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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (May 15, 1905)
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MONDAY MAY 15, 1005.
TARIFF REFORM OR BEER TAX?
The National expenditures for the
current fiscal year have so far exceeded
the income something like 534,000,000.
and the deficit is not likely to be much
, less when a balance is -struck on July
1. Congress knew that it faced a deficit
when it made its enormous appropria
tions last "Winter, but it cheerfully
went ahead with the labor of building
a greater navy, extending the rural
free delivery and constructing the 4200,
000,000 Panama canal. To be sure, not
more than 55,000,000 has so far been ex
pended in the canal work, but provision
for an outlay on an immense scale must
be made by succeeding Congresses, and
it Is one of the factors that must be
reckoned with In the task of keeping
the Government outgo and the income
somewhere near together. The rural
. free delivery Is no longer a luxury; It
; is a convenience and an expense that
, has come to stay, to the extent of more
than $20,000,000 per annum, even on the
j, present basis. No one wants to shut
f. it oir, out, on tne contrary, everybody
agrees that it should be enlarged. The
X problem is. how is it going to be paid
J for? The pensions, the Navy, the Army.
all must be maintained on their present
7 basis for an indefinite period; and river
i and harbor improvement will scarcely
-cost less, though the next Congress will
not be called on to enact a river and
harbor bill. It is obvious under present
conditions that expenditures are not.
in tne aggregate, nor even m many
details, to be curtailed. The coun
try simply must raise more revenue.
The Imminent fiscal dilemma of the
-Government is certain to bring about
renewal of the tariff .reform agitation,
The stand-patters must either give way
and consent to lower schedules on such
articles as steel rails and hides, for ex
ample, resulting in large Importations
and consequent improved revenue; or
they must devise some other plan of
1111111? the treasury. The only other
plan is an internal revenue tax. In re
duclng the tax on beer after the Span
ish war $25,000,000 per annum was cut
off, and $20,000,000 from tobacco alone.
No doubt our public-spirited citizens
who congregate around! the beer halls
and settle -questions of state would be
willing for.the brewers and tobacconists
to contribute. -generously to the public
Tevenues if the cost to the consumer
was not increased; but the brewers and
the tobacco trust would want to have
something to say about that, and they
are the kind of people the stand-patters
usually listen to most attentively.
It beer and tobacco are to be taxed
our financial troubles will be over for a
time, and the tariff need not be dis
turbed, except for reasons of sound gen
eral policy; if they are not to be taxed,
the tariff must be changed. The stand
patters are going to have something to
worry them when the proposed special
session of Congress convenes next Fall,
SLAVES OF THE LAMP.
It is a frequent observation that any
roan ence a railroad man is always a
railroad man. The rush and vitality of
the business, the sense of being part
and parcel of the whole enormous en
terprise, the big scale of the work and
its engrossing interest, the feeling of
comradeship In an army of employes
"the responsibility, from small begin
nings'to great endings all of it ani
mates men in their various degrees, un
til a caste, a brotherhood, has been
Away from home they need no grips
3nd mystic signs. Infallibly each rec
ognlzes each. Badges and uniforms
are for outsiders; in the inner circle
they are not required. A language has
beett.gTadually formed which all speak.
East and "West.
Very naturally; on this basis- is built
the sense of sacredness, of being
priests of the temple. Sometimes this
goes so far that the railroad, service,
the great combination which is called
the "Railroads of the United States.'
is erected into a kind of Idol on which
no rash hands may he rightly laid. This
shows Itself in the testimonies of the
railroad presidents before the Senate
committee. Evidently no. mere "money
uuseticHWS are at stake, tout the pride of
these men is in the great Babylon that
they have built. Let the nation keep
hands off; leave it to us, is the idea
.underlying- half the opposition to the
President's Rate-Making: Commission.
Our friends the conductors (whose
presence is of great Interest to all, as
we hope it is a pleasure to them) utter,
in their corporate capacity,, the same
melody. Of course, it is entirely genu
ine -with them, the outcome of life and
belief shared "with the whole body pol
itic of the railroad service, from pres
idents downwards. Equally, of course.
It is Intensely a class utterance. The
public admits all they say of the sys
tem which has been developed, and of
which they form part that it is huge,
complex, delicate. They know that to
disturb, its equilibrium is most dan
gerous. But they refuse to look on
it as something apart from and higher
than the Nation Itself. They regard it
as a creation of and tributary to the
Nation. Therefore, the pressing ques-
5 tion is if it is needful now to introduce
a still stronger check in the operation
of the great machine, to reassert orig
inal powers. On that matter the public
Is seeking evidence of railroad men and
others. Opinions may be useful, but
they cannot always be suffered to de
FAIR WILL BE COMPLETE.
Portland Is ready for the Lewis and
Clark Fair. Those timid souls who
feared in the beginning that the under
taking was too much for the city and
state are now the boldest advertisers
and loudest proclaimers of the merits
of the magnificent undertaking. It has
grown -under their eyes to be a splen
did creation of unexpected beauty a
great monument to the artistic genius
and the financial enterprise of the pro
moters. Nothing Is wanting to please
the eye. to instruct the Intelligence or
to suit the requirements of the most
modest pocketbook. The blooming days
of Spring unfold a picture of splendor
that even the most daring Imagination
a year ago would not have ventured to
paint. No one who goes to the grounds
can offer any reasonable criticism for
any feature of the Exposition. It is
obvious to the most casual visitor that
it Is to be complete to the smallest de
tail. All the expedience gained In pre
vious Expositions has been concen
trated here In a successful endeavor to
build a Fair that would be sure to
please every visitor from any part of
the world, whether he has or has not
seen other Fairs. If this seems extrav
agant language, one has but to make a
short journey out to , the grounds to
learn that it is the truth, but not the
Sixteen days remain before the open
ing of the Exposition. A brief survey
of the situation shows, first, and most
important, that the Fair will be ready;
and, second, that Portland Is ready. It
has been a source of no little worry
heretofore as to what we are going to
do to accommodate the multitude of
visitors. It Is admittedly true that our
hotel accommodations that Is, com
mercial hotels are inadequate. But a
great number of lodging-houses have
been built. In the vicinity of the
grounds many temporary hotels, with
satisfactory quarters, have been erect
ed. Rooms can easily be obtained In
all parts of the city. Accommodation
bureaus have been established for as
signment of visitors to quarters of
every desirable kind. Application at
any of these places will settle the room
question for any anxious newcomer
without any trouble whatever. Res
taurants have sprung up everywhere;
some of them permanent, others tern
porary. street-car racimies nave Deen
much Improved. The whole question of
quarters for all who come has been,
The Oregonlan thinks, fully solved.
It is the testimony of pre-Expositlon
visitors that there is today in Portland
little or no "gouging." To be sure, