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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
VOL. L. NO. 15,531.
PORTLAND.' OKEf.ON. THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 1910.
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
LIFE PASS USED FOR
MAN WHO IS DEAD
EXCHANGE OF HAIR
BEAM WOULD KEEP
WIFE FROM STAGE
FLIGHT FAR; JAPS
AT TICKET'S HEADL
BLOXDE AND BRTJXETTE WOM-
DOW INSISTS, AND STEAM
SHIP COMPANY GUtS IX.
HCSBAXD GOES TO XEW YORK,
. EX FIGURE IX COMEDY.
BUT SHE IS IX HJEPPXER.
AND WHITES IV1ARRY
Nomination Another In
PLATFORM IS "PROGRESSIVE"
Convention's Choice for Gov-
L ernor Federal Attorney.
OLD GUARD BADLY BEATEN
Colonel Roosevelt Maly Eloquent
Speech Tor StlniMm and Fiery
Talk for Direct Primary
Plank, and Is Vic-tor.
SARATOGA. X. T.. Sept. IS. Ths Re
Duhlican State Conventon tonight nimwl
Henry L- Stlmson. of New Tork, aa It
candidate for Governor.
The nomination rf Mr. Stlmson was
ne more victory for Colonel Roosevelt,
rho personally led the light for the
lomlnatlon of his candidate.
The rest of the ticket follows:
Lieutenant-Governor. Edward Shoe-
Secretary of State. Samuel S. Koenig
State Comptroller. Jamea Thompson.
State Treasurer. Thomas F. Fennell.
State Engineer. Frank M. Williams
Attorney-General. Edward R. O'Mal-
Assistant Justice of the Court of Ap
peals, Irving G. Vann (renominated).
Vote for Governor Shown.
The vote for Governor follows:
Henry L. Stlmson. M: W. S. Bennet.
pf New Tork. HI: Thomas R Dunn.
Rochester. 38: James B. McEwan. Al
bany. IS: scattering-. 13.
The slate as made up this morn ins; by
Mr. Roosevelt1. Senator Root and their
advisers went through without a hitch.
Colonel Roosevelt said tonight that he
wnld take the stump In the campaign.
He said that ha would not cancel bis
Southern trip, which begins on Thurs
day of next week, or his trip te Iowa
early In November.
Wadsworth to Retire.
At the close of the convention James
S. Wadsworth. Jr.. Speaker of the As
sembly, announced his wtthdraway from
the Legislature, due to his personal
views as to the length of time during
which a member of the Assembly should
te a candidate for Speaker, and If sue
has been Speaker Ave years.
Mr. Wadsworth would not say that
his retirement was due to the victory
rrssful. hold tha tlniportant office. He
of the "progressives" In the conven
tion. The eiose of the convention found the
Roosevelt forces in complete mastery of
the situation, although the old guard
kept up Its light grimly until the end.
Roosevelt's Triumph Complete.
Following the flrst ro.ut of the or
ganlzatlon in the selection of Colonel
Roosevelt for temporary chairman
came his dramatic and successful bat
tle for the adoption of the platform of
tbe "progressives and his final victory
in the nomination of Mr. Stlmson.
By th etlme the Stlmson vote was
taken the strength of the organisation
had been dissipated badly. Having no
candldaet for whom to make a deter
mined fight. It threw the bulk of Its
vote to Representative Bennet. As a
rule, voting on the candidates for Gov
ernor followed the same division be
tween "progressives' and the old guard
as the vote for temporary chairman
Thompson Well Supported.
On the vote for State Comptroller
Thompson received substantially the
full "progressive" strength In addition
to about half of the old guard forces.
He was opposed by Senator Klssell.
The new state committee, containing
several new names, waa announced to
night, and It waa assumed thta the
"progressives" would control, turning
over to the Roosevelt forces .the party
machinery of the state. Chalrmi
Woodruff, who failed of re-election In
his own district, was elected from the
Xrw Chairman Likely.
The election of a "progressive" chair
man in place of Mr. Woodruff Is expect
ed, although who the new chairman will
be Is not surmised. It Is customary to
hold a meeting of the state committee
for the election of a chairman directly
after the convention, but Chairman
Root, of the convention, said that no
tuch meeting would be held tonight.
