperor has
personally directed a special session of
the IIet to convene September 9. The
majority has decided formally not to
oppose the government's war meas
ures. LODO., Sept. 3. A dispatch to the
Star from Athens says the Servians are
sending us many troops as possible to
reinforce those already at the BJver
Drfna. There is no truth in the report
that the Austrlans are withdrawing
troops from the Servian frontier and
sending them to meet the Russians. Un
the contrary, Austria is sending more
men against Servla to prevent the
Servians from entering Bosnia.
LO.NDOX, Sept. :;. A dispatch to the
Central News from Copenhagen aaya
that a message received at Berlin re
ports the receipt of advices from Aus
trian army headquarters stating that
Russia is transporting ammunition con
tinuously by way of the Danube to
AUSTRIANS TRAVEL WEST
Heavy Artillery From Trieste Going
Toward French Territory.
LONDON. Sept. 3. The Amsterdam
correspondent of Reuter's Telegram
Company telegraphs that last week
1500 Austrian soldiers, belonging to
the heavy siege artillery corps of
Trieste, passed through Cologne on
their way to the western theater of
The correspondent's authority for
this statement is a Hollander who has
just returned to Amsterdam from Co
logne. The journey of these Austrian
troops lasted four days and the sol
diers brought their own siege material
SWEDEN URGED TO JOIN
Reported Effort to Influence Na
tion Cuuses Anxiety.
LONDON, Sept. 3. Telegraphing
from Stockholm, the correspondent of
the Star says:
. "There is great anxiety in the Swed
ish capital because of the efforts Ger
many is making, as shown by articles
in the German newspapers, to Induce
Sweden to abandofi her attitude of
neutrality and take the field as an
ally of Germany. The object sought
is to weaken the Russian attack in
East Prussia by means of a Swedish
attack on Finland."
ITALY'S JOINING DESIRED
King of Montenegro Sure Russia Will
Bent Austro-German Side.
romr Sent. 2. The newspaper Cor-
rie Delia Sera, of Molan, published an
interview with King Nicholas of Monte
negro, who is quoted as saying that he
hopes Italy will abandon Its position of
neutrality and side against the Austro-
iithrtmrVi the Frar.po-Russlan news
is nnt now satisfactory, the King Is
sure that the Germans and Austrlans
will succumb under the weight of Rus
sian arms. King Nicholas persists in
his intention to occupy bcutarl.
PASSES NEEDED AT PARIS
Military Adopt Precautionary Meas
ures at French Capital.
PARIS. Sept. 3. Beginning tonight.
no persons may leave or enter Paris
between s o'clock at night and 6
o'clock in the morning without a mili
tary pass. Automobile : may enter
freely during the day. but cannot leave
I'ersens are permitted to pass with
out challenge through certain gates.
while other gates are closed. Garden
ers bringing fresh vegetables to the
city are permitled to enter at nau-
liour intervals uuiuja '!
BARRED BY TURKEY
Cruiser Bearing Funds
Must Not Enter.
YACHT TO FULFILL MISSION
United States Acquiesces as
Matter of Expediency.
RIGHT IS RECOGNIZED
North Carolina, Now at Falmouth,
to Sail Today for 3Iediterranean.
War Declaration Expected
Before She Arrives.
WASHINGTON. Sept. 3. Turkey has
declined to grant the request of the
United States for permission to send
the cruiser North Carolina through the
Dardanelles to Constantinople to de
liver $150,000 in gold deposited here for
the relief of Americans in the Ottoman
The Grand Vizier has informed the
American government that the waters
of the Dardanelles have been mined,
and that it would be unsafe for a vessel
as large as the North Carolina to go
through the straits. Ho declared also
that it might establish a precedent for
the passage of other foreign warships,
and suggested that the American naval
yacht Scorpion, on duty constantly In
Turkish waters, together with other
light vessels that serve foreign mis
sions, be sent to sea to meet the North
Diplomatic Situation Strained.
This was the substance of a long
cable message received at the White
House and State Department today from
Ambassador Morgenthau, the first mes
sage from him in several days. He
made no mention of any declarations of
war, but referred to the diplomatic
situation as highly critical.
The Ambassador reported that all
Americans who wished to leave had
done so, and he thought funds aboard
the North Carolina would be sufficient
for Immediate needs.
In view of the delicate situation
the American Ambassador suggested
that the plan of sending the Scorpion
to meet the North Carolina outside the
straits be accepted. The incident was
discussed at the Navy and State De
partments today and the North Caro
lina, now at Falmouth, England, will
start tomorrow for the Mediterranean.
She probably will touch at Italian
ports and take aboard Assistant Sere
tary Breckenridge, reaching the Dar
danelles in a week or 10 days.
Prudence Keeps Crulaer Away.
By the time of her arrival, officials
expect Turkey will have declared war
(ConcludedTn pZge 6.) I collapse. j ljonciuueq on x-.e ..,
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j THROW j
INDEX OF TODAY'S NEWS
vtr ste RfiAVS Maximum temperature. 6S
degrees; minimum. 53 degrees.
TODAY'S Probably, fair; westerly winds.
Seventy-two thousand Russians reported to
have joined allies by sea. rage l.
Turkey denies permission 10 American war
ship to pass Tiaruanelles. Page 1.
French government set up In Bordeaux.
Austrians heavily defeated by P.usslans, St
Petersburg says. Page 3,
Liege terrorized by Invaders. Page 2.
Flfty-thrte reported killed In riot on Ger
man steamer Bluecher begun by demon
stration against German crew. Page 13.
Correspondent from Havre, France, reports
German force Is weaaemng. fage o.
Richard Harding Davis narrates his narrow
escape from death when seized as spy u
GermanB. Page l.
Germans confident of victory. Page 4.
Brazil hard hit by war. writes Troutdale
man's brother. Page 9.
Cardinal Delia Chiesa. elected Pope, chooses
name of Benedict XV. page 1.
Reserve Board to consult bankers today on
time for opening: new system. Page o.
Senator Burton attacks Columbia Items in
harbor bill. Paga G.
Martial law strictly enforced In Butte.
Acid-burned bones found at home occupied
by Innes In San Antonio. Page 7.
Giants push Braves out of first place.
Contenders for golfing title narrowed to
four. Pase 12,
Coast League P.esults Portland 6, Sacra
mento 2: Venice 0. Oakland 0: San Fran
Cisco 0. Los Angeles 1. Page 12.
Hlg tightens at right times and wins game
0 to 2. Page U.
Washington state primary campaign com
plicated. Page 0.
Lineage of Clay W. P. Ellsworth traced to
royalty. Page 7.
Dangerous year sees comparatively small
forest fire loss. Page 7.
Commercial and Marine.
British tramps will load wheat for trsns-
Atlantic trip. Page 16.
Oregon prune market not yet affected by
California firmness. Page 17.
Wheat at Chicago reaches new record prices
on war news. Page 17.
Portland and Vicinity.
Civil service employes may form own union.
Weather report, data and forecast. Page
St, Helen's Hall damaged by fire, loss es
timated at J5.000. Page 16.
Committee empowered to act on petitions for
schools. Page 17.
Weather report, data and forecast. Page 17.
State of Oregon and Boutnern Oregon Com
pany sued by 138 claimants for Coos Bay
wagon road grant land. Page 18.
J. W. Matthes and others accused of big
bank swindle. Page 7.
Republican State Central Committee ac
cuses Democrats of dodging Issues.
PORTLAND ENGINEER SHOT
Tucoma Highwayman Takes 555 and
Fires as Victim Shows Fight.
TACOMA, ' "Wash., Sep. 3. (Special.)
