THE MORNING OREGONIAN, SATURDAT. FEBRUARY 1, 1913. 6 POBTtAXD, OREGON. Entered at Portland. Oregon, Fostofflca a second-class matter. Subscription Rates Invariably In Advance. (BY MAIL.) . . , . i ... . .SB.00 Daily. Sunday Included, three months.. 2.5 Dally. Sunday Included, one month.... .o Daily, without Sunday, one year J-w Dailv. without Sunday, an months.... ;;0 Dallv. without Sunday, three months.. I.i5 Dally, without Sunday, on month .) Weekly, one year J-?" tiunaay, one year - - .., Sunday and Weekly, one year (BI CARRIER.) Dally, Sunday Inclodad, one year...... a.00 Daily. Sunday Included, one month. ... . How to Remit Send poetotfice money or. der. express order or peraonal check on your local bank. Stamps, coin or currency are at th sender's risk. Give postofflce aadreaa In full, including county and state. Pottage Kiktm Ten to H pages, 1 cent. J6 to lis pages. 2 cents; 80 to 40 paces, 8 cents: ') to 60 pages, 4 cents, ioreign poMafte, double rate. ... . . i amim vrTM a. conk- ti Hnmlrk building. Chi cago. Steger building. Han Francisco Office R. J. Bid well Co., - 741' Market street. Enropean Office No. 3 Regent street B. XV.. London I'OK TI.jI, SATURDAY, FEB. 1, WIS. WHAT THE FATHERS WOULD HAVE DONE. ' The discussion In the Senate of the single Presidential term amendment to the Constitution, following so closely upon the submission to the states of the direct Senatorial election and the Income tax amendment. Is a symptom of a new attitude of the people towards the Constitution. For forty years that Instrument has stood un changed, while our industrial, social and political life has been undergoing - a peaceful revolution. New Inventions have brought new forces into being. The Nation has grown immensely in every sense, but the Constitution has remained the same. It was made for a people of three millions; we are trying to apply it to more than ninety millions. We still reverence the men who made the Constitution; we still rec ognize the wisdom with which they built, but we realize that they did not, because they could not, build for such a Nation as we now are. Had Wash ington, Jefferson, Madison, Adams, Franklin all the great men of the Revolutionary era lived in our day with the experience of the 136 years to look back upon, they would have built rrfuch as we should do were we now beginning the work. It be comes ua to do as they would have done had they lived now, not to erect Into a fetich a structure made for days and conditions whloh. have long since passed. They would probably have arrived .at a different conclusion as to the length of Presidential terms and as 1 to eligibility for re-election. They '. would surely have realized that In four years It is Impossible for a Pres ident to carry his policies to comple tion and that the opportunity creates the ambition for a second term, which greatly impairs his efficiency. They would have perceived the pernicious effect of Indirect election of Senators and would have adopted some means of direct election. They would have recognized that continuation in office of a President and Congress for months after their successors have been elected creates a practical In terregnum In the Government and un duly postpones execution of the pop ular mandate given at the election. They would have foreseen that fixing the date at which a Congress shall be gin its first session more than a year after its election also defers passage of measures the people demand. They would have given the Federal Gov ernment more definite control over Interstate commerce, more definite power to improve rivers and harbors, and to develop the National domain by Irrigation, drainage, storage of flood waters. They would have made provision for interpretation of the Constitution by some tribunal and would not have allowed the courts to acquire power superior to that of the executive and legislative branches of the Government. They would have provided means of amending the Con stitution capable of being operated more expeditiously than has been pos sible in the case of the Income tax and direct election amendments. Had the fathers been able to for eee what we now know, the income tax amendment would have been sub mitted to the states in much less than 20 years after the annulment of a law imposing such a tax and would have become effective in less than four years after Its submission. The question of direct Senatorial elections would have gone before the states for decision with less than fifty years' agitation for Its submission. After the people had demanded downward re vision of the tariff In 1908, five years would not have elapsed before a real beginning was made at granting their demand. YOUTH AXD AGE. In one of the current magazines a writer takes up the perennially enter taining topic of old age. Like all his predecessors he tries to find conso lations in age which shall counterbal ance the loss of youth. Cicero tried the same experiment and dozens of others have followed suit in the course of the centuries. Some have done bet ter at the task than one would expect. At first sight it seems as if nothing could compensate one for the glory and bloom of life when it is gone, and gone forever, but second thought is not so disconsolate. After all, youth, we are assured, is not a period of especial Joy. It is too unconscious of its advantages to get the real good of them. It runs, leaps, laughs and sobs, plays out Its games and wreaks its passions without stopping to realize their beauty and grace. Very likely a young person has