THE MORNING OREGONIAN, FRIDAY, JANUARY 37, 1911. 3 PORTXASD. OKICOX. Entered at Portland. Oreroo, Poatornoa as f tcad-Oass Matter. . . . ubacruon Raiea Invariably la ' tBT MAIL) rallT. 8anfar Included. on year 'Tii Deny. Sundar Included, all nsontne.... j dally. Sundar Included. Urn tnontna. Dai:t. bundajr Included, ona month.... -J Vml.T. without Sundar. ona rear....... J.uo fcallir. without Sunday, an monthe..... - Xjaily. without Sundar. thraa montna... dally, without Sundar. ana moato...... Week!, ona yttr. ............ C'-indar. ona year. ........... J?? Suaday and weekly, ana raar. IBT CARRIER) ral?r. Sunday Included, ana year. . ally. Sunday included, ana month .T Bow to Mamlt Bond Poatofflca nJT order, express order or paraonal choc on your local bank, stampa. coin or correncr are at the sender. r:ic Gla V"1'"''' addreee la full. Inclodins county and Poataaa Rate. 10 to 14 pare. 1 cent; la to :S petes. I conta; 10 to 40 pafea. i c i 0 to (0 pagea, a cents. Foreiga soatase denote rata. -. . Eaetern Uoalaeea Orllcoa Verrao Un New Tork. Brunswick bulldlaa. cai caaa. Stager aulMina. PORTLAND. FRIDAY. JANCARY X7. H- WHITHER AR WE GOfNGt ,. Senator Culberson, being safely re elected, had a few words to say to the .assembled Texas Legislature. Wednes day in Tenement criticism of the "New Nationalism.' "The proposition which this dogma Involves to merge the executive, legislative and Judicial functions." he declared, "as well as the whole reserved powers of the peo ple Into a supreme executive who should be steward of the general wel fare unrestrained by positive law has been the argument and dream or every tyrant since the world began." Divesting this striking utterance of Its characteristic Texan rhetoric the kernel of a real truth remains. The "new natlonali.em" In the hands of an ' aggressive executive would assume all the powers of government, substitut ing authority for law and taking the short cut always toward any desired goal. Possibly it may be desirable to ' centralise government in a strong head, and to ignore the checks and balxnce which the constitution care- , fully provides, so as to preserve the eoillibrlum between the executive, legislative and Judicial branches, ."resident Roosevelt dominated Con- gress. most people think for the good of Congress and the welfare of the country, and he would likewise. If he could, have Influenced the courts. That Is his new nationalism In spirit and essence. It Is not the purpose her to say that It is good or bad; merely to inquire how nearly In ac cord with the general drift of Insur gency and political unrest the new nationalism really finds Itself. If the new natloitnllsm Is to be the theory and policy of our Government, why the movement and purpose to take back all power to the people through the Initiative and the direct primary? Why a committee on rules to run Congress, and not a Speaker? Why a party plebiscite over a Senator ship, and not a caucus? Why com mUslons. boards. Inspectors, people's alettes, and the innumerable new devices created and proposed to check up and correct our legislatures, our courts and our executives? Why a lrgislature under, the constant menace of a popular veto through the Initia tive and referendum? Why a Judi ciary under the perpetual threat of reorganlxatlon at the hands of the populace? Why every public officer In every branch and department of the public service made to hear and dread the possible olee of the recall? Why division and limitation of au thority and restriction of opportunity everywhere? These are the things that the new popular movement means. It Is decentralization. Tet the new nationalism of Roose velt teaches absolute centralization. It makes the executive supreme. It Ignores red tap, defiea tradition, de rides precedent and seizes opportunity. The end - always Justifies the means. Does the new nationalism after all mean merely that any policy of gov ernment centralized or decentralized is to be the method and procedure of the new nationalists? Or Is It pos sible that Colonel Roosevelt, who In vented the new nationalism, failed In his understanding of what the great ' current of public thought now la, and that U Is more nearly expressed by others like Beverldge. Cummins and La Follette? CANADIAN KECIPUOCmr. The Canadian reciprocity agreement has been submitted to Congress and ' there is a good prospect for an early settlement of the commercial friction ahlch has prevented two near neigh bors from trading on the friendly basis that always Insures best results. There are so many different commod ities which the Vnlted States has to sell and Canada desires to buy that a , 'reciprocal agreement by which both parties may be accommodated Is long overdue. Paper and wood ptilp are two Canadian staples of which the L'nlted States is sadly in need. Theae commodities are needed by the Amer ican consumers to prevent prices reaching abnormal figures, and they are also needed to prevent the early exhaustion of our forests, now being heavily drawn on for these products. Attempted reciprocity with Canada, or with other foreign nations, has al ways brought forth objection from the tandpat element In both parties, but the change Is coming. The general sentiment favoring It Is so great that it cannot much longer be deferred. In Ihe case of Canada, more than In that of any other nation. It Is difficult to And sound, logical reason for not re moving all friction that prevents an easy, economical movement of trade. Canada has within the past few years bKomt Americanized to such an ex tent that