It is understood this situation arfose
on account of the fact that no agree
ment had been reached as to the new
state chairman. Lloyd C. Griscom and
Cornelius V. Collins both hav edecllned
Roosevelt Opens Session.
Colonel Roosevelt called the conven
tion to order at 1 1 : 1 S.
"This convention." he said, "has
shown that tha utmost Intensity of
differences of opinion can be accom
panied by scrupulous fairness in han
dling tha question as to who ia by right
entitled to admission -to tha conven
tion." United States Senator Root was
named aa permanent chairman of tha
convention by the committee on perma
nent organization. The report waa
adopted and Colonel Roosevelt ar
r Concluded Fas i
Purser Is Astounded when tree
Transportation Is Offered for
Carrying Body on Steamer.
SEATTLE. Wash.. Sept. 2S. (Special.)
Insisting that her deceased husband was
Just as much entitled to travel on a
pass as when he its alive. Mrs. John
Chadwlck. of Black Bay. on the Hood
Canal, staggered L. K. Purcell, of the
steamship State of Washington, by re
fusing to pay freight on his corpse,
which she had brought to the vessel for
shipment to Seattle.
'My husband had a para on the State
of Washington, when he was alive," she
said to Purser Purcell. "and no one Is
going to prevent him traveling on It
when he is dead, poor fellow."
Mrs. Chadwlck had placed her hus
band's body In it coffin on tbe steamshlj.
and Purcell. who Is one of the moot con
siderate officers In the service of the
Puget Sound Navigation Company, hesi
tated to order It put ashore, when aha
refused to pay charges.
He reasoned with the widow, telling
her that she really ought to pay tha
regular charge, ami much as he per
sonally would like to oblige her by allow
ing the corpse to travel on free, he was
only a purser and had no voice In the
A crisis was rapidly approaching, when
Purcell. deciding to let the higher offi
cials of the company fettle the matter.
telegraphed to L. A. Miller, freight and
passenger agent for the Puget sound
Navigation Company. An examination of
the records satisfied Miller that Chad-
rlck. who bad a lumber tract at Black
Bay. held a life pass.
When Purcell read the freight agent's
reply. "Let corpse travel free and col-
lect panel." the widow heaved a sigh of
atUfnorlnn mnti mstlti dhn knew BrvA
R0SLYN MINERS ON STRIKE
Four Hundred Men Walk Out When
Union Man Is Discharged.
ELLENSBURG. Wash, Sept. 28. Dis
agreement between the Northwestern
Improvement Company superintendent
and the president of the Miners' Union
at shaft No. 5. near Roslyn, which con
trols coal weighing, caused a walkout
of 400 men this morning.
The union president was discharged
aa welgnt cneeaman. ina company
contending It should appoint the weigh
ers. It Is probable tliat 2000 men in
tha other mines may be affected.
COURT ACQUITS LOFTUS
Man Tried for Murder Freed on
Ground of Self-Defense.
BAKERSFIELD. Cal., Sept. 28. J. C.
Loftus, charged with the murder of
Joseph LaCferty September 4. was ac
quitted In a Justice Court here today
on the ground of self defense. Testi
mony of witnesses showed that Lafferty
had been the aggressor and had choked
Loftus twice the night before. The
next morning he attempted to repeat
his treatment, when he was shot by
A quarrel over the treatment of . a
horse was the cause of the trouble.
PRICE OF MILK ADVANCED
Vancouver People Will Pay $1.75
for Pint Per Day for Month.
VANCOl'VER. Wash., Sept. 2S. (Spe
cial.) Milk prices have received a second
boost within a year, the new schedule
golnc into effect October 1. Patrons of
the dairies have been notified.
The full new schedule, which becomes
effective Saturday, follows: One pint a
day for one month, $1.75; one quart. $2.75;
three pints, $1; two quarts. $5.25: tine pints,
ItS; three quarts. $7.25: seven pints.
$3.23: one gallon. $9; cream, one pint. Hi
one-half pint. $3.
KATHERINE ELKINS COMES
Ambassador Bacon Sees Americans I
Off at Paris.
PARIS. Sept. 28. Mrs. Stephen B.