no more genuine en joyment of life than one who is old. He lives more, certainly, but he Is far less conscious of it. He is like an actor in a play who Is so taken up with his part that he loses the fasci nation of the plot. It is only the old who see the beau ty of youth. Its tireless energy, its fierce passions, Its superabundance of vitality form enchanting pictures to aged eyes, but the young are careless of them. They are too much occupied with living to notice She charm of life. Age finds nothing so perfect as the muscular outline of youthful figure, its elastic movements and vigorous color. Great sculptors never lose their alle giance to the human form in the years before age has hardened its curves and emaciated its grace. The statues which the world goes to see again and again are of younir men and women. Their indescribable beauty Is revealed to the old and forms one of the con solations of age, but youth Itself cares little for them. It Is like a spendthrift who scatters right and left the fortune he has inherited. Our essayist goes on to tell us again that youth is self-centered. It lacks the "social spirit," as we are learning to name the new faculty which is making over civilization. Touth dreams for the individual, age for the world. As the fire of life dims it sends its light to farther and farther goals. THE SI ,009,000 SCHOOL BONDS. Undoubtedly the present temper of the people is against large bond issues for state, county or city, and perhaps for school districts; yet no institution anywhere has the popularity of the public schools, and , any objection against a reasonable expenditure to extend their service and improve their efficiency is easily overruled. People believe In the schools and are ready to spend their money on them; but they want it expended wisely and carefully, and for their permanent good. Today in Portland a $1, 000, 000 bond Issue Is to be voted or rejected at a special election. The plan is to build a new Couch grade school in place of the present decayed structure, to establish and equip a school of trades and to -erect a new high school In Southeast Portland and to buy ad ditional school grounds. Nothing is to be said in opposition to these proposals, though of course some object on principle to bonds. But the Investment Is for permanent, not temporary uses, and It is well to spread the payments over a series of years. The city has grown very fast, and It has taxed the resources of the school district to keep up. But It must have good schools and safe, com modious and attractive school build ings. The tl, 000,000 bond issue Is one way through. ONE VOICE AGAINST A MILLION. The Medford Mail Tribune finds room in its Impoverished pages to make a large-typed attack on the Ore gon Agricultural College, which is termed "an inflated mushroom of an Institution," not deserving the large appropriation asked from the Legis lature. Incidentally the Medford pa per drags In the ghost of the old nor mal school fight, and gives its own ver sion of The Oregonian's responsibility for withdrawal of state support for Ashland. The Oregonian has a modest opin ion of its influence in persuading the Legislature and the people' to de fine a normal school policy; yet It has a mild curiosity to know how its Med ford critic reconciles Its declaration that The Oregonian did it .all with Its frequent assertions that nobody ever listens to The Oregonian. But we are not much concerned as to the reasons or absence of reasons. We are concerned that there should be an opinion anywhere, how ever mistaken, or vicious, or preju diced, that the Oregon Agricultural College is a "mushroom Institution." The people of this state as a whole believe profoundly in the great mis sion of the Agricultural College. It is one of the most valuable institutions In Oregon. It is under competent guidance. It Is doing a mighty work for the whole people.' It merits ade quate support that Its service may con tinue, and be broadened into newer and wider activities in all the coun ties of Oregon. Jackson County, among others, has Just as deep an Interest in the Agri cultural College as any other. Why should any voice there dare to raise Itself In derogation of Oregon Agri cultural College? POLITICAL MOBSBACKS. If anybody who desires to become a candidate for office has been excluded from that sacred privilege by the condition that someone must circulate a nominating petition in his behalf, or he must do it himself, The Oregonian would like to know all the sad circum stances, for the poor man is a martyr Indeed to the inexorable workings of the primary law. The truth Is there is no such person. Anyone who wants to become a candidate nowadays has an open invitation to run; and he runs. The purpose of the primary law Is to give everybody a chance by preventing anyone else from vetoing his candi dacy. That purpose has been admir ably realized in Oregon. There are no political bosses now none worth mentioning. If the primary law shall be amend ed so as to permit any candidate to qualify by filing his declaration and paying a fee, the business of petition hawking and name-chasing will be de stroyed. In one of its most unworthy branches; and a simpler and better method of carrying out the policy of the law will be provided. The stand patters and recationaries who resist change ought to offer some better ar gument than shallow abuse of The Oregonian; but .the) have none, and so there is nothing else for them to say except stuff to the effect that amending the nominating law in the way proposed will cause "the ballot to be made the dumping ground for the ambition of every crank, every er ratic, semi-lunatic, and every idiot who wants to advertise himself." We have never heard a more savage attack on the direct primary, for the primary law elsewhere, as in Wash ington, contains precisely the plan of nominations desired now in Oregon. We call for a bill of particulars as to the cranks, erratics, lunatics and Idiots who have cumbered the ballot there. It Is an old game for the profession al friends of the primary to work themselves into a polysyllabic hysteria whenever a change designed for Im provement of the primary law is sug gested; but it Is worn out. There will be amendments, and they will be made in response to a general recognition of their desirability and will be an ex pression of the popular will. The let-us-alone cry will not avail In any bad cause. NO CrARDIANS FOR THE PEOPLE. In his article on "Freedom Needs No Guardians." In World's Work, Woodrow Wilson voices the sentiment of the whole progressive movement which has imbued both the old par ties and has given rise to a new party. That sentiment is that the Government belongs to and must be conducted through all the people, not through any select few of the people. It is that the whole people know better what Is good for them than any part of them; that the poorest must have as much voice as the richest in shap ing the Government; that what each man says must have weight accord ing to its value in deciding what is best for the whole Nation, not accord ing to the position he occupies or the amount of his possessions. Wilson unconsciously does an in justice to both Taft and Roosevelt in holding that, while their hearts are with the people, they are guided by the theory which he condemns, namely, that the advice of a special class must decide the course of the Government. Both Taft and Roose velt, throughout their administrations, shewed readiness to hear the opinion of any man on any question which called for their action and by their frequent and determined opposition to the class which Wilson describes as the board of trustees, both have proved that they have given the opin Ions of others due weight and have been guided by them. Wilson's In dictment is largely true of recent Congresses, and to their subservience to special interests and their deafness to popular demands recent political changes may chiefly be attributed. That the point of view which Wil son condemns is not that of the Re publican party is proved by the return of that party to the Ideals or its iirst leader. There are still Republicans so reactionary that they distrust the people and imagine that guardians are needed, but so there are among the Democrats, as Wilson will soon discover. The progressives are not all in the Democratic, nor the react ionaries all in the Republican party. Perhaps each party has an equal pro portion of each element. THE BOYS ARE SO HUNGRY, SO THIRSTT. Colonel Watterson finds In Wilson's praise of the merit system- and in his refusal to displace an official who has made good a mournful outlook for the officeseekers. He recalls how Cleve land started on the same tack in 1885 and how bravely that stiff-necked re former got over it. He puts in a word for rotation In office and suggests that Wilson start the merit system "square and even" by requiring the resigna tion of every man in office the day after he enters the White House, re marking that Wilson would find "very few, if any. Democrats among the dis placed." "Turn and turn about would seem fair play and is still a good rule of the game," says the Colonel, ending with the mournful exclamation: "And, Lord, the boys are so, hungry and so thirsty." That gives us a good Illustration of the contrast between what Wilson thinks he will do and what the Demo cratic hosts are expecting. Wilson thinks he will devote his time to pro gressive legislation and administra tion and will displace officeholders only because of their unfitness and ap point new ones only because of their fitness. The Democrats are confident he will occupy himself with clearing out Republicans and supplanting them with Democrats, giving only cursory attention to progressive legislation and the elimination of trusts. If Wilson tries to translate his Idea into practice, there will arise a cry of mingled lam entation and denunciation which will make the Washington monument tremble. Cleveland was made of pretty stern stuff, but he yielded. We shall see If Wilson Is made of sterner. SUBURBAN LIFE. A writer in the February Atlantic, Randolph S. Bourne, describes many Interesting features in the life of an American suburban town where he has lived for several Summers. He has watched the spectable of its af fairs with the eye of a philosopher and writes about It with the pen of an artist. Mr. Bourne believes that the suburban community, of which his town is a specimen, contains more that is really typical of the genuine old American life than one can find any where else. It has not, like the farm ing districts, been depleted of its vi tally ambitious elements by the lure of the city and on the other hand, un like the city, it has not been disinte grated into a heterogeneous mass of discordant units. The life, though stratified, retains something of con cord and the fundamental ideas which we fondly call American still rule. Mr. Bourne, with a courage which one cannot but admire, admits at the outset that his suburban town contains "social classes." He finds three of them, in fact. At the bottom is the Inarticulate drove of factory workers who, or which, in this instance happen to be Poles and Italians. Their social function, according to Mr. Bourne, is to grind out profits for the mainten ance of the top class. These humble units play no part in town politics or religion. They have no amusements outside the saloons and slum resorts. Mr. Bourne speaks of the Italians and Poles as "sleeping out a dreamless sleep." Immediately above the som nolent foreigners, who, with their wives and little children, toil in the factories, Mr. Bourne has discovered a "middle class," which carries on the small business of the place. It runs the grocery stores, finances the Fourth of July celebrations, has the apparent control of municipal politics and some of its members may be wealthy. But It Is distinctly inferior to the aristocracy who own the mills. The middle class churches in that sub urb are the Methodist and Baptist. For diversions the men of this social rank assiduously attend the Oddfellow and Masonic lodges which are not patronized much by their betters. They are ardent partisans of their sev eral creeds and shun anything like in novation in the realm of religion as a device of Satan. At the top of the social scale Mr. Bourne finds the old American aris tocracy securely seated In the saddle. It owns most of the real estate In the suburb. Its men are connected in one way and another with big business in the neighboring city. It scorns the Catholics on one hand and the Meth odists and Baptists on the other, ac cording its religious allegiance usually to the Presbyterian Church. This up permost class feels no particular in terest In the welfare of the town. Its main purpose is to keep down taxes. Working for that worthy aim, it re stricts the public schools to the most meager expenditure at one end of the scale, while at the other it supports a magnificent high school which is at tended by an insignificant fraction of the young people. But that fraction includes the ambitious scions of the landed aristocracy, which makes all the difference in the world. Intellec tually Mr. Bourne finds the top class rather dull. It Is afraid of ideas and despises men who try to make it think. It clings tenaciously to "the good old ways." Curiously enough the middle class, which ostensibly controls the politics of the place, really takes Its cue in all Important matters from its social betters. Quietly but effec tively the artistocracy has its way at the elections and all the offices that count are held by its members or its flunkies. In fact the middle-class at titude toward the rank above it is dis tinctly flunkeyish and Mr. Bourne thinks he has observed this to be a universal American trait. Perhaps It ay help to account for that rigid 3ocial conservatism which has made our country the marvel of the world. Speaking of the common life of the suburb, Mr. Bourne finds it pervaded by a semblance of Puritanism which he evades calling "hypocrisy." He uses the pleasant expression that "the Puritanism is kept for public rather than private use." The New England conscience evidently displays its usual characteristics in that place. The ministers whom he has heard preach utter terrible philippics against what they are pleased to call "sin." In the Presbyterian and Episcopalian Churches this ominous word means Sunday golf playing and clandestine tennis, which are the besetting temptations of the aristocracy. In the Methodist and Baptist Churches, where the middle class obtain their spiritual aliment, sin means dancing, cardplaying and going to the play. After telling us so much Mr. Bourne does not need to add that the modern conception of Christianity is hardly known In the place and understood not at all. Their religion may be summed up In the precept, "To be happy is to be wicked." As a matter of course political cor ruption is rampant in this suburb. The population having not the faintest conception of civic life and virtue, a sterile individualism rules over their public affairs and vice of every sort has free rein as long as it wears a veil of -discreet secrecy. The New Eng land conscience which governs the town has not yet developed to the point where it classes municipal pu trescence among the sins. The Irish Nationalist victory in the election at Londonderry is of unusual Importance in the home-rule contro versy. Londonderry has been consid ered second only to Belfast as a center of Ulster Orangeism, the name "Lon don" having been prefixed to the original name "Derry" as & reward for the gallant and successful resistance made to the siege by King James" forces in 1689. Its capture by the Nationalists is significant, because It gives them an Orange stronghold, be cause it gives them a majority of the Ulster members of Parliament, and because their candidate is a Protes tant. The result of the election there fore emphasises The division among the Protestants on the home-rule Is sue and further wakens the claim of the Orangemen to speak for all Protestants. In fact, it proves that home rule is not a religious issue. In the years 1910, 1911 and 1912, Jefferson County, Ala., in which Bir mingham is, had S5S murders, of which 306 were committed in 1912, and 1913 started with ten murders in nineteen days, besides eleven deaths from unknown causes. In 1912 only one man was executed for murder, and he was a negro. Only three white men were convicted of first degree murder and all their cases are pend ing on appeal. Since the hangings in December, no