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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (May 16, 1905)
THE MORNING -O&EGONIAN. TUEGDAY, MAY- 16, "1903i
Entered at the Postoffice at Portland, Or.,
as second-class matter.
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THE "WEEKLY OREGONIAN.
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TUESDAY, MAY 10, 1903.
THE PRESIDENT'S TROUBLES.
It Is no wonder that President Roose
velt had to cut his vacation short. The
number of perplexing and important
problems to be solved by the Adminis
tration appears to be growing greater
every day. The President had hardly
left the remaining grizzly bears undis
turbed in their mountain fastnesses be
fore he was brought face to face with
the untamable tigers of riot in Chicago.
He was made to hear a long and imper
tinent address from several of the
strike leaders, and then he suffered a
Tound of entertainment and speechmak
ing for a day and a night that m'ade his
previous month's strenuous lite seem
like a lazy man's fishing trip. Back In
"Washington his programme of ..troubles
looks something like this:
Oregon land fraud cafes.
Beef trust scandal.
Oil trust investigation.
Railroad rebate problem.
Tobacco trurt inquiry.
Germany's threat of tariff retaliation.
Santo Domingo row.
The President found the Oregon af
fairs demanding his immediate atten
tion, and he disposed of them with his
accustomed vigor and promptitude.
When the President became convinced
that the Government had been swindled
out of enormous sums by the operations
of a gigantic land ring, he determined
to bring the thieves to justice. To that
end he procured the services of men
who he thought deserved his confidence,
and he offered it to them. He did more.
He assured them that they would have
the cordial and unhesitating support of
the Administration under all clrcum
nances, mat tne President meant
what he said he always does Is ob
vious from the swift manner in which
he acted on Mr. Heney's recommenda
tlons. We know In Oregon that Roose
velt and Secretary Hitchcock are back
of the Government prosecution, and
that any other thing that appears to
stand in the way of the successful ter
mination of these cases will be instant
ly removed. If It is in the power of the
President to do It.
But Oregon is one of the smallest of
the Administration's troubles. The
Bowen-Loomls controversy Is a very
serious matter. The Venezuelan gov
ernment Is charged with having out
rageously violated the rights of Ameri
can citizens owning large properties In
ine faouth American Republic Just
when we were about to bring President
Castro on the carpet for explanation
and reparation, and just when we were
especially annoyed by his insolent and
defiant attitude, gave charges affecting
the Integrity pf men who have had
charge of the American Government's
negotiations are made. Assistant Sec
retary of State Loo mis is made the ob
ject of a scandalous newspaper attack,
based on alleged revelations of his con
duct while United States Minister to
Venezuela, and these charges are sup
posed to have been inspired by the pres
ent United States Minister to Venezu
ela, Mr. Bowen. It Is needful that our
own attitude toward Venezuela be above
reproach, or suspicion of any kind, and
so the President will get to the bottom
of this ugly affair before he goes far
ther with the doughty Venezuelans.
But it Is all In a day's work with the
Executive. He thrives on controversy
since he knows that his motives are
correct, and the public knows that his
judgment is sound, and his plans far
reaching. The big bears of Wall street
and. the little bears of Oregon are all
fair game for Theodore Roosevelt.
Professor William Stoddard Franklin
head of the department of physics of
Lehigh University, Intent more upon
the safety of" the small "boy than the
comfort of the general public, has in
vented a toy cannon which makes
flash and a loud report, but will neither
explode nor burn and will project noth
Ing more harmful than a cork. It is op
er&ted on the principle of the gas en
gine. An electric spark ignites the gas
and air, and & loud explosion follows
the cork shell is hurled with great ve
locity, and. a flame is emitted which It
of such low temperature that It does not
even scorch ttesae paper. All of this
bespeaks safety to the small boy out for
noise on the Fourth of July. But when
Professor Franklin says that the cost of
5000 shots and -their deafening detona
tions is not more -than 5 cents, he out
lines possibilities of suffering- for the
American public that are all but appall
MR. HILL'S OMISSION'S.
The statement of -Mr. James J. Hill,
president of the Great Northern, as to
the impossibility of establishing a per
manent freight rate which would be
satisfactory either to the shippers or
the railroad Is one of the most impor
tant bits of expert testimony offered
before the Senate investigating com
mittee. Mr. Hill's logic on this partic
ular phase of the railroad case Is prac
tically unanswerable. Referring to the
daily changing of conditions which gov
ern rates-, he says:
If a railway company, had a lot of empty can?
moving in one direction it could afford to
make a lower rate to fill those cars than If
it had to send the cars out with that load
and bring them back empty. . . . Tou
must make a rate always assuming that you
have to -bring the car back empty, because
you are called, upon when you have empty
cars, going out Tou are called to send this
car out with thl load and there Is nothing
to bring back. That in itself In my opinion
and I have watched It closely goes further
to hold rates up than almost anything else."
These constantly changing conditions
today puzzle the best railroad experts
In the country, and must be met, or
some shipper will get the worst of It.
A maximum rate bill would offer little
or no relief, for it would have to vary"
o greatly in different localities that its
establishment and maintenance would
be practically an Impossibility. The
rate situation is such a complex affair
that It requires frequent and prompt
readjustment to enable the communi
ties and individuals served by the
roads, and even the roads themselves,
to secure what Is right and proper.
But a very small fraction of the pres
ent outcry against the railroads has
been caused by unjust or unreasonable
rate schedules, and where there has
been trouble of this nature It has been
adjusted without' much difficulty. In
the majority of cases where the rail-
Toads were forced to appeal from the
rulings of the commissions, they have
been sustained in the courts. This
proves ihat the rate is not the prime
factor in the creation of the present
trong anti-railroad sentiment. The
questions which have aroused the indig
nation of the public and worked up this
sentiment against the railroads are the
nefarious secret rebates and the unjust
discrimination in cutting rates in favor
of certain shippers to the detriment of
smaller patrons engaged. In the same
line of business.
Mr. Hill has but little to say on this
point, and he has nothing to say re
gardlng the division of territory be
tween his lines and those controlled by
Mr. Harrlman. The rankest rate dis
crimination that Mr. Hill has ever fceen
guilty of is not one-half as unfair as
that which he. by agreement with Mr.
Harrlman, Is practicing on the people
of Idaho. .At an enormous expense ner
ton per mile he is lifting freight thou
sands of feet up through Potlatch Can
yon, then dropping It down again to
water level, and again lifting It to the
summit of the Cascades, to be dropped
down to tidewater on the Pacific Coast.
One locomotive and a train crew can
take from five to six cars from the
Clearwater River up to the head of Pot-
latch Canyon. If Mr. Hill would- build
or permit Mr. Harrlman to build a few
miles of railroad between Lewlston and
Rlparla, the same locomotive and crew
could take fifty to sixty loaded cars
right through to tidewater, without
climbing a single grade.
As the traffic Is now handled, the
Clearwater products are farther away
from tidewater after they have been
dragged up that steep canyon than they
were when they left the Idaho farms.
This is a species of discrimination that
Is more pernicious than the rebate, for
the reason that it is absolutely Inex
cusable. The thousands of" settlers all
through the Idaho Panhandle are enti
tled to some consideration In this mat
ter, arffl if there is a profit for the rail
road In lifting freight over one mile
above water level and then dropping it
down again, while a gravity route re
mains unused. It Is decidedly plain that
the rate exacted for the service is too
high. Mr. Hill has put up an excellent
argument against the granting of rate
making powers by the. Government, but
he has skillfully avoided all reference
to the rank discrimination against com
munities, counties and states which has
goaded the people into a state of mind
where they are not averse to seeing
enacted laws sufficiently drastic to
,drive the roads Into bankruptcy.
When Mr. Hill and Mr. Harrlman will
drop this division of territory and the
secret rebating and discrimination
against certain ports in favor of others,
they will find a much more friendly
sentiment In their favor. A maximum
freight rate Is not the only question
now under fire in the railroad camp.
FOR ROSE DAY AT THE FAIR.
Enthusiastic amateur'rosarlans a few
years ago called Portland the Rose City.
Defending usurpation of the article
"the," even In the face of Callfornlan
products. It was proved to experts more
than once that many favorite varieties
grew to greater perfection in Western
Oregon than In any other part of the
world. With the vast amount of adver
tising attaching to the Lewis and Clark
Fair. Portland's roses have been ex
ploited wherever, between the two
oceans, newspapers and magazines are
read. Now we are put to the test.
Never a' season has gone by In recent
years, except when an inconsiderate
and ridiculous date was set, that Port
land could not get together for a rose
show two or three thousand exception
ally fine specimens. This year we have
invited the nations of the earth to wit
ness what we can do with the queen of
flowers. Distinguished Americans, In
cluding the Vice-President of the
United States, will be present, together
with representatives of various foreign
governments Portland must not allow
them, nor the multitude of undistin
guished visitors, to be disappointed.
At least 100.000 roses will be needed to
meet expectation and fulfill promises.
It will be easy to assemble that num
ber if there shall be anything like' gen
eral response- to the Rose Society's re
quest. There are in Portland not fewer
than 15,000 homes whose gardens pro
duce good roses. Seven from each
home, or fourteen from every other one,
will suffice, if only fine blooms be sent,
for such an exhibit as will add largely
to Portland's fame.
One point in Mr. Sibson's letter, pub
lished in The Sunday Oregonian,
cannot be too strongly emphasized.
Disbud your roees. Whit fa th ue,
where b-ue&es are c plentiful, f per-
ml t ting imperfect buds to sap life and
strength from the perfect bud? So,
where there is a cluster, rub off the lit
tle buds and let all' the sap go into the
strong bud in the center. Disbudding
should be practiced not only for the
Role Show, but 'every year as well.