Elklns. her two sons and Miss Kather-
Ine Elklns. departed today for Cher
bourg, where they sailed later on the
steamer Kaiser tVllhelm der Grosse for
They were accompanied to the rail
way station by Ambassador Bacon and
BANKER IS ARRAIGNED
W. E. Bnffum Found Guilty of Con
tempt and Fined SS.
ASTORIA. Or.. Sept. 2. (Special.)
(V. E. Buffln. manager of the Bank
ing. Savings and Loan Association, waa
arraigned before the Circuit Court an a
charge of contempt of court In that he
broke Into the association's office af
ter It had been closed by tha Sheriff
The defendant was sentenced to par
a rme or 5. and apologize to the court
and the Sheriff, which he did.
EXPENSE EXPERT NAMED
President Taft Chooses Xew Yorker
to Head Inquiry Board.
WASHINGTON. Sept- 2i. President
Taft today announced the appointment
of Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland, director
of Bureau of Municipal Research, of
New Tiork. to head a Federal staff of I
experts to Investigate the expcndlturea
la executive departments.
Land Withdra. v Act De
nounced as Stiism.
FREE ENTRY IS DEMANDED
Committee on Resolutions Making
Substitute Opposing Plan of
Incasing or Royalty System
for Mineral Lands.
LOS ANGEJL.ES. Sept. 28. Members of
the American Mining Congress are for
conservation of natural resources that
Is conservation which will eliminate
waste. But they are opposed . to the
Thia summarizes the sentiments of an
apparent majority of the delegates on
the eve of the report of the committee
on resolutions and it presages rejection
"," "-" meones wnen
"" suom.w us report on
I Th coinniittee la at work tonlffht on
ma mass or more or less violent con
servation rohltinn sn fat ln(rn.4n..
1 to report composite substitute
embodying the anti-waste idea of con-
ervatlon, and with it the essentials of
the resolutions which denounce the land
withdrawal act as socialistic, the atti
tude of the conservationists as "mere
el. am and pretense" and demanding free
and unrestricted entry of American
citizens upon mineral-bearing lands as
I opposed to the proposition of establish
ing ine teasing or royalty system. At
the request of the oil aien's organizations
no recommendations will be made regard
ing oil lands.
System Will Mean Waste.
B. R. Buckley, president or the 'Mining
Congress, expressed a view entertained
by many of the delegates, when he said
that It was his belief that the leasing
and royalty system would Inevitably lead
to the. defeat of one of the main ends
of conservation, the prevention of waste.
"Leasers,'' he said", "would not handle
great quantities of low grade ore that
now are mnied at a profit. It would
not pay them and all this would go to
The composite resolution offering the
Roosevelt-Plnchot conservation policies
will In all probability go through, but not
without opposition. There are some able
supporters of the Plnchot theories
among the delegates and they will op
pose the reeolution but there will be no
fight. The odds are apparently too over
whelming and President Buckley aald to-'
night that there was no Intention to dis
turb tbe even tenor of the discussions.
Mining Law Revision Asked.
The principal accomplishment today 1
waa the adoption of a committee report
recommending the appointment of a joint
Congressional committee to hold public
hearings' in the mining districts and then
Concluded on Pm 3.)
REPUBLICAN VOTER "MY BOY, I'M FOR YOU FROM
Hasty Dressing in Unlucky ''Lower
7" Causes Girls' Embarrassment
on Vancouver Streets.
VANCOUVER, Wash., Sept. 28. (Spe
cial.) In the darkness of their Pull
man berth the Ill-fated, lower 7 again
two young women who boarded the
North Bank train at Spokane last
night carelessly exchanged their sur
plus hirsute adornment, which, be
cause one Is a decided blonde and the
other a (pronounced brunette, caused
unlimited amusement among the other
passengers, provoked an outburst of
laughter from a local streetcar conduc
tor, brought forth smiles from persons
j whom they passed on the street and
createa confusion, bordering upon riot.
to the girls themselves, when they
glanced Into a convenient mirror at the
St. Elmo Hotel this morning.
Both women were well dressed and
either would have attracted more than
passing attention because of her strik
ing beauty, alone. They hastily retired
to their room, following the discovery
of their predicament, and did not ap
pear again until late this evening, when
their tresses, from all outward appear
ance, were of natural growth.
The girls afterward admitted that
they were weary when they retired
to their berth yesterday evening and
that the porter did not call them until
the train was due, within 30 minutes, to
arrive at Vancouver. In their haste to
dress, they explained, they accidentally
made the exchange that proved so dis
astrous to their personal appearance.