very little difference In eco- nomlc conditions Is found on crossing " the line. Labor and capital are both ' marketed In Canada on practically the '. same basis as prevails In the United t States, and for that reason the protec- live Urlff which our standpatters at I tempt to retain in all of Its' original ' rigidity can have only a limited appll ! ration to our trade relations with our northern neighbors. - With the rapidity In which con sumption la overtaking production. It to but a question of a few years until this country will be obliged to depend on some other country for breadstuff. From no other part of the world can these supplies be secured to such good advantage as from Canada. Even be fore the demand overtakes the supply -lof American-grown grains the price will not be seriously affected for the reason that the price In both the Vnited States and Canada Is based on the European markets, which now take the surplus from the two. The cause of reciprocity with Can ada, aa well as wltn other countries. has been hampered and deferred by the Inclination of our people to view Only one side of the question that of the producer. This country has a few million consumers whose interests are also entitled to consideration. They will receive this consideration In any fair reciprocal trade agreement with Canada. orrosiTiojf to popular election. The old method of electing United States Senators Is not very happy In Its defenders. Such men as Mr. Hey burn. of Idaho, and Chauncey Depew can help a cause best by keeping silent, one would Imagine. It might even be desirable for them to say a little something against It. Sometimes the apparent enmity of certain Indi viduals is helpful. Mr. Heyburn'a principal argument seems to be that the old way has led to bribery only eleven times. It would be Interesting to learn the basis for his estimate. But even if It had never led to bribery once. It would still be better to change the method. Legislative elections do not secure representation of the people. The miss may happen from one cause or another. That makes little difference. The point Is that It happens. What the people want Is representation. In order to obtain it they are convinced that legislative elections must te abandoned and the Senatorshlps thrown open to popular vote, like the Presidency. Originally the Constitu tion intended that the people should have nothing to say directly about the choice of the President. They were to name the electors and the electoral college, acting without instructions, should fill the office. This plan did not work. The peo ple felt so overwhelming an Interest In the election of the President that they broke through the Constitution and compelled the electors to register their will. Now they have begun to realize how Important the office of Senator Is. and the more they think about It the less they are Inclined to leave the elec tion to the State Legislatures. They are determined to attend to It them selves without any Intermediaries. It Is the Inevitable tendency of de mocracy to gather all power In the hands of the voters. This tendency would be pretty nearly as strong as It is If no Senatorial election had ever been tainted with bribery, though it might not be quite so outspoken Just yet. No doubt the Lo rimer and sim ilar scandals have furthered the course of Inevitable evolution, but It Is nonsense to believe that they have been the cause of It. PANAMA AND 8CEZ. The principal reason why the senti ment of the people of the United States Is overwhelmingly In favor of fortifying the Panama Canal grows from general belief that neutraliza tion might not at the critical moment be Infallible. The main argument ad vanced by those who are fighting the plan for fortifying the canal Is that the Suex Canal Is not fortified, and that Us neutrality has thus far been respected. And yet the case of the Panama Canal and that or the Sues show very little In common. The Suex Canal was not built with British money. It does not pass through British territory- The Panama Canal Is being built with American money and it passes through American terri tory. The Suez Canal was built by the French, who secured from the Khe dive of Egypt permission to cross the isthmus. This permission gave France no right to fortify the canal and It was natural that England, having at that time no right whatever to say whether the canal should be fortified, agreed willingly to its neutralization. Learning that the canal was not the "Joke" they thought when DeLes seps sought and was refused the aid of British capital. Great Britain after wards Invested several millions In canal shares, and while no official notification has been made of any change In her views regarding neu trality at the Suez, any attack on Great Britain's Indian empire might be the signal for a test of the strength of that neutrality. The British gov ernment has great fortifications not far from the Red Sea terminus of the canal and her naval and military stations In the Mediterranean are suf ficiently Imposing to enable her, If the emergency arises, to dominate the Suez. There would be so much at stake when that emergency arose that neu trality would probably be forgotten and the Suez would serve the purposes of the nation strong enough to adapt the canal to Its Immediate uses. Neu-.ii- nn tha Suez will be forgotten If Great Britain ever fears that Germany might seize the canai ana isolate In dia. The Panama Canal Is exclusively American property and no other na tions can enter a valid reason why we should not fortify