Necessity for cultivating the soil, urged
by Mr. Sibson, Is plain. Roses are eer-.
talnly entitled, to as much care as
onions in the vegetable garden, and for
Saturday, June 3, -will be Rose day
at. the. .Fair. Arrangements have been
made tor 5000 large glass Jars. These
must be filled. A little work, which
ought to be a labor of love. In the com
ing three weeks, coupled with public
spirit and home pride, will serve effec
tively to create such a rose exhibit as
shall eclipse anything of the kind ever
undertaken elsewhere. But to make a
big success everybody must help. Today
is a good time, or those who have not
begun, to begin to heed the suggestions
offered by the Rose Society.
A FORGETFUL PROFESSOR.
Professor Triggs, who did so much to
keep the University of Chicago In the
public eye during his connection with
the great Rockefeller Institution, has
just been awarded a verdict for 6 cents
damages In the action for libel he
brought against the New York Sun.
Professor Triggs had criticised Longfel
low and other poets, and the Sun, in its
own audacious way, criticised and "Jol
lied" Professor Triggs. But the matter
of the libel Js of less interest than some
of the testimony extracted from the
plaintiff In the course of cross-examination.
A theatrical firm had offered Profes
sor Triggs $700 a week to become ad
vance agent for a production of "Ro
meo and Juliet," and this elicited sev
eral Interesting confessions from the
plaintiff. As a professor of English lit
erature, a student of Shakespeare and
a possible lecturer upon "Romeo and
Juliet," a play with which he declared
himself to be "very familiar," Professor
Triggs was asked who Tybalt was. He
did not remember. Neither did he re
member Mercutlo, and he could not
even name the two houses which were,
at outs or the city In which the scene
was laid. Of course. It is better that a
lecturer should know the spirit rather
than the letter of his subject, but in our
mortal imperfection students cannot
arrive at the spirit except through the
As the Sun spoke of Professor Triggs
as the scourge of Whlttler and Long
fellow," there was much reference to
these poets during the trial. Professor
Triggs maintained that Longfellow had
no Imagination, spontaneity, passion,
Inspiration, and that his style was poor,
simple and unattractive. The defend
ant was asked who wrote .the words:
For of all pad words of tongue or pen,
The saddest arc these. It might have been.
Professor Triggs did not know. Nor
could he tell who' wrote the lines:
Up from the meadows rich with corn.
Clear In the cool September morn.
The clustered spires of Frederick stand
Green walled by the hills of Maryland.
"1 really do not place the poem," said
Professor Triggs of this quotation, "I
do not study It In that way." Longfel
low, Whlttler and Shakespeare appar
ently made but small impression upon
the Trlggslan memory, but It was oth
erwise with Whitman. From one of
Professor Triggs' utterances this paragraph-
was -quoted: "It Is not unlikely
that the nineteenth century will be di
vided Into the age of Poe and the age
of Whitman." This. Professor Triggs
said, was not praise of Whitman, but
an "Interpretation of facts," and that It
was on a level with saying a certain
building Is high. With Whitman's
works, Professor Triggs proclaimed
himself familiar, and further said that
"Leaves ofGrass" could with propri
ety be read to a young girl or young
married woman, "as I explain them."
From all of which It appears that the
professor of literature is sometimes a
person apart from the ordinary reader
Dr. Paul Farez, a well-known French
psychologist and physician, has lately
been conducting experiments for the
cure of drunkenness by "suggestion,"
for which he presents satisfactory re
sults. The question. "Can Inebriety be
cured by suggestion?" Is one that has
been asked many times, but the experi
ments to which reference Is made are
unique in the realm of subtlety, the
subject having been practiced upon en
tlrely while asleep. He was, moreover,
not desirous of being cured of alcohol-
Ism, nor willing to submit to treat
ment of any kind for it. Notwithstand
ing these adverse conditions. Dr. Farez
declares that this man, "against his will
and unknown to him, was cured and
has remained so for four years."
That he was a stubborn and difficult
subject is shown by the following
statement of his case:
The patient was 25 years of age. married.
of sound constitution and average health. He
commenced drinking when he wa 17 years
of age, and his wile had married. him in or
der to reform him. After bis marriage, how
ever, he drank as .befdre. His dally ration
was two quarts of wine with his meals, and
during the day several glasses of brandy, rum.
A-erroouth. absinthe, etc Ordinarily the man
was quiet, but when he had taken more ab
sinthe than usual he became violent, abused
his wife, broke everything within reach, and
surrendered completely to his frenzy. The day
following this delirium the man remembered
nothing, but when told of what he had done
he went, promised to become sober, etc The
scenes, however, were soon repeated.
Not because the man was considered
to be worth saving, perhaps, but
rather because it took too long for him
to die by this means, his friends gave
him into the care of the psychologist.