LIFE CHEAP IN CHICAGO
Only Two Men Hang for 693 Mur
ders In Four Years.
CHICAGO, Sept. 28. (Special.) Per
sons outside who wonder why human
life Is the cheapest commodity In Chi
cago may discover a reason In the
crime statistics just made public.
In the last four years there have been
693 murders In this city. Five hundred
and forty-seven persons were arrested
on murder charges; 132 were convicted,
but only two have been hanged, the
others getting prison sentences or se-
curing new trials and delaying matters
until they eventually were discharged.
The repott Is official', being made by
Chief of Police Steward to Corporation
Counsel Brundaje, who will submit it
to- the Bar Association', -so that" the
lawyer will have some light on the in
sistent complaint that crime goes un
punished In Chicago.
HASKELL WINS HIS POINT
Prosccutlon Must Show Guilt
McALESTER. Okla., Sept. 28. The
hearing in the trial of Gov. C. N. Has'
kell -and others In the Muskogee town
lot cases today was postponed until to
morrow. Federal Judge John A. Mar
shall granted a request by the Govern
ment's attorneys that they be allowed
time to examine their witnesses before
putting them on the stand.
Judge Marshall ruled that the evl-
dence against Haskell would have to be
confined to proof of "conscious partici- I
pation" In the alleged conspiracy in the I
three years prior to the return of the I
Indictment against him. which was on
May 27. 1909.
S. R. Rush, special assistant to the
Attorney-General, said the Government
did not wish to take up the time of the
court If the witnesses for the prosecu
tion would be unable to present evi
dence under the restrictions thus laid
Deals With Rawn.
HIGH AND LAW ARE ACCUSED
Startling Testimony Offered in
INSIDE WORKINGS TOLD
Head of Car Repairing Company in
Detail Tells How Rawn and As
sociates Mulcted Illinois Cen
tral Out of 91,000,000.
CHICAGO. Sept. 28. The Illinois
Central Railroad corruption bomb ex
ploded with terrific force today In
Municipal Judge Bruggemeyer's court.
Henry C. Ostermann, ex-president of
the Ostermann Manufacturing Com
pany, was the fuse who touched off
the explosion, and former officials of
the railroad company, both exalted and
low, were struck telling blows.
The head of the defunct car repair
ing company, which is alleged to have
mulcted the Illinois Central out of
$4,000,000, was a voluntary witness.
Ostermann was called as a witness
for the prosecution In the conspiracy
hearing against Frank B. Harriman,
Charles L. Ewlng and John M. Taylor,
former Illinois Central officials charged
with participating In extensive car re
Rawn Chief Figure.'
The testimony involved not orjly the
names of the three men, no.' on trial.
but extended to a dozen others who
formerly occupied position of trust
with the railroad. The Nate Ira G.
Rawn, late president of the Monon
Route, who was mysteriously shot to
death at his Summer home last July.
was named by Ostermann as one of
the chief figures la the alleged graft
Ostermann declared that Rawn, wnen
vice-president of the Illinois Central, was
given low snares or stock in tne oster -
mann Manufacturing Company and that
this was Increased to 2700 shares. He sad
that Rawn sold this stock to the Oster-
mann plent at par, or S3 a share.
Payment Made for Cars.
After he had sold back the stock for
$13,500. the witness testified, Rawn de
manded and got flrst $3, then $10 and
finally $15 for each car repaired or alleged
tc have been repaired at the Ostermain
plant. Ostermann testified that he per-
1 sonally made one payment of 110.500 to
I Raun. which, he said, waa for VOO cars
nn which the concern collected renjlr
m aud'tion to a payment per car ns to
Rawn, all Ostermann, a. fixed monthly-
B;.m wag paid to certain officials and a
2 per cent a month dividend was paid on
large blocks of Ostermann Manufactur
ing Company stock held by Illinois Cen
"What Illinois Central officials held
stock in your company?" Ostermann was
i Concluded nn Page o.)
THE BOTTOM UP,"
While Singer Awaits Footlight Call
" Friends Believe Talk of Sep
aration Is Unfounded.
SAN FRANCISCO, Sept. 28. (Special.)