it. TEMTESATE GROWTH OT LIQVOR , PKtMUNO. Though liquor consumption In creases throughout the land and state prohibition la at a standstill, the cause of temperance gains steadily This Is not a paradox, however -much it may appear such to persons who think llquor-selllng a "crime" and llquor drlnklng an unmitigated evil. There Is more intelligent use of alcohollo beverages than ever before, less drunkenness and less vice and less crime attendant upon such use. Growth of Intelligence makes the Improvement. In seventy years the per capita con sumption of wine In the United States has more than doubled and that of malt liquors has Increased more than fourteen-fold. In a current magazine William B. Bailey, assistant professor of political economy In Tale Univer sity, shows that between IS40 s,nd 1909 the per capita consumption of wine has grown from .29 to .70 gal lon and that of beer and ale from 1.3 to 19.97 gallons. In this same period consumption of whisk;-, rum, gin anad brandy has fallen from 2.62 gallons to 1.27. Here. then. Is -tangible evidence of lessened intoxication.. Very "strong" drinks have declined In favor. The liquors that contain little alcohol beer, ale and wine are la growing use. while the ardent spirits are dwindling. Right here comes In a powerful argument against state pro hibition: such effort torepress liquor drives to consumption of highly-concentrated 'kinds whisky, rum, gin and brandy. Rational use of liquor' la on the ascendant throughout the country. There is less "hard drinking" than ever before. There Is also more tol erant recognition of the rights of temperate people to use of liquor; less demand that the multitude of such persons shall be "restrained" by sump tuary laws. In order that liquor shall be withheld from a fewer number of "drunks." It will be remembered that in the November elections of last year four states rejected prohibition Florida, Missouri, Utah and Oregon. Okla homa was the only state to declare itself for prohibition. This does -not mean that liquor restraint is losing ground; evidences show that It Is gain ing steadily. Self-restraint is spread ing thrnmrh Arincstlon and example. I That Is the real solution of the liquor problem ana ine oniy one. THE KEASOX FOR PRISON AND GAL LOWS. It is the fashion of the day, with certain sentimental persons, to aver that the penitentiary "does no good" to its inmates, nor to others of criml .i i AfAr. uv th same of the hangman's noose. But If prison and gallows ao no gouu to iiivo -its penalty. It might be well to look for a moment on the side of the com munity's Interest. Through centuries of crime and or society's self-protective efforts, prison and gallows have survived. Persons who commit crime against property or person or public forfeit their .lib erty or their life, not for their own good, but for that of society. It is well to bear In mind that a criminal Is put In prison or upon the death trap not primarily for his own good, but for that of. his orderly neighbors. His own welfare or hU reform la not the first thing to be considered. This is a "first principle" of right living, and of retribution. Peniten tiary and noose are not emblems or vengeance, but of social order. Re form of an evil doer.. while of course desirable. Is not Important in the large view, nor Is it the first aim of law or Justice. A JOB-MAKINO BILL. Joba beyond count await the unem ployed in the country. f'8" trlcts are sorely tried by lack of faith ful hands. Every farmer who has plowing to do. crops to put In, fences to build and land to clear knows this l Up In" Salem a legislative bill pro poses to appropriate J20.000 for bu reaus that shall find Jobs for unem ployed persons "free." These bureaus are to be "State Labor Exchanges, patterned after the Free Employment Bureau In Portland. The ''chler of this scheme Is to have an "-r year Job and traveling expenses', each exchange is to have a ""P"1"6"' and an assistant, who $100 a month each. Thus the state is to be launched In the business of find ing work for its citizens. The great difficulty in this grow ng state of Oregon 1. that there are too many tasks unperformed and too many occupation- unfilled There Is scarcity of hands, not surfeit. Many employers complain about the "labor 'rouble " They say It 1. find men who are honest and faith ful: who will. stay "on the Job . who will work for what they can afford "a who will not shirk labor nor dodge full hours. In the country thousands of acre, of land e malt ing to be brought into e of cheaper food and "caper Exchanges, bureaus are not needed to point out the open ings. Individual initiative and indus IrTwIll find abundant opportunities 'tZ work without "vel-hi;efU,na tionartes to direct them. case where the farmer member, of the Legislature can give their city col leagues valuable pointers. rlUNO IT OS THE IXTTT.E FELLOW. In view of the fact that the crea tion of a public service commission U recommended to the Oregon i Legis lature by both the Governor and re Acting Governor, the recom menfaUon.nKto the people on sing tax by the self-constituted lawgivers ofOregon City and elsewhere are par ticularly pertinent subjects for Inves Ugatton. service commission Is a department of State G7nmn empowered to regulate service and res offered by public utility corpor atlon The single tax scheme makes prominent an attendant franchise tax P Whenever we hear "public service commission" mentioned our thoughts .. -. vat York, where a , Scpartment of the State Government . . i . Kuin n ahlnln&T under tnat name no - ' -beacon