The latter took charge of him willingly
In the interest of science, and began
treatment by suggestion during natural
sleep. From four to five times a week
Dr. Farez worked upon him through his
subconscious mind. The patient did
not know what was going onr and there
was slow but steady improvement from
the first. Between January, when the
treatments began, and April, the man
was Intoxicated only three times; In
April and May not at all; In June and
July slightly intoxicated on two occa
slons, and so on, until by the end of the
year he took no stimulant except a lit
tle absinthe once or twice a month at
home. In conclusion. Dr. Farez says
"The man is no longer Irritable, but
happy, and a regular wdrker. -He has
gained control of bis will, Isentle and
affectionate, and Is indeed entirely
From his testimony from so high a
source we may conclude that the treat
ment for alcoholism in the future
though possibly still some years hence
will not be on lines against the patient's
will, through prohibition or other meth
otis which invoke his stolid, stubborn
opposition, but ly subtlety and circum
Tike theory elaborated toy Dr. Farez
Is as reasonable as any presentment !
that Is practically inexplicable. It Is
well known that, in cases of chronic
inebriety the will of the victim suc
cumbs entirely to his appetite. In the
words of a temperance "lesson in an old"
All. sink before It. hone and truth.
And comfort, joy and wealth.
As the germs .of tuberculosis weaken
and destroy the tissues of the body, so
the power of appetite utterly subju
gates the will of the subject of alcohol
ism. A cure In the first case Jcan only
be hoped for by building upthe de
fenses of the body so that they will be
able to resist the attack of "the Invader.
A cure In the second case depends en
tirely upon revitalizing the subject's
will. Difficult as is the.flrst process, the
second is even mere so. If the French
psychologist has succeeded In showing;
that this can be done along the path oC
non-resistance. It may be assumed that
he has made a great discovery in the
realm of that shadowy but persistent
something known as the human mind.
The well-attended meeting at Pendle
ton of the Oregon Good Roads Associa
tion calls attention to the Increasing in
terest felt in Improving pur highways.
Next to more railroads, the most cry
ing need of the rural population is bet
ter wagon rorfds." It would be difficult
to estimate the-loss sustained each year
by reason of poor roads, and In many
localities the natural conditions are not
o unfavorable to good roads as to pre-
ent. their being constructed at a com
paratively small cost. It Is money well
expended by a farmer If a road over
which but one ton could be hauled at
a load can be Improved so that the
same wagon and horses can haul two
tons. The automobile Is doing consid
erable to spread the gospel of good
roads in the city and suburbs, and the
gospel of good roads Is now spreading
more rapidly than ever before.
Life Is- never tedious In Oklahoma.
It Is reported that In one part of the
territory 14,000 cyclone caves are being
dug. At Hlnton. the following notice
has been published:
On nlghtn when clouds look at all danger
ous a sentry will be stationed In the bell
tdwer, provided with a repeating nhotgun. If
there Is apparent danger, he will ring the bell
and Are a number of phot in quick succes
sion. Also any per on who sees a storm com
ing when the sentry Is not stationed will be
exacted to fire a gun.
Yet there are people who th'ink Okla
homa Is the garden spot of the world.
Perhaps. But those people have never
seen Oregon. They may never get the
chance. If they stay In the tornado helt
Mr. John Thorson, late of Sweden,
and Mr. Martin Mathewson, from the
fjords of Norway, wound up a carouse
in the Aberdeen, Wash., tenderloin with
a discussion as to the superiority of the
respective nationalities of each. Mr.
Mathewson, with the aid of a two-by
four scantling, offered the most con
vlncing argument, and Mr. Thorson in
consequence was the central figure at a
Coroner's Inquest. This' Is not the first
time that the question of the superior
Ity of nations has been settled by force
of arms, but it Is not the usual thing
for the loser In the argument to have an
inquest held over his remains.
The conscienceless burglar Is abroad
by night In the city. A minister's home
was entered Sunday evening while he
was out seeking to save souls, and his
best silverware was stolen. There Is
an injunction of Scripture which says:
"If a man take away thy coat, give
him thy cloak also." It is not recorded.
however, that the thief In this case Is
being sought by the man who lost his
"best silver" for the purpose of turning
over to him the plated ware that he
considerately left behind.
While Jessie Bartlett Davis was not
In the first class of singers, she held for
twenty years a strong hold on the
theater-going public There was in her
voice the soul of melody. No one, not
destitute of the -musical faculty, could
listen unmoved' when she sang "Oh,
Promise Me," the most charming num-
Hood." By this son she will be re-
membercd with something of affection
by millions of Americans.
Dispatches from Seoul to the effect
that the Japanese have landed a large
army o'n the northern part of the
Corean coast, with the object of attack
ing Vladivostok, lend additional mean
ing to he apparent inaction of Togo.