C. F. Poehiitz, a retired building
contractor, and Theodore Petersen, an
engineer, of Portland, were shot by a
masked highwayman tonight. Poehiitz,
who is probably fatally injured, was
shot through the right lung. He was
walking on the street with his wife
and showed fight when the bandit or
dered them to throw up their hands.
Less than three blocks away from
the Poehiitz affray and about 15 min
utes later the highwayman met Peter
sen and, after robbing him of 855 In
gold, the man shot Petersen in the left
hand when the engineer showed nglit.
Mrs. Poehiitz is in the same hospital
as her husband, in a state of nervous
Delia Chiesa to Rule
as Benedict XV.
PRINCES OF CHURCH KNEEL
Thousands in Square Cheer as
News Is Announced.
POPE'S BLESSING GIVEN
New Head of Church Regrets War
That Has Arrajed Priest as Foe
or Priest and Wonders if He
Can Carry Heavy Burden.
ROME, Sept. 3 The Sacred College
of Cardinals today elected Cardinal
Giacomo Delia Chiesa, Archbishop of
Bologna, supreme pontiff to succeed
the late Pope Pius X. His coronation
as Benedict XV will take place Sap-
Immediately after his election the
pontiff said he could not Imagine how
his frail being was capable of endur
ing the enormous weight of responsl
bility thrown upon his shoulders, espe
cially at a moment when all the coun
tries of Europe were stained with
blood; when the wounds infllctedyrcpon
humanity also were inflicted on the
church, and when countless victims of
the war were being cut down.
Priest Against Priest.
The war, he said, had armed faithful
against faithful, priest against priest.
while each of the bishops offered pray
ers for the success of the army of his
own nation. But victory for one side
meant slaughter to the other, the de
struction of children equally dear to
the heart of the pontiff.
The conclave of the Sacred College
had been in session since the evening
of August 31, and the final vote was
not taken until this morning. When the
name of Cardinal Delia Chiesa was
cried out by the Cardinal scrutiners
as having received the prescribed two
thirds vote there was much excitement
among the members of the conclave.
Answer Given In Whisper.
Then followed the traditional for
inula, the cardinal being asked as to
whether he accepted the election. Amid
breathless silence he answered in the
affirmative, but his reply, out of pro
found emotion, was scarcely audible.
Immediately all the cardinals removed
the canopies from above their chairs.
this being the tangible sign that the
leadership of the church had passed
from them to the newly elected Pope.
Later, during the course of a recep
tion of laymen, the Pope spoke of
America, which he said was especially
Thursday's War Moves
ACTUAL operations in the war zone
in France are still kept secret by
the effective work of news censors
everywhere, but It appears that the
Germans are closer than ever to Paris
Amiens, 70 miles away, was surren
dered last Sunday without a battle, the
issue of possession having really been
decided by the victory of the Germane
at Moreull, a short distance away
after three days of fighting. Germans
are nearer than this to Paris at other
points, but Amiens Is a substantial base
and is important In a strategic way.
Complegne, which 'is only 46 miles
northeast of Paris, Is reported aban
doned by the British troops stationed
there, and Germans are expected to oc
cupy the place any hour. Complegne Is
famous in history. it has been the
home of many kings and was the city
in which the British took Joan of Arc
prisoner. Salines, 32 miles from Paris
is the nearest point to the metropolis
that has reported the presence of Ger
Meanwhile the French government
formally transferred Itself to Bordeaux.
The foreign Ambassadors went, too,
with the exception of Ambassador Iler-
rlck, who remains In Paris because it
is at this point he feels he can be of
greatest service to his fellow Amerl
cans. W. G. Sharp, who Is to succeed
Mr. Herrick, arrived In Paris but did
not assume office. Paris citizens to
the number of several hundred thou
sand are engaged in constructing an
exceedingly elaborate series of en
trenchments around the city. Natural
ly military secrets are well guarded.
but it Is assumed that the Trench gen
eral. Joffre. prefers to accept buttle
with the City of Paris, its forts and
entrenchments to support him and the
enemy as far as possible from Its own
base of supplies. Three million trench
men are under arms to defend Paris.