for other states seeking method of securing for ' their peophs good service at reasonable rates from public utility corporations. Coming from one who has given the subject some thought and Investigation, the '?eVa of Mllo A. Maltby. Public Serv ice Commissioner for New Tork. first district, should be of value to experi mentalists with taxation In Oregon. Mr. Maltby declares that when there la adequate regulation of pubUo service corporations the users of the utility and not the corporation stock holders pay the franchise tax. He says: Under an effaotlTa ayatam of public rajr ulatlon the corporation rnu.t. of courae. ba Sun-id to earn aufflclant Bum to pay. ?, .11 cii of operation, Includlns a aum aufflcleTt to malStaln th. plant In an ofjTcl'nt condition. In tha Ions run it muat I. anSirid to earn a fair profit Dpomb. ca.al "I'd: otherwlaa capital could not ba cu"d for publlo otllltlea. If. In addition, r .urn mu.t b. earned to par a franchise fa Uie authority eiercletns pubUc control , ii" tha corporation to place Ua s'Vflelentir Mch or to aupplr a arv inferior that It may earn, be.lrtea !. mini alreadr mentioned, aa amount xiual to the tax. A commhvtlon regulating rates must deduct taxes -with other charges from the total earnings and adjust rates so that the corporation will obtain a fair return upon Its In vestment. If there Is no franchise tax. obviously the rates could or should be made lower or the service better than otherwise. Mr. Maltby's statements apply pri marily to communities where there Is an adequate system of public control of corporations. He admits that where there la no public control the franchise tax as a means for securing for the public a share of the corpora tion earnings and as an available method of obtaining reeded revenues promptly Is perhaps a wise measure. The Oregonlan has consistently ad vocated the franchise tax and be lieves that the revenue needs created by continued rapid growth of the community would demand a fran chise tax even In the event public utility corporation were effectively controlled and regulated by a publld service commission. The consumer In the case of public utilities Is, In the great majority, the small home owner or the renter. When such citizens are compelled to contribute thus Indirectly to the pub lic revenues It Is expedient also that those persons best able to pay should contribute also. Tet we have the slngle-taxers proposing that the whole tax ' burden shall be paid by land, timber, mineral rights, rights of way and franchises of public corpor ations. The single taxers are not content tc spread over the land the value of all high and low class Improvements and the value of personal property, but would also tax the consumers or gas, electricity, and the users of telephone service and rail transporta tion. Thus while the resident of St. Johns, Mount Scott, Sellwood or other suburb was dally contributing to the cost of Government in car fares or in putting up with pool service, the automobile or the car riage and horses which conveyed his wealthy neighbor', back and forth from business would pay no tax what ever. They are personal property and are to be exempt. It Is well for the voters to under stand that public utility service and rates and the Interests of the general public will be best served by an effi cacious ' public service commission and contentment with orderly and well-tried systems of taxation. The chief argument urged in favor of the establishment of a state normal school In Eastern Oregon is that teach ers are scarce; that is, they are not in full supply In that section of the state; hence there should be a school there for the purpose of bringing up the sup ply. Students are prepared for teach ing at the State University, and soon will be at the State Normal at Mon mouth. Railroad trains run frequent ly between the different sections of the state, making them In effect one. Di vided educational effort at state ex pense is unnecssary, uneconomical and wasteful. It was hoped that the peo ple by their decided expression at the polls had settled the question of a replica of expensive and weak nor mals. It is still hoped that the at tempt to galvanize this question into life will fail, and the matttr be dropped without acrimony. The Bank of England yesterday re duced the rate to 4 per cent, the rea son for the decline being the absence of foreign gold demand and smaller Indian requirements than had been ex pected. This reduction, viewed in con nection with the liberal subscriptions that England has recently been mak ing to foreign loans. Indicates an easy money market in London. This belief is further strengthened by a heavy oversubscription in London Thursday on J6. 250.000 worth of Havana Ter minal 5 per cent debentures, which at the close of the market were quoted at 3 per cent premium. While an easy money market In Europe may not help us much In the Immediate future, It is a hopeful sign. In due season a res toration of confidence In American railroad and industrial securities will attract some of the flood of foreign gold in this direction. "Whether every young man and every young woman in the state should receive higher education Is a point which I have not settled In a manner entirely satisfactory to my-' self." said Senator Selling. President or the State Senate, in speak ing to the students of the State Uni versity at Eugene last Wednesday. This statement Implies a lurking be lief on the part of Mr. Selling that Is shared more or less openly by many of his fellow-cltlzens. that in indus