With Vladivostok Invested, the Port
Arthur story may be retold, and Ro-
jestvensky's squadron lessened one by-
one with the aid of mines and torpe
does. The Pittsburg young woman who
sued her faithless, lover for breach of
promise and got damages now sees the
error of her ways and remarks: "I
thought I loved him, and did love him;
but I did not know him. A life with
him would have been monstrous, unen
durable." But a life without him and
with $13,000 of his money will have some
attractions for the repentant young
Advices from Manila detailing the
guerrilla warfare of the outlaw chief
Moro may change the views of "antis"
with regard to political independence
for the Philippines. Incidentally, Major-General
Wood, who was a National
Issue twelve months ago. Is brought
into the limelight of publicity. Roose
velt's old chum has proved himself a
Russian co-eds may not be so strenu
ous as the American girls In the way of
basket-ball, class rushes and athletics
generally, but they keep up their end
by provoking Cossacks into breaking
up their meetings with whips.
Rev. Mr. Ghormley took for his topic
"The Next Mayor," and then proceeded
to pay a high, and no doubt deserved,
tribute to Candidate Paget. This is
very pleasing to Mr. Paget, but really
it is all irrelevant.
Young Mr. Rockefeller, It Is said, will
give up his religious work, which Inter
feres with his Standard Oil work. The
public heretofore thought that Rocke
feller looked upon his Bible class as
Evidently opium dens in Kansas City
are run so openly that a complete
stranger like Herbert Croker ned have
no difficulty In finding one when - in
search of a "little fun."
The Supreme Court says the pool
rooms can't do business la Portland.
'j Well, tbey h&Ven't been. - - . -
, NOTE AiNIKOMMENT;
Young Mr. RockefeMer-flndi that' he has
too much work, religious work and work:
that Is not ao very' religious. Very nat
urally, he decides to give up his religious
work. There Is very little financial profit
in such Mabor at the best, and Bible
classes arc by no means the most pro
ductive part of the field. His conduct la
like that of the Scoftlsh minister of re
ligion who was accustomed to curse volu
bly when playing golf. "When a friend re
monstrated that such profane, golf and the
ministry-did not go well together, the'
player replied that he would have to give
it up. "What, give up golfl" said his
astonished friend. "Nae, the meenlstry."
answered the " parson. So Rockefeller
gives up the ministry for his game.
A common gaming-house Is a public
nuisance, says the Supreme Court, thereby
confirming lay opinion.
The Lancet, that journal which Is equal
ly at home In a discussion upon berl berl
and a discussion upon the latest hygienic
penwiper, now condemns the hatpin.
woman's great weapon of defense and of
fense. "On a windy day." says the Lan
cet, "the leverage on the roots of the
hair when the large and flapping headgear
is endeavoring to sail away Is one of the
causes of the headache of which most
women complain after a buffeting by the
elements." As woman is unlikely to aban
don the modern stiletto, the Lancet bad
better try to abolish, windy days.
Some time ago a paragraph concerning
Lloyd's went the rounds of the press. It
was to the effect that the company had
issued a policy of Insurance against twins.
A prospective father, paid $75 for a $5000
volley. It now develops that Lloyd's won
the bet. The man who so providently In
sured himself against misfortune Is now
the father of a fine son, and the Insurance
company Is $75 ahead, so both parties arc
probably greatly pleased with the situa
"I am awfully grateful to" the jury,"
says a St. Louis woman who obtained
damages for breach of promise. "They
were an Intelligent party of gentlemen,
chivalrous and clear-headed, and In giving
me a verdict, while they did their duty.
yet they did me a service which I can
never forget.' Wc should like to hear
the defendant's opinion of the same jury.
. New defenses In criminal actions are
rare. Defendants usually rely on a time-
worn plea such as Insanity or put forward
an alibi, so it is refreshing to find a New
Jersey murderer with an absolutely novel
excuse for. his peccadillo. This Ingenious
follow says that he has two personalities,
which we may designate A and B. Per
sonality 'A, present In court, pleads that
Personality B committed the crime, and
that Personality A Is therefore not re
sponsible. It appears to us that this is a
very reasonable plea, and that the court
should acquit Personality A and hang
Personality B. This might not meet with
the defendant's approval, perhaps, but It
would be a logical decision.
Smoot is beginning to reappear in the
dispatches. Perhaps he is a relative of
the worm that dleth not.
It certainly is rough luck on a preacher
to go home after the service and find his
house ransacked by burglars. He couldn't
pven have the satisfaction of knowing
that the scoundrels bad been in church
and had been compelled to sit through his
The Frecwatcr Times thinks that since
the Emperor of Russia is -known as the
Czar, and his wife as the Czarina, their
young son should be known as the Czar-
Mme. Patti has been decorated with the
ribbon of the Legion of Honor, and Presl
dent Loubet Is credited with remarking
as he signed the decree nominating her a
foreign member of the order, "I do this
with as much pleasure as I experienced
long ago, wMen I had no gray hairs, and
when I heard Mme. Adcllna Pattl sing "in
Lucia and 'La Somnambula.' " Is It
possible that a Frenchman could so tact
lessly remind a lady of the number of
Uears that Kave sscd slnce hCr flrst
The manager of the Pacific Christian
Advocate has resigned to work for
piano-house. From organ to piano, as a
noted Portland wag remarked yesterday.