French reports throw light on the
operations other than those of the
British. The French reports say the
action on the right of the northern
wing has resulted In checking the Ger
mans for a time. The inference plain
ly is that the Germans are employing
all their forces in an enveloping move
ment against the allied left wing. That
part of the allied army is retiring to
the south and west indicates that the
Germans have not yet outflanked
Apparently the GerruanB have aban
doned the west of Belgium to pour all
their forces toward the road for Paris.
Reports that they are preparing to
attack Antwerp are not believed, be
cause there seems to be no dominating
strategic reason for such a move. Mil
itary experts agree that the Germans
are unlikely to waste more than a
screening body to prevent a serious
Belgian sortie against their line of
The occupation oV Jssels probably
was a demonstration for Its moral ef
fect, but an assault on Antwerp, it is
considered, would be a side issue, with
so light effect on the main plan that
It would be a useless expenditure of
On the eastern battlefields the Rus
sians, who recently admitted the de
feat of two whole army corps, now
assert they overwhelmed the Austrlans
near Lemberg, causing a loss of 100,
000 men and capturing 67 cannon and
other munitions. Here the fighting
apparently has been conducted on an
enormous scale, with 800,000 Russians
pitted against 600,000 Austrlans. It
Is declared that an Austrian flanking
movement failed signally, that Russian
cavalry has taken a sharp offensive
In East Prussia and that serious dam
age Is being Inflicted on the German
means of communication in the In
Turkey has refused a request of the
United States that the cruiser North
Carolina be permitted to pass through
the Dardanelles to Constantinople to
deliver gold deposited for the relief of
Americans in the Ottoman dominion.
The Turkish government says the
waters of the straits are sown with
mines and suggests It would be
highly dangerous for a vessel as large
as the North Carolina to venture
among them. Also It desires not to
create a precedent for the passage of
other foreign men-of-war. The United
States Government does not recognize
the right of Turkey to close the
Dardanelles to Its vessels, but it will
not take this occasion to make an
issue of a question which as long
ago as 1873 It let go with a reserva
tion of the right of protest
The North Carolina, consequently.
will go only part way. It will be
met at a safe distance by the Amer
ican naval yacht Scorpion, now on
duty In the Near East, and the yacht
will deliver the money to those for
whom It is Intended. Turkey will
give the Scorpion safe conduct. The
State Department believes that by the
time the North Carolina arrives near
those shores Turkey will be at war
with one or more countries, and It de
sires that American warships shall be
as far as possible outside the field
of possible complications arising from
accident or otherwise.
French aeroplanes are continually
flying In the neighborhood of Pari.
and others are kept In readiness, with
guns, to attack any of the Germans
who appear In the sky.
Another list of British losses, of
ficially reported at London, numbers
5228, of which 470 are killed and
wounded and 4758 are missing. The
list shows a large percentage of of
ficers. TURKS SLOW NEAR PERSIA
Kurds and Christians Refusing to
Join in Mobilization.
PETROGRAD (St. Petersburg), Sept.
3. The Turkish mobilization on the
Persian boundary Is slow. Many Chris
tians and Kurds have refused to Join
the movement. Tne Turks are forcibly
enrolling all persons of military age.
There has been a serious conflict be
tween Turks and Armenians at Bltlls,
In Turkish Armenia.
MR WRITER'S LIFE
15 SAVED BY BLUFF
Richard Harding Davis
BOLD LETTER MOVES CAPTOR
Germans Weaken Upon Read
ing Note to Ambassador.
50-MILE WALK ENFORCED
Correspondent Seized Brcnusc He
Encounters Teutons 111 Secret
Murch Upon British I'M. In of
War es Men Narrated.
BY RICHARD HARlllNll DAV1H.