trial, commercial and business life there must still be hewers of wood and drawers or water. The Sacramento woman who asked to be transformed -by the divorce court from Mrs. Bende to Miss Szilagyi had an astonishing taste in names. It Is to be hoped that she will soon find an other euphonious husband and escape from her burden of mlsmated conso nants. Names are said by the wise to influence their owners profoundly. Shakespeare seldom misses the mark 1n fitting appellation to character, but Dickens was the supreme master of this subtle art. Think of Squeers, Pickwick, Pecksniff. An El Paso dispatch states that "Amarlllas, the Jefe, has boasted that when the revolution ends he will exe cute every rebel In the region and burn their Catholic churches." With a pleasing rate or this kind berore them, it is not at all surprising that the Mexican rebels are putting up a fight which is beginning to cause some anxiety for the Diaz government. With liberty the reward for victory and death the penalty for defeat. It Is cer tain the Mexicans will In most cases make this a battle to the death. Elucidation by Professor Sparks of the char-pitting process of clearing land at the T. M. C. A. auditorium tomorrow night Is matter of interest that should draw large attendance. Any plan that will reduce the physical and financial burden of removing1 stumps in this Northwest country is an economic benefit that should have wide dissemination. That these lec tures under the auspices or the Apple Culture Club are rree has no bearing on their value. It would be pleasant to learn of something which babies will not eat If they have the chance. Their fond ness for carbolic acid and live coals is well known. Now we hear of a five-year-old child which devoured some mercury of Iodine tablets. Apparently young children have no sense of taste or smell. Everything they can get hold of goes down. One would think parents might learn this fact after a while and put dangerous drugs where children could not reach them. Major J. A. Siaden was a soldier whose service on the battlefield brought him Just promotion and seri ous disability. He was well known in this city, which was his chosen home. He served upon the staff or General 00. Howard during the Indian cam paigns of the latter In the Northwest, and had been living here In retirement since 1908. A brave soldier and an honorable man. he was Justly honored and highly respected. Horseralsers In this region are again reminded that the chler engineer or Portland has been on a quest for a rew weeks ror a number or animals ror his service and cannot get them. This is an ever-recurring demand. The fin ished product represents three-rourths profit to the raiser In a cash market. Because it would conflict with the constitutional prohibition of "un usual punishment," Dr. Owens-Adair's sterilization bill has been given a peaceful death. The doctor's only hope will He In the Initiative. In moving for dismissal or the In dictment or William D. Hanley, At torney McCourt did an act of simple Justfce. To indict an honest man is easy; to convict him is another matter. AGE OP AVIATION ALMOST HEBE, That Monoplane Will Soon Be Practi cal tor Travel Is Prediction Claude Grahame - White, in London Times. The advancement of the aeroplane has been checked by three defects in the machines themselves. These I may enumerate as follows: First Inablllay to combat winds. Second Constructional weaknesses. Third Unreliability of engines. These defects, which made aeroplanes mere playthings In their early stages of development, are already; being over come In an altogether surprising way. That they will be completely overcome, and that flying machines will be of practical and everyday use. Is my firm conviction. Take' the aeroplanes we had in the beginning it was only pos sible to ascend when the wind was as low as four or five miles an hour. Now I find 't quite possible to remain in the air, and control my machine, in a wind of 25 miles an hour. From this, to the ability to fly in even stronger winds, it is merely a question of greater speed. Engine problems are solving them selves. With the skepticism, with which some people always view a new idea. It was contended. In the Infancy of aeroplanes, that no petrol motor would stand the strain of propelling an aeroplane, because of Its necessary lightness and the high speed at which It would have to run. . The answer to these critics has been overwhelming. Even while our aeroplanes, and particu larly our propellers, are admittedly Im perfect. 'thereby Imposing upon an en gine the moBt difficult conditions, flights of three, five and six hours are already evoking no particular com ment. To a certain extent. Indeed, the duration of a flight has now become purely a matter of petrol carrying. I have not the slightest fear, therefore, as to the success of the flying machine engine. ... And now there is the question of safety. Here. I know, I am face to face with a very grave misconception. People generally have come to the con clusion that flying is highly danger ous, and will always remain so. I, as a practical flyer, say there Is very lit tle danger in it now, and that in the future there will be no more risk In an aerial Journey than in moving from point to point in a railway train. . . Inexperlenoe, foolhardlness, and con structural weakness in machines have been responsible for practically all the accidents which have taken place .Given a good machine, a careful, well-trained pilot, and proper weather conditions, flying Is already as safe as motoring; and very