In the "hupper suckles" of Nebraska
society It appears that the .hostess who
would be boss of her own entertainments
In her own house must be of an unusually
determined character, for one poor wor
ried woman writes to her town paper that
some self-assertive guest frequently de
mands the refreshments to be served at
a time choseji by herself. It does seem
to be rubbing It In a little to make the
unlucky hostess alter her hours. Just to
please one guest, but why not present the
howling one with a ham sandwich and
suggest that she eat it on the way home,
whither she ha'd better set out at once?
Unhappy Russian Students.
The university student in Russia, with
rare exceptions, belongs to. the Liberal
rarty. It wms t have be- me a tradi
tion that the student's attitude should be
strongly against government. This
is In lar, measui e exo alned by the fact
that the student class suffers more than
any other from the arbitrary regulations
of the police and censor. Each faculty
is provided with Its sub-Inspector and hla
staff. At flrst I took these uniformed
"spies" for janitors, but afterward
learned that their duties consisted simply
in remembering the full name of each
student. In getting acquainted, as far as
possible, with the voices of those who
seemed to be the leaders, in order to
recognize them even from behind closed
doors. In the gymnasia, corresponding
to our high and preparatory schools, the
regulations are even more strict than In
the universities1, and there is no evidence
of organized protest. Likewise, on leaving
the university .the student finds himself
struggling against the bureaucratic ma
chine, and gradually submits and accepts
it as Inevitable. There Is a small con
servative element In the student body,
but It does not form an opposition party
and can' be disregarded, since It exerts
little or no influence on the general trend
of student activlfes. x
Where Eggs Are Currency.
Dublin Lady of the House.
Eggs are current coin in Mayo, Ker
ry, Donegal and Leltrlra. They are
everywhere received over the counter
In payment for tea, sugar, meal, oil,
bread, tobacco, patent medicines and
general haberdashery. Accounts are
kept open and good supplied on credit
in eggs. Predatory agents traveling
through the wilae with worthless teas,
itinerant tinkers and musicians, Polish
Jews "hawking tlasel Jewelry asa Hedy
pictures, ell accept this current cola.
ganeraJly ualoadlsy it at the nearest
Pertlaeat Ceauaeat ea a Prfsea Reform Adopted by Orison, That
Goes lata Effect This Maata.
Eugene Smith, prominent prion reformer. In
tho New Tork Independent. .
The attempt to adjust the penalty
for a defined crime to the guilt of tne
offender Is not merely difficult: it Is
absolutely Impossible of accomplisa
ment. The crime Is doubtless suscepti
ble of exact definition, and such defi
nitions are essential in every penal
code; but the degree of guilt In the
person committing- the crime Is not
susceptible of definition or of human
admeasurement. There are a thousand
facts and circumstances, relating to
the degree of provocation or tempta
tion, the habits and natural tempera
ment of the offender, the motives that
controlled him, the environment of his
past life, the extent, of his Intelligence,
his Inherited qualities, and countless
Individual incidents, every one of
which goes to aggravate or to palliate
tne guilt of that particular crime. Tne
problem from the very nature of tho
case. Is insoluble; It is beyond the com
pass of human Intelligence.
The absolute necessity of providing
for the differences of individual cases
demanded some elasticity In the retri
butive system To prescribe a fixed
and uniform penalty of eight years' im
prisonment for assault with intent to
kill, for Instance, applicable alike to
every case coming within the definition
of that crime, regardless of the provo
cation or lack of provocation attending the
assault, would be too revolting to common
instinct? of justice. Tne device was
ong since adopted of softening the
rigidity of a uniform sentence by en
acting a minimum and a maximum
term of imprisonment for each crime
punishable by Imprisonment "not
more than ten or less than five years."
"not more tnan one year," "not moro
than three years and not less than six
raonth3." Expressions like these are
found In almost every penal statute.
They are designed to cast upon the
Judge conducting the trial the duty of
measuring the prisoner's guilt and of
pronouncing a just sentence, the dura
tion of which, the law decrees, must
He within the limits named. This 1m
DOies upon the Judge a cruel responsi
It is the logical consequence of the
retributive theory that when a con
vict has duly served his sentence he Is
said to have atoned for his offense; so
far as the state Is concerned he Is
purged of his crime and is entitled to
regain his freedom as If he had never
violated the law. This right to a dis
charge Is an absolute one, and wholly
Irrespective of the convict's character
or purposes. It may be morally cer
tain that he will Immediately return to
a life of crime; he may even avow
openly his plans and Intention to do
so; still, the law has no provision for
his further detention, and, by the ex
piration of the term of his sentence,
he becomes ipso facto a. free man. This
is practically the most dangerous fea
ture of the retributive system. Dis
charged convicts now constitute by
far the most hardened and desperate
class of criminals: they are the ex
perts, tho instigators, the skilled lead
ers in criminal enterprises.