murders have been committed In Oregon. Are not cause and effect plainly distinguished in these contrasting sets of facts? The British Board of Trade has or dered that, beginning on March 1, all British sea-going ships shall carry life boats and life-saving appliances for all on board. Thus does the lesson of the Titanic disaster take nearly a year to soak Into John Bull's head. His cousin Sam passed a law to the same effect long ago. Castro cannot understand why we should regard the killing of a political foe by a South American despot as murder. Why should we object to a man's admission to this country sim ply because he followed the customs of his country? The same rule would exclude a cannibal from parts of Africa where cannibalism is custom ary. Before hostilities are actually re sumed the Turks may compromise away even the holy places of Adrian ople and the Aegean Islands. The Young Turks are .as ready to yield as the old Turks, the motive of the former in protesting against the terms of peace appearing to have been only to get the graft. Passed by both houses over the veto, the bill Is a law compelling own ers of land adjoining a highway to keep it clear of obnoxious weeds. This work should be done by the road bosses, to be sure, but, as they do not, they can check up the delinquent owners. It means extermination of thistles, at least. It would be a relief to many Amer icans if one Mexican faction or the other .would take Juarez, carry it away to the interior of Mexico and keep it there. - The town has become a nuisance to this country. ' Representative Carpenter has a bill to forbid expectorating in public places. Mr. Carpenter's long service on "the force" made him familior with the nasty habl,t. The bill should be come law. Hood River experts, by experiment, find possibility of a light apple crop this season. There is plenty of 1912 fruit on hand, however, to satisfy the desire, without anticipating a lack that may not exist. Many Senators are opposing the plan of a single term for Presidents. No doubt they suspect that it might prove a hardship on them individually one day. Let the Tlllamookers take heart. They yet will have a rock-ballasted, water-proof railroad sand be rolling intp the metropolis several times a day. Thn House of Lords voted against home rule. Which affects the situation fniiv Tnnrh ps if the negative vote had been made by a school debating club. Rather than go to war Turkey of fers to give up part of Adrianople. Chances are tney a give up an xiirney rather than have it really started. ttka wnnM ortlAr'f- to the kick of a mu if it mud him 13800 richer by restoring his memory of the hiding place of his money r Tu-wm'a on suHtatinn in Wisconsin to. firmrfiia hnrle-es for legislators. Lobby- proof mlts might well be made another requirement. vnw a. vlc trust has been un earthed in New York. - At least de cency and honesty remain clear of monopoly. Wilson mav act like the Sphinx. Yet it is safe to say the men to go into the Cabinet have individual hunches. -,...,. BVoi.,nH nirnin' How manv UUilW L.V1"..- o times does the United States have to do a thing before it takes? Pretty good politicians managed that campaign in Londonderry. Death may come at any time, but taxes axe due today. Government Through People President - Elect Believes AU Know More Than Few. Woodrow Wilson, In World's Work. There are two theories of govern ment that have been contending with each other ever since government be gan. Hamilton believed that the only people who could understand govern ment, and, therefore, the only people who were qualified to conduct it. were the men who had the biggest financial stake in the commercial and industrial enterprtses of the country. That theory, though few have now the hardihood to profess it openly, has been the working theory upon which our Government has lately been con ducted. It is astonishing how persist ent it is. It is amazing how quickly the political party which had Lincoln for its first leader Lincoln, who not only denied, but in his own person so completely disproved, the aristocratic theory it is amazing how quickly that party founded on faith in the people forgot the precepts of Lincoln and fell under the delusion that the "masses" needed the guardianship of "men of affairs." For, indeed. If you stop - to think about it, nothing could be a further departure from original Americanism. . . . And yet that is exactly the doc trine on which the Government of the United States has been conducted late ly. Who have been consulted when important measures of government, like tariff acts, and currency acts, and rail road acts, were under consideration? The people whom the tariff chiefly af fects, the people for whom the cur rency is supposed to exist, the people who pay the duties and ride on the railroads? Qh, no! What do they know about such matters! The gentle men whose ideas have been sought are the big manufacturers, the bankers and the heads of the great railroad combi nations. The masters of the Govern ment of the United States are the com bined capitalists and manufacturers of the United States. It is written over every intimate page of the records of Congress; it is written all through the history of conferences at the White House, that the suggestions of eco nomic policy in this country have come from one .source, not from many sources. I have no objection to these men be ing consulted, because they also, though they do not themselves seem to ad mit it. are part of the people of the United States. But I do very