It Iff the consensus of opinion among
the friends of Mrs. Adele Case-Beam and
her husband, Willard Metcalf Beam, that
the young music lover is speeding East
to New York to carry out her long
threatened plans to enter the stage life,
and that her husband follows closely pur
suing her In a desperate effort to per
suade his wife not to answer the call
of the footlights and that all rumors of
a separation between the newly-married
pair ia merely idle talk.
It was said today that Beam had re
turned from Portland after vainly trying
to persuade his wife' to return home with
him to thia city. Beam did not return
to his mother's home, at 903 Fell street,
I up to a late hour tonight, and according
to the close friends of the family, he
will not return home until he Is succes
ful in winning over his wife to not re
turn to a stage career.
Mrs. Mary Adele Case-Beam left for
Portland several weeks ago to visit her
mother, who was reported to be seriously
ill. Upon her arrival In the northern
city the condition of her mother was
notably Improved. Then the talk of re
turning to the stage was broached by
the young wife to her mother.
Beam in some way heard of her plans
and started north to persuade her
against the stage, but he was too late.
HEPPNER. Or., Sept. 28. (Special.)
Mrs. Mary Adele Case-Beam, the well-
known musician of San Francisco, is
viejfing her "brother, M. L. Case, a promi
nent merchant in this city.
It is reported that Mrs. Beam is
I awaiting telegraphic report regarding an
engagement to sing in grand opera in
New York City, and friends In this city
are hoping to Induce Mrs. Beam to give
a recital here Friday evening in case
she does not leave prior to that date.
Mrs. Beam came here alone.
MRS. BELL WANTS DIVORCE
Society Woman Charges Husband
With Many Acts of Cruelty.
RENO. Nev-., Sept. . 28. (Special.) A
complaint for -divorce is filed here by
Corlnne Bell, a former society leader of
San Jose, where she was married April
190S, to Frank J. Bell, an automobile
dealer of Seattle and San Francisco. Her
storv of his threats to throw vitriol In her
I f.- during his fits of Jealous rage and
his attempts to strangle her. choking her
I ,nto insensibility, ending in his punching
ln the. face and blackening her eyes
nart nf her accusations of abuse. He
beat and chastised her and charged her
-m, aHnlterv with divers men. His
laniruaee was obscene and vile, she
.hrc. and his temper ungovernable.
Ther a. no children.
sh. ,t t renme her mal.len name,
There Is no reference to property rights
nH it S understood the husband will not
offer any opposition' to her actions.
Mrs Bell is a buxom little woman, con-
sDiciious in her wealth of bleached hair,
socially inclined and is a familiar figure
ln local cafes and those of San Francisco,
ONE DEAD IN MINE RIOT
Dynamite and Fire Used by Angry
Men in Colorado Camp.
BUENA VISTA, Colo., Sept. 28. One
man is reported to have been killed
and considerable property destroyed by
dynamite and fire as the result of a
riot that broke out among miners at
Monarch, a mining camp 35 miles from
here, early today.
Telephone and telegraph wires are
down, apparently as the result of the
Sheriff Brewster has gone with sev
eral deputies to the scene. The Chief
of Police and several patrolmen were
also summoned from Sallda.
STRIKERS NOW PEACEFUL
Berlin' Riots Cease and Emperor
Wllhelm Demands Iteport.
BERLIN, Sept. 28. The rioting coal
strikers appear to have worn themselves j
out during the night, and today quiet
prevailed throughout the Moabit Pre
clnct. There are no reliable figures of
the number Injured ln clashes with the
police. At one hospital, 30 wounded citi
zens received treatment. Comparatively
few policemen seem to have been In
jured. Emperor William has sent lor a tun
report of the trouble.
PHEASANTS TfJ BE FREED
Chehalis County Will Liberate 300
Pair on 5-Year Limit.
MOXTESANO. Wash., Sept. 28. (Spe
cial.) Three hundred pair of Chinese
pheasants will be liberated in Chehalis
County ln November, the birds having
been ordered from a New York fancier.
The regular five-year limit will be
placed on the birds, and the Legislature
will be asked . to pass a law protecting
pheasants of this kind in counties bor
dering on Chehalis.