When a criminal Is found guilty, why
docs tho state condemn him to Impris
onment? What Justifies such Impris
onment and what Is the object to be
attained by It? The state confines a
convicted criminal In prison, according
to the theory of retributive punish
ment. In order to make him suffer: the
suffering is the penalty of his crime,
and when It has been prolonged to a
degree commensurate with his guilt
the prisoner Is held to have paid the
penalty and to bo purged of the crime.
This is a very narrow view of the re
lation of the state to crime, and a very
false view of the ends of government
by law. The state is justified in Im
prisoning a convict on precisely the
same ground that It is justified in con
fining In an asylum a lunatlce who Is
suffering from violent mania, or In
forcibly placing In a hospital a small
pox patient who Is at large. The rea
son for the enforced restraint in all
such cases Is the- same; It is not safe
for the community that these persons
should have their freedom. The mo
tive properly governing the action of
the state, the end to be attained, are
in each case the same, namely the pro
tection of the public.
To sentence a burglar at the time of
his conviction to Imprisonment for the
term of five years is as Irrational as It
would be to send the lunatlce to an
asylum for the preordained time of
five years, or the smallpox patient to a
hospital for exactly three weeks. The
lunatic and the person afflicted with
contagious disease must be confined
until they are cured until it is safe
for the public that they be discharged.
The same course Is the only rational
one to adopt for the criminal.
The Indeterminate sentence has been
devised in recognition of the principle
of public protection as opposed to that
of retribution. By this sentence a per
son convicted of crime is sentenced to
imprisonment not for any fixed or
definite term but to imprisonment
simply. The imprisonment is "to con
tinue until the prisoner shall have un
dergone such a change In his character.
JUDGE BELLINGER'S DEATH.
Jurist of Noble Character.
Baker City Democrat.
In the death of Judge C B. Bellin
ger .of the United States District
Court of Oregon, the state has lost
one of Its ablest jurists. Judge Bel
linger was a man of noble character
and he was bloved by the members
of the bar throughout the "state.
An Incorruptible Judge.
The death of Judge Bellinger of
Portland, last evening, removed from
the Federal bench one of the ablest
Judges In the country. Judge Bel
linger was appointed by President
Cleveland during his first term to suc
ceed Judge Deady. He was. respected
by all classes as an incorruptible Judge.
His Death Most Unfortunate.
Pendleton East Oregonian.
Judge Bellinger has been one of the
most Impartial and fearless men ever to
occupy a Federal position In Oregon, and
his death at this crisis In the state's his
tory is most unfortunate. It .will delay
the land fraud cases, and -In such delay
the accused and indicted parties will have
many opportunities to strengthen their
Loss of a Noble" Pioneer.
The death of Charles B. Bellinger
removes one more of the honored
pioneers ithat made that journey across
the plains to the then wild uncivilized
great state that Is now a great com
monwealth of this Nation. He was a
scholar of great attainments, his de
cisions vers sound and just, and Ore
gon loses one of its noble pioneers who
helped make the state through years'
of .hardship and strife. His place can
sot be filled.
A Jdge to Be Trusted.
Oregon people have been greatly
concerned this week ever the illness of
Judge SeillBger &f the United S-tates
District Ceurt. follswed by his death.
His career has bees oa Which has
SENTENCE FOR CRIME I
habits and purposes as to render it
safe, in the judgment of a competent
tribunal, to restore him to freedom.
Of course, the indispensable concom
itant of the indeterminate sentence is
a reformatory system of prison treat
ment. 'Confinement In prison affords
protection to the public only while U
lasts". Effectual and permanent protec
tion can be secured in but two ways
cither the prisoner must never be re
stored to freedom, or else he must be
so reformed that he can, with safety
to the public, be set at liberty. The
latter alternative Is not only the more
humane; it Is also the more economical,
and-on both grounds the protection and
well-being of the public demand the
reformation, as much as they demand
the imprisonment, of the criminal. It
nas been fairly 'demonstrated that . a
large percentage, much more than a
majority, of all convicts can be so
transformed, through prison discipline
and training, that they can safely be
Intrusted with freedom, and that they
wiil aDstain from crime and lead in
dustrious and honest lives.