soon it promises to be safer. The dangers which now exist when a man flies will speedily be overcome by the Introduction of stronger, speedier machines, and the adoption of engine systems whereby a compulsory descent, owing to mechanical troubles, will be obviated. The air is absolutely free and unimpeded. Once we have definitely conquered our enemy, the wind. It will offer an absolutely Ideal medium for high speed traffic, besides providing a traveler with the most delightful way Imaginable of getting from point to point. Next Summer, practically for the first time in a complete and finished way, people will be able to enjoy the sensa tions of air travel. Ready for trials In the Spring will be first of a type of machine one might call "the air car." It will be a strongly built monoplane, a 100-horsepower engine will propel it. It will have a body like that of a motor car. with four comfortably padded seats, well protected from the wind. There is no reason at all why any wealthy motorist should not purchase such a machine as this, have an "aerial chauffeur" instructed to pilot it. If he does not want to learn to drive him self, and enjoy aeroplanlng ;ln a thor oughly practical way. In Its sporting aspect, I foresee that flying will enjoy an even greater vogue than motoring. The reason Is not far to seek. Motor car driving, even in Its most favorable aspects, cannot be com pared with flying. There Is a sense of freedom an exhilaration in passing swiftly through the air that never comes to one when driving a car. I speak from experience again, having done more than a little motoring. Di rectly a more convenient, less bulky machine can be produced, what one might call the public demand for an aeroplane will begin. The demand of the age is for high speed travel. The possibilities of land locomotion. In this respect, are almst exhausted. So, too. are those of sea transit. And now, conveniently to hand when mankind wants it, is air travel. I do not see one insurmountable dif ficulty in the way of completely revo lutionizing, by means of the aeroplane, all existing methods of communication. Use of Quill Pens. London Chronicle. The use of quill pens la by no means confined to Government offices and the gentlemen who point with them at un happy witnesses. A habitual writer, for Instance, confesses that he never will ingly used a steel pen since he was out of the control of schoolmasters. He al ways used quills until the triumphant fountain pen provided him with a rea sonable substitute, and that more be cause of its convenience than its ef ficiency. Several well-known novelists still stick to the quill; it is. Indeed, the only writing implement with any personality If it Is refractory you can coax it. The mending of a qulll does not require much practice, and you can buy, for a few shillings, a little ma chine that does It for you beautifully. You may easily write 15.000 words with one quill, mending -it four times, which gives six quills to the novel. So the cost of novel writing is small stated In terms of quills. Fishes Don't Need Ears to Hear. Philadelphia North American. , Just because fishes haven't ears is no reason why they can't hear, according to Dr. Arthur Gordon Webster, profes sor of physics in Clark University, who recently opened a series of lectures on "Sound In Speech and Music" at the University of Pennsylvania. Doctor Webster declared that sound Is motion. "The outside of the ear," he said, "is not necessary to hearing. It is possible to hear through the teeth. This can easily be proved by holding a pencil between the teeth and holding it on the sounding board of a piano. "There has been much discussion as to whether fish can hear. Some per sons have declared that fish cannot dis tinguish sounds because they have no ears, but sound is motion, and as long as vibrations reach the Inside of fishes' heads it makes no difference whether they have ear orifices or not." Flea for Economy. PORTLAND. Jan. 28. (To the Edi-tor.)-r-I heartily Indorse what was said this morning as to appropriations by the Legislature. Let us keep sane In expenditures. It is easy to run In debt, but. of ten difficult to get out. Oregon Is a state of great natural resources and lg growing fast enough for Its best future welfare. Better grow slower and sounder. In a hurry and rush we ought not to burden coming genera tions with 'illy-digested measures, and with obligations that will be burden some to carry. Extravagance' is folly. If not something worse. LEVI W. METERS. Only Explanation. Albany Journal. Perhaps the Mexican rebellion is kept going for the moving-picture people. Cost la About the Same Between St. Louis and New Tork. Kansas City Star. Tou may ride from St. Louis to New Tork in something over a day. for $23.50, plus whatever you may desire to expend for Pullman accommodations and meals For ti excess fare you may make the trip In 24 hours. It happens that the regular fare Is Just 75 cents less than it was 02 years ago. The latest volume of McMaster's "History of the People Of the United States" quotes an advertisement from the St. Louis Republican of 1S49, de scribing the route. The traveler went from St. Louis to LaSalle on the Ill inois river, 281 miles, by boat. From there to Chicago the trip was by canal. From Chicago a lake boat was taken to New Buffalo, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. A short Journey by rail took the passenger to Detroit, where he might take . a steamer to Buffalo. From there he rode to Albany by rail. At the New Tork capital he embarked on a