GOVERNOR BENS0N ON WAY
Oregon Executive Passes Through
SAN FRANCISCO, Sept. 28. Governor
Frank W. Benson, of Oregon, left here
today for Salem, having practically
recovered from the illness that caused
his protracted sojourn, ln California.
Journey 1500 Miles to
Get License. .
SEATTLE BALKS; TACOMA OK'S
Two American Girls Take Ori
entals as Husbands.
LEGISLATION MAY STOP
With Granting of Right o Wed
Washington Likely to Pass Law
Prohibiting Such Unions.
Emery Case Recalled.
TACOMA, Wash., Sept. 28 (Special.)
After a 1300-mile flight from Los
Angeles to Seattle In a vain effort to
be wed, two Los Angeles Japanese and
two white girls, one the daughter of
a retired Utah farmer and the other
the daughter of a Los Angeles mer
chant, were granted marriage licenses
here today, after being refused in every
city where they had applied.
Knnio Toda. a Japanese merchant. o(
the California city, and Miss Ryda
Reid, whose pursuit of the elusive
license began at Los Angeles and has
taken them through the Oakland, Cal.,
jail, were the flrst applicants. After
securing their license they were mar
ried by Rev. M. Takahashl, pastor of
the Japanese mission, and immediately
took an lnterurban car for Seattle, on
I -os Angeles Couple Shy at City.
Taunejlro Tanaka and Edith Hote
meyer, both of Los Angeles, were the
second applicants, and came to thia
city, accompanied by an attorney.
After getting their license they left In
an automobile, stating that they would
not attempt to get married in this citv,
but preferred a country town close by.
The auto went in the direction of Roy,
a few miles south of Tacoma.
In the case of Miss Reed, who nut
her husband first in Los Angeles, the
young couple began their long Journey
to be wed by first making tracks to-
ward balt Lke t-lt"- where the father
ot the bride-to-be lives. They wera
arrestea in passing mrougn uaKiana.
Cal., but after an Investigation the po
" i"u iU pin,
the father of the girl telegraphing the
"-anrornia city autliorities that Ills
daughter was of age.
"he following laconic message was
I sent by the father
' (jirl or age. jr any law, put them
I in Jail. James Reed."
I with tneir. release from the Oakland
jan, tney tnougnt it not best to tempt
the parental mind further by continu
ing their journey to Salt Lake, so they
took the Shasta Limited for Seattle,
where, of course, they expected to ex-
perlence no trouble in securing a li
cense, get married, ana sail tor the
Orient on their honeymoon on the
Tamba Maru. It was planned to pass
their honeymoon with Toda's father,
a wealthy Japanese wine merchant,
who had asked his son to visit him In
japan before death should finally
separate them. After returning from
the Orient Toda and his bride were to
go to Los ; Angeles and reside on a
chicken 'ranch in that vicinity, which
the Japanese husband owns and oper
ates. Jap to Give Up Religion.
When contemplating their amrriage
Toda agreed to give up the religion of
his forefathers and in return his Mor
mon sweetheart has adopted' many of
the customs of the - Far East. She
speaks Japanese like one "to the man
ner born," and firmly believes . that in
far Nippon only does woman hold her
true position in the scheme of things
domestic. She insists that Japanese
husbands treat their wives better than
the Americans do, and asserts that
marrlage , a more Bacred Institution !
u that country than here. Miss Reed i
says that the Jap husband extends a
comradeship to his wife that Is un
known ln this country.
When her father's telegram w-as men
tioned today, Mrs. Toda said:
When my father said that he did not
give his consent to my union with Toda,
or words to 'that effect in his order to
arrest us if there was any law, he lied.
He has said often he did not care what
became of me as long as I did not hang
around his home all my life. There . is
no danger now that I will bother him."
The Jap takes the warm affection of
his white wife very casually, and when
she becomes too demonstrative in public
he does not hestitate to repress her.
Couple See Only Joy.
Mr. and Mrs. Toda express entire satis
faction In their present situation and da
not hesitate to declare that their mar
riage will be one of happiness.
This is the . second international mar
riage between a white American girl
and a Japanese which has stirred the
Pacific oCast within "the past two years,
the other, which culminated most unhap
pily for the bride, was that between Miss
Gladys Emery, daughter of the Arch
deacon Emery of the Protestant Epis
copal diocese of California and Gunjiro
This event caused no little comment
t Concluded on Page 3.1