seriously object to these gentlemen being chiefly consulted, and particularly to the'r be ing exclusively consulted, and if the Government of the United States is to do the right thing by the people of the United States it has got to do It di rectly and not through the intermedia tion of these gentlemen. Now, I don't want a smug lot of ex perts to sit down behind closed doors in Washington and play Providence to me. There is a Providence to which I am perfectly willing to. submit. But as for other men setting up as Provi dence over myself, I seriously object. I have found out, I have actually found out, that men I consult with know more than I do especially If I consult with enousrh of them. . I am not willing to be under the patronage of the trusts, no matter how providential a government presides over the process of their control of my life. - f am one of those who absolutely reject the trustee theory, the guardian sh.'p theory. ... The men who are sweating blood to get their foothold In the world of endeavor understand the conditions of business in the United States very much better than the men who have arrived and are at the top. . . . We cannot afford to be governed, as we have been governed in the last generation, by men who occupy so nar row, so prejudiced, so limited a point of view. ... I believe that the very wealthy men who have got their money by certain kinds of corporate enterprise have closed in their horizon, and that they do not see and do not understand the rank and file of the people. It is for that reason that I want to break up the little coterie that has deter mined what the Government of the Nation should do. I believe, as I believe In nothing else, In the average integrity and the aver age intelligence of the American peo ple, and I do not believe that tne In telligence of America can be put into commission anywhere. We need to hear a voice from the out side calling upon the American people to assert again their rights and pre rogatives In the possession of their own Government. My thought about both Mr. Taft and Mr. Roosevelt is that of entire respect, but these gentlemen have been so in timately associated with the powers that have been determining the policy of this Government for almost a gen eration, that they cannot look at the affairs of the country with the view of a new age and of a changed set of circumstances. They sympathize with the people; their hearts no doubt go out to the great masses of unknown men in this country; but their thought is in close habitual association witn those who have framed the policies of the country during all our lifetime. Those men have framed the protective tariff, have developed the truBts, have coordinated and ordered all the great economic forces of this country in such fashion that nothing but an out side force breaking in can disturb their domination and control. It Is with this in mind, I believe, that "the country can say to these gentlemen: "We do not deny your integrity; we lo not deny your purity of purpose; but the thought of the people of the United States has not yet penetrated to your consciousness. You are willing to act for the people; but you are not willing to act through the people, inow we propose to act for ourselves." - The hypothesis under which we have been ruled Is that of government through a board of trustees, through a selected number of the big business men of the country who know a lot that the rest of us do not know, and who take It for granted that our ignorance would wreck the prosperity of the country. The idea of the Presi dents we have recently had has been that they were Presidents of a Na tional board of trustees. That is not my idea. . America is never going to submit to guardianship. America is never going to choose thralldom instead or iree dom. Look what there is to decide! There is the tariff question. Can the tariff question be decided In favor of the people so long as tne monopolies are the chief counselors at Washington? TheTe is the currency question. Are we going to settle the currency ques tion so long as the Government listens only to the counsel of those who com mand the banking situation? Then there is the question of con servation. What is our fear about con servation? The hands that are being stretched out to monopolize our forests, to prevent the use of our great power producing streams, the hands that aTe being stretched into the bowels of the earth to take possession of the great riches that lie hidden in Alaska and elsewhere in the incomparable domain of the United States, are the hands of monopoly. Are these men to continue to stand at the elbow of Government and tell us how we are to save our selves from themselves? You cannot settle the question of conservation while monopoly Is close to the ears of those who govern. And the question of conservation is a great deal bigger than the question of saving our forests and our mineral resources and our waters; It Is as big as the life and hap piness and strength and elasticity and hope of our people. PURPOSE OF SCHOOL BONO ISSUE New Grade School, Hlsrh School and School of Trades Contemplated. PORTLAND, Or.. Jan. 81. (To the Editor.) There has been some discus sion concerning the burden which will be thrust upon the district In case the proposed bond Issue of $1,000,000 is voted at the taxpayers election, Feb ruary 1. The School Board has stated plainly the reason for calling such an election and the manner in which the money will be expended, namely, a new Couch school, a School of