steamer once more and sailed down the Hudson to Manhattan Island. On this Journey the distance to be traveled by water greatly exceeded that by rail. This prebably accounts for the comparatively low iare charged for the entire trip. The local rates are men tioned in the advertisement. It cost only from J5 to $8 to go from Chicago to Buffalo, most of the way by boat, while the railroad fare from Buffalo to Al bany was $9.75. The trip down, the Hudson was very cheap; the fare was only 0 cents. The fare by canal 100 miles was $4 and the 281 miles by river cost only $5. Forty per cent of the expense of the entire trip went for railroad fare on the stretch between Buffalo and Albany. But while the transportation charge has changed only slightly in the 62 years since this advertisement appeared, the comfort of the Journey has been In comparably augmented. In the old days the Journey occupied five or six days, with as many changes of conveyance. Now It may be made on an electric lighted train, with a comfortable bed and with excellent dining service. MOTOR CYCLE IN TIME OF WAR. Dispatch Bearer Will Demonstrate Value in Lonn; Scouting- Trips. (New Tork Tribune,) To demonstrate the value of the mo tor cycle as a despatch bearer In time of war an Interesting, although strenu ous, test will be made Just before the opening of the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers' tenth an nual show in Chicago, February 8. A rider, whose name will not be di vulged until after the test, but who will simply be known as the "Emblem Scout," will leave New Tork City four days before the opening of the Chicago show, and he will carry a message from General Frederick Dent Grant, of Gov ernor's Island, charging the "Emblem Scout" to deliver it safely into the hands of Samuel A. Miles, manager of the Chicago exhibition. "The little motor cycle is destined to play a very important part In the next war If universal peace does not pre vail." said William G. Schack at the automobile show, "and America Is very much behind other countries In this respect, England, France, Italy and Germany organized motor cycle corps have been made a part of the regular army, and I think that as soon as the reliability of the motor cycle is satis factorily proved to the authorities in this country, motor cycle corps will form parts of many regiments. "The value of the mtotor cycle cer tainly is beyond question.. A motor cycle rider can travel just as fast and as far as an automobilist, and the rider of the two-wheeled steed has many ad vantages over the latter. In times of actual war the automobile would have extreme difficulty In escaping detec tion, while a motor cycle rider would be able to conceal himself and machine very easily if the enemy were near. The size of the automobile would make this Impossible. Besides a motor cycle can travel through a woods or be lifted across ditches and over fences and other obstructions that would bar an automobile." Onr Bide as m Defense. Florida Times-Union. We have often said that no European army could march far Into the Interior of our country because it would be an nihilated without the necessity of de feating it in a pitched battle. If a Ger man army takes Paris, the conquest is completed; If an army takes London, England would ask for peace as she ac cepted the Norfnan after Hastings, but when an English army took Washing ton It did not take time to cheer be fore starting back to its ships. If there be disadvantage in having many cap itals we are not without compensation to us the taking of Washington would mean no more than the taking of Bald win or Sopchoppy. Gatzert's Dock, and Ownerahlp. SHERIDAN, Or., Jan. 24. (To the Editor.) Will you please let me know, whether the Bailey Gatzert lands at the foot of Washington or Alder street and what company she belongs to, through the columns of The Oregonlan. JACK RANDALL. The Gatzert is out of commission for the Winter, but when In service leaves from . Alder street. The Gatzert Is owned by The Dalles. Portland & As toria Navigation Company, controlled by the North Bank road. IF THE GAG WERE OX. Not a voice should be heard, nor the ghost of a shout The sabbathlcal silence should worry. When down the street. In a voiceless rout. The ubiquitous newsboys hurry. And one would dream, it must be con fessed. With never a voice to confound him. Naught of the news upon him pressed By the urchins swarming around him. Few words they'd whisper; perhaps pro fane And tinged with a humor dtspeptic But the code of signals they'd work amain Would honor an epileptic. Though famine or floor or fire befall. No noise of the news should benumb thee. If swarming "newsies" their extras call In the voice of an astral dummy. And peace, sweet peace, should hover round O'er the streets of the city once more. Til we'd hear faint tones, that were erstwhile drowned By the chorusing newsboys' roar. The tinsel clink of the flat wheeled car, And the soft "ding ding" of its gong. Once more their music should waft afar To tbe ears of the hurrying throng. And the- auto should honk as the night ingale. And down by the drawbridge span, y Should the mellow sound of the steam boat's wail Ring sweet as the pipes o' Fan. And the cobblestones should our hearts entrance Neath the wheels of the passing wagon, tn'the day when their voice should.be ' given a chance And the "newsy" should have a gag on. f Dean Collins, Life's Sunny Side A celebrated explorer recently ap proached the. chancellor of the British exchequer with a view of obtaining treasury assistance and