(Copyright. 1011. by Ths WhiltM Syndicate
LONDON. Sept 3. (Special.) This
war has been the ,nd of war corre
spondents. Of several this comes near
to being true In every sense of the
word. The trouble was that unable to
obtain credentials, they tried without
them to see the righting and in conse
quence were arrested. No prejudices
or favoritism was shown.
Every army In turn arrested every
correspondent. 1 wae arrested by the
Lelglans, the French, the German and
even by the Dutch. But by the time
we reached Holland I was so sick lor
sleep that all I rcmernber of that Jour
ney Is Gerald Moran. the New York
Tribune correspondent, dragging nie
out of the railway carriage, handing
me my tickets and shaking me Into
wakefulness. When we reacted tli
gangplank of tho Engllr.lt boat at
Flushing, he exclaimed: "T.iana net
we are now free from arrest." 1 asked.
Have we been arrested'.'"
"For two days." said Gerald, "you
were taken across Holland by that gen
darme who carried your valise."
Throughout my broken slumbers I
had thought the gendarmo was a rail
road porter. It had struck me as curi
ous that in Holland all railroad portera
looked exactly alike.
Own Experlenre Related.
My own experience with the Germans
was most disagreeable. It was danger
wiiiw, nt excitement adventure without
one pleasant thrill. -It was reported In
Brussels August S3 that the night De
fore there had been lighting at Hal. a
town 10 miles from tl.e city, and that
the French were advancing from Un- -
hlen, a town 10 miles runner aoutn.
With Gerald Morgan I drove to Hal,
and, finding there had been no lighting
there, continued on foot toward Eng
hlen. We kept to the main road, down
which" the German army, commanded by
General von Kluck. accompalned by the
Grand Duke of Holstein. was proceed
ing in unbroken column. They had fre
ouently stopped us, but, as our papers
gave us permission to visit the environs
of Brussels, always allowed us to con
tinue. We appreciated that the en
virons could not stretch much farther
than Hal. and that at any moment some
officer also would appreciate the fact
and order us back. Gerald very wisely
decided to return before he was sent
back under guard.
Secret Marcher Encountered.
I continued on foot to Enghlen. spent
the night there, and at 6 the next morn
ing started south, hoping when the
German column finally clashed with the
French to be present I made no effort
to conceal my papers, and walked with
the column when asked concerning my
papers, and talked freely with the offi
cers. I thought I was on the road to
Soignles, but to embarrass the Germane
the Belgians had destroyed the sign
posts, and by mistake I took the road
to Ath. This was unfortunate, aa it
was down this road that a German
army corps was being sent at double
quick to strike the British left Tho
success of this maneuver depended upon
aecrecy. and as soon aa I appeared 1
was placed In the ranks of an infantry
company and told that I must remain
with it until the general commanding
examined my papers.
Davis Marched Donkle Quick.
For five hours we inarched at double
quick, and from that time, by obvious
excitement of the officers. I saw that
they were planning a surprise. About
noon I was placed in an automobile and
sent forwarfl where Count D Schwel
ten, commanding the Seventh division,
was seated by the roadside with hla
staff. They examined my papers and
pointed out that I was far outside tho
limits my pass permitted me to go.
From the circumstance that my pass
port had been made out In London and
that the photograph affixed to It showed
me In khaki uniform, they decided t
was an English officer detailed a a
apy, and that when captured I waa en
deavoring to get through their llnei to
Tournata and warn the English of tha
flanking movement, which It waa hoped
would surprise them and poll up their
left flank upon the French center.
Khaki Salt Explained.
I explained that our Army regula
tions required war correspondents to
appear in khaki, and asked If they up
poaed that our Ambassador In London
would laaue passports to an English
officer. They replied that It would bo
easy for an English officer to deoeiv
the Ambassador. Tbeu 1 urged that f
had seen no more than everyone In
Brussels tor the last four days had
seen In the streets. "Tou have seen
enough on this road." tne chief of staff
said, pointing to the officers of tho
staff, "to explain wnat we are trying
(Concluded aa race a. i