Trades and a high school in South East Portland and ad ditional grounds. It is evident to anyone who will take the pains to investigate that the pres ent Couch school Is very much out of date and Is not located so as to ac commodate conveniently the number of pupils it should. It is also evident that Portland should have a properly equipped School of Trades if the city is to keep pace with the other cities of the same size. Many of the schools, such as the Washington High School, are cramped for grounds, and the 550, 000 the Board proposes to expend for additional ground is certainly money well Invested. Had such an Investment been made ten years ago. the advance in the value of real estate would have been as much as the amount of the present bond issue. The proposed high school In South East Portland is a present necessity. There are 14 grade schools in this part of the district with more than 20 per cent, of the total grade school popuia tlon." without any local high Bchool ac commodations. During the past year the grade school population nas in creased 2 per cent on the West Side. and 32 per cent In the southeast part of the district. In case the bond issue carries and the new high school is built, there will be added an agricultural and horticul tural department which will give the pupils of the district an adequate pre paratory training for the Oregon Agri cultural College or will enable them to go directly Into the country and take up agriculture or horticulture as a life work. While there seems to be a tendency on the part of the taxpayers to dis courage bond issues there is a present nfw1 for the money to bo derived from this Issue and such an expenditure Is of much more merit and benefit to the whole city than the bonds we have already voted for the Port of Port land, the Auditorium, boulevards and for many other purposes. L. D. ENGLISH. Rhodes Scholarships. iTi.-nn Tun '! O (Tfl the Edi tor.) What are the qualifications for candidates for the Rhodes scholarship, and where does a person have to go to compete: Conditions regulating the award of Rhodes scholarships require tnat can iiHotoa unnll have satisfactorily com pleted the work of at least two years in some college of liberal arts ana sci ences. The candidate must be a citizen of the United States and be unmarried. The next examination will be in Octo ber. Further particulars may be ob tained by addressing any college. Danbury Hattera' Case. FOREST GROVE, Or., Jan. 30. To the Editor.) Kindly publish whether or not the judgment given against the Danbury Hatters' Union by the Su preme Court last October has been ex ecuted. EMPLOYER. Another appeal has been made cer tain by the grant of writ of error by the United States District Judge who heard the case. ' An attempt to collect on the judgment recently failed to re turn a single dollar. Housewife's League Magaslne. SALEM, Jan. 30. (To the Editor.) In a recent editorial you mention a paper entitled the Housewife's League Magazine. Kindly give me the name of the publishers of such magazine. E. F. CARLETON. A letter addressed to the publication at New York City will no doubt reach its proper destination. Socialists In Office. PLAINVIEW, Or., Jan. 30. (To the Editor.) Please state how many repre sentatives the Socialist party has in the United States Congress, ana tne num ber of Governors. S.C. HUNTER. The term of Victor Berger, the only Socialist in Congress, expires March 4. There are no Socialist Governors. No, cnnTT iKn Tan. 21 (To the Edi tor.) A man born In a foreign country and never having taken out his naturalization papers can he serve legally on tne jury .- OLD SUBSCRIBER. Th,v Ar Not. HEISSON, Wash., Jan. 30. (To the Editor.) .flease iniorm roe 11. .... of ten or more children are entitled to a pension from the Lrovernment. ANXIOUS MOTHER. The Magic of the Mule By Dean Collins. I saw a sad and careworn gink Who lingered round a peevish mule; And thought (because I often think), , "Gadzooks, yon fellow is a fool!" For, as he knelt upon the lawn 1 1 . 1 m.la'a h.all WorA nlantftd Oil: w iinju me mult ......... .. - , "Sweet mule," Implored that simple man, Come kick: me ana cave m j He pleaded long, he pleaded loud. And ever, in his deep appeals. He kept his head convenient, bowed Beside the surly creature's heels; Suggesting and requesting that The beast should give his head a bat, Though well he knew his heels mignt knock The inner lining from his block. "Oh, gentle maniac," said I, As I surveyed the solemn scene, "Why yearn to have his heels let fly To put a shoe mark on your bean? Though solid Ivory be your nob, After the mule completes that Job I may as well run for a cup To scoop your scattered senses up." He raised a roving eye and sighed: "You are misguided in your dope. Stick round a bit; I may divide fph. a vast f nr which I hone. Friend, kindly take yon large brickbat And smite him smartly in tne siai Till, mad with rage, I hope that he Will kick the stuffing out of me." I soaked the mule, And flapped his long and facile ears. And stamped with vigor on tne grouna eyes filled up with . grievous whack, aoundlv on the back. The while his tears; I smote his nose And thumped him And all the while my friend, the fool. Cried: "Kick me, mule!" kick me, pretty "Wherefore," said I, and paused to rest, "Yearn you thus strong for suicide?" He clasped his hands upon his breast. "I would be Croesus." he replied. "Heard you not of that lucky dent Given the Oklahoma gent When a mule kicked him on the block? "No!" I replied, and grabbed a