A cardinal principle of the reforma
tive systtm Is the individual treatment
of prisoners. Every effort is made t$
gain and to record all available In
formation regarding the past life of
each prisoner. Hlc life while in prison
passes under close scrutiny, and the
results of such observation are mi
nutely recorded. Every convict Is sub
jected to special treatment adapted to
his capacity xmd having reference to
his points of strength and of weakness;
In numberless ways he. Is subjected to
tcs'.s. and his successes and his failures
are carefully noted in his record. By
these methods the inmost character
and purposes of tho prisoner becomo
unfolded to tile prison officers: the
system Is so searching that shams and
'deceit are unavailing and are well-
nigh impossible. When it comes to
the question of hl3 fitness or unfitness
for freedom the record of his life In
the prison yields ample data upon
which to found a Judgment regarding
his capapity, his power of self-control,
the strength of his moral purposes In
a word, regarding his Intention and his
ability to lead an honest life. The de
cision can safely be trusted to a
board of experienced men acting In co
operation with the officers of the pris
on, and the judgment arrived at can
be formed with as much confidence In
its correctness, as. for example, in the
decision of a body of physicians that
an Insane patient has recovered his
sanity. ) . '
It is the vital principle of the inde
terminate sentence that no convict
should be discharged until he is fit for
In another way the Indeterminate
sentence i3 a most potent instrumental
ity toward the reformation of the con
vict. Under this system the duration
of the convict's imprisonment is de
pendent upon tne convict himsetf.
None of the reformative agencies .can
be effective without his active co-operation.
The instinctive love of free
dom, the longing for release, consti
tute the strongest motive that ani
mates the prisoner. And when he Is
made to realize tnat he has to work
out his own salvation, and that the,
length of his imprisonment depends on
his own exertions, the strongest possi
ble stimulus is applied to him to sur
render himseir to 'tne reformative in
fluences that surround him.
The Indeterminate sentence Is not
properly applicable to every offense.
Capital crimes, which incur the sen
tence of death or imprisonment for
Uff. ought to be excepted from its op
eration. If peculiar circumstances can
In any case justify the release even of,
a convict guilty of a capital crime, the
power to pardon vested in the Gov
ernor is plenary.
The indeterminate sentence Is na
longer a mere doctrinaire's theory. It
has now become firmly Imbedded in
American criminal jurisprudence. n In
modified forms, all o which. however.
embody its vital principle, it "has been
Incorporated In the statutes of various
states of the Union, notably New York.
Massachusetts. Connecticut, New Jer
sey, Ohio. Illinois. Indiana. Minnesota
Another essential concomitant of the
Indeterminate sentence is the feature
of conditional rcleaes on parole. When
a convict Is deemed fit for release a
situation wnero he can have employ
ment Is procured for him through the
efforts of his friends or through the
agency of the state, and he is sent
there on probation. He remains for a
term (generally six months) a. ward of
the state, still under sentence and un
der official supervision. If he falls
Into evil ways and seems to be gravi
tating back toward crime, he Is rear
rested and returned to prison for fur
ther treatment. 'If he passes the pro
batlonay period leading an honest life
and demonstrating his intention and
ability to abstain from crime, he ob
tains a final and absolute discharge.
In the universal adoption of the in
determinate sentence, with all that It
logacllly Involves, rests the strongest
hope for final victory in the contest,
which has hitherto been a losing con
test, for the suppression of crime.
called for encomiums of a high order,
without a word against his conduct.
His sterling character and great worth
as a man placed htm prominently as a
Judge who could be trusted above the
din of political clamor. Hence his Ill
ness excited general concern among all
desiring justice, particularly in the
land-fraud cases, over which he pre
sided with fairness and discernment.
There Is universal regret over his
Severe Loss to the Northwest.
In the death of Judge Bellinger at Port
land Friday not only Oregon, but the en
tire Northwest sustained a severe loss.
Few men die leaving behind greater mon
uments self-reared through life work.
Judge Bellinger has perhaps done more to
command respect for the laws of the
land than any other man that ever lived
in the West not through hard and un
compromising application of the law, but
by his own undying hatred of wrong, his
devotion to the fundamental principles
of law. He was a great, broad. Just
man one who inspired respect for the
things he stood for.
A Lovely Errand.
He was a cherubic youth of 4, with af
beautiful, blue-eyed countenance and an
angelic smile the kind of boy that hon
est persons long Instinctively to kidnap.
He sat on the fence, swinging his heels
and humming a kindergarten song.
"Oh, you darling!" cried an impulsive
young .woman, pouncing upon him and
giving him a hug. "Has your mother any
more like you? Have you any little
"Yop," replied the angelic boy, "got
three. Me and Jack and Billy and Frank."
"Which one do you like best?"
"Jack, I guess," replied the youngster
after a moment of deep thought. "Yop.
I like Jack, best."
"And why," asked the young woman,
"do you like Jack beat?"
"'Cause he dia such a loyejy errand
for me once."
"What was, that lovely errand?"
"He hit Billy on. the leg;" replied, ths
sweetly serious eherufe.
"Why,"" purwed the young wenian.
"didn't you de your swn biting?" .
"'Cause I hate "the taste ef .Bfliy'i
Hgr," was the calm reply. -" .