support' for a forthcoming expedition. Lloyd -George met the- Inquirer by stating that the proper course to pursuo was first to obtain help from outsida bodies of citizens, such as the stock exchange, and then to apply, if neces sary, to his majesty's ministers. The explorer accepted the advice, but was quickly back in Lloyd-George's room at the treasury. "Well, have you been successful? asked the chancellor. "Partially so," replied the explorer. "How much money have you got from the stock exchange?" said the minister. "Only $250," was the answer, "but with the prospect of a great deal more on certain conditions which require the co-operation of the chancellor of the ex chequer." . "What ,were those conditions? Lloyd George inquired, i "There were two." said the traveler. "One was that the $250 would be raised to $125,000 if I took you with me to our destination in the Ice, to be increased to $250,000 if I left you there." New York American. e e e The German boy who presided over the soda fountain in the only drug store In an Ohio town was accustomed to patrons who did not know their own minds, and this habit of thought waa difficult to change "Plain soda," said a stout woman, entering one day, in great haste. "Tou haf viniHa, or you haf lemon? calmly inquired the Teutonic lad. "Plain soda without syrup! Don't you understand me?" demanded the stout woman, testily. "Yas, I understand." came from tho boy, whose placid German countenance did not change in . expression, "but vot kind of syrup you vant him mitout? Mltout vanilla, or mitout lemon?" Harper's Magazine. a a a She is a dainty little woman of good education, has allowed herself to become addicted to the slang of the day, bo the other evening when she was telling a story, her friends laughed at the story, but fairly shrieked at her own comment on it. The way she told the story was "1 went out to a card party the other day. and although I knew most of the people there, one woman especially at tracted me. I do not know her, but she was as pretty as a peach. I admired her beauty and wondered at the expensive and tasteful costume which she wore. Her own good looks and her clothes made her the most attractive woman at. the party. After a while I found myself at the same table with her and was so happy to see her at close range. I fairly gasped at her first remark. It was this: 'I seen you could'a went it alone, or I'd ordered It up.' " The comment was "Me for the English and cut oOt the glad rags." Cincinnati Commercial Tribune. e e ' e An Impecunious nobleman saw a por trait of an ancestor in a West End shop window. He went in and Inquired tne price. It was $60 "I'll give you $50," he said to the shopkeeper. But the price was refused and there was no sale made. Some time later the nobleman was dining in the magnificent new London house of a business man of the type called self-made. He noticed a familiar portrait on the wall. "Ah." said the host, observing his guest's interest in the painting, that is a portrait of an ancestor of mine. Indeed!" said the peer. "Then we must be realated." he continued with per fect gravity: "He was within $10 of be ing an ancestor of mine!" WHOLE TOWJT JOINS IN THE MUSIC. LlndabOTC, Kas., Is Full of Melody-Mak-Img Swedes. (Christian Herald.) Llndsborg. Kan., is the land of the Swede and the home of music Nearly 50 years ago a band of Swedish im migrants settled In the Smoky Valley. They prospered, built a town and a col lege. They loved music and they soon organized a choral society that has grown Into a great oratorio society. "And how they do love music. They sing In their homes and in the fields and teach their children to sing and to play. One morning I met a small 'Gust on the street and when I inquired of him a direction he took off his hat ami stood with the sun on his flaxen head. He had a violin under his arm and told me he was going to practice with three other boys and- girls a violin quartette for the children's Saturday concert. " 'And what are you going to play? I a8"?-Yye will play three selections,' ho said in his clear but slow English. 'Minuet, from E major Symphonic by Mozart; 'Wiegenlied,' from Schubert, and the finale from Mozart's Quartet No. 43.' "It fairly took my breath. Every where I saw children going or coming with music in their hands and instru ments under their arms, all keenly in terested in the coming concert. It is the great event of the year to these Swedish children. Just as the grand Messiah' concert rendered with a chorus of 900 voices is the event of the year for their elders and for thou sands of visitors. Every boy and girl in town who sings at all and that scarcely leaves enough for a game of three-cornered cat is in the chorus." - An Amendment. A Pennsylvania Judge proposes the use of wire cages as ballot boxes as a means to prevent ballot-box stuffing. It might be suggested that a surer way to get the same result would be to tuck the ballot-box stuffers away in certain cages already provided, New Orleans Times-Democrat. FEATURES IN THE SUNDAY OREGONIAN CENTENARY OF HORACE GREELEY . In connection with the 100th an niversary of the great editor, an article, "The Horace Greeley That I Knew," by Thomas L. James, formerly Postmaster - General of the United States. WITH PUPILS AT THE SCHOOL OF ARTS "What the Portland Arts and Crafts. Society is doing to develop local talent in drawing and paint- WINDSOR, WHERE ' THE CASTLE IS Annie Laura Miller tells of the treasures she saw within the his toric structure and those on the outside. Order early from your newsdealer.