rock. "A mule caved in his dome," said he, "4 heftv 1nlt hut luck Of lUCkS It loosened up a memory. Of where he a nia tureo iuuuuuu Good sir. admit I am no fool! Come kick me, kick me, pretty mule. ' I grabbed a oncKoai jn a into, "Go on!" I cried. "Mule, kick him twice!" Portland, January 31. Half a Century Ago From The Oresonian of February 1, 18tl3. Washington, Jan. 22. The under standing today is that a portion of the Army, comprising Hooker's division at least, has crossed the Rappahannock and that the movement took, place yes terday. Washington, Jan. 22. The verdict of the courtmartial in General Fltz John Porter's case was approved yesterday by the President. The court found him guilty of the charges preferred and ho was, accordingly, cashiered and dis missed the service. Washington, Jan. 24. The committee on territories has Instructed their chairman to report a bill for the ad mission of Utah Into the Union as a state with a prohibition of polygamy as one condition. The chairman Is also Instructed to report a bill for the erection pf the territory of Shoshone. This territory will include within its limits all that that part of the old territory of Oregon Inhabited by the Shoshone Indiana; all the territory west of Nebraska, west of the 27th parallel from Washington and that portion of Dacotah Territory lying to the south of the 46th degree of latitude. Headquarters of the Army of the Fo- . T. Thlo m fT-n I n W Fltim- slde turned over the command of the Army to General HooKer. Washington. Jan. 27. A bill which passed the Senate yesterday provides that 130,000 be appropriated for the pro- . tectlon of emigrants b, the overland routes to the Pacific states and terri tories. On Saturday night, at the very im proper hour of 10:30 o'clock, a salute of 10 or 12 guns was fired from Stark's command by a baker's dozen of the admirers and political supporters of Benjamin Stark, Esq., who returned from the Atlantic side that night. Some weeks since the City Council passed a resolution to the effect that paragon burners should be placed on all the gas Jets in the street lamps., if this has been done the Improvement Is not perceptible by the light. Twenty-five Years Ago From The Oregonian of February 1, 1SS8. Washington, Jan. 31. Senate Among the bills Introduced were the following: By Mitchell, to perrr.it miners and mining companies to pros pect and develop mining portions of any Indian reservation. Among the bills passed were the following: To authorize Dalles City to construct a bridge across the Columbia River, be tween Oregon and Washington Terri tory. Washington, Jan. 31. The Secretary of War has sent to the Senate a volum inous report, made by Captain C. Pow ell and Major Wagoner, respecting the salmon fisheries on the Columbia River and how such fisheries interfere with and obstruct the navigation and com merce of that waterway. Olympla, W. T., Jan. 31. The Su preme Court today decided the local option law In this, territory unconsti tutional. Pansles are in bloom In Mr. Glass' garden at the corner of Fourth and Lincoln. Mr. Henry Falling will not build a five-story brick building at the corner of Third and Washington streets this Summer, as has been stated. The city tax roll has been footed up and the net amount of taxable prop erty, which is assessed at about one third of its real value, amounts to, $14. 669,665. The real value of assessable property In the city l about o0,000. 000. A number of tenants have moved into the Abington block and the building is being cleaned up thoroughly. Many people Inspected the building yester day and much admired the style In which it is finished. Jersey City, Jan. 31. In a glove con test tonight between Domlnick Mc Caffrey and Jack Dempsey the latter won In ten rounds. Madison, Wis., Jan. 31. The women of Wisconsin were defeated in the Su preme Court today, the court holding that the Legislature did not for a mo ment contemplate extending such suf frage to females as males enjoy, but meant to restrict female voting to school matters only. San Francisco, Jan. 31. The land slides on the California & Oregon road have hemmed in two passenger trains at Sissons, having on board between 100 and 200 passengers. The trains were on the way down from Portland. A New Style In Babies It has been set by Iowa and adopted in Oregon. It provides that a child shall be judged by physical perfection rather than by doll-like beauty. The sub ject is given a delightful page, illustrated by photographs, in The Sunday Oregonian. The Perfect Woman The press dispatches have had much to say lately of Miss Scheel, Cornell's perfect woman. An illustrated half page goes into the subject in detail. Poor Lol They are now steering the red man through bankruptcy in order to protect him from a horde of white sharpers. Full page in colors. Aerial Bicycling It is to be the great sport of the future. An exceptional letter from The Oregonian's Paris correspond ent. Isle of Broken Hearts An account of the trouble-burdened people who come and go at Ellis Island. Written by a former immigration inspector. Underworld Tricks Another page by Jack Rose on the tricks and traps which beset the un wary. The Suffragist Invasion The advent of the suffragists in Washington is to rival the in augural parade itself if present plans do not miscarry. Gibson Pictures Another half page in the series of pen-and-ink drawings that made Gibson famous. Two short stories, three pages for women, four pages of color comics and many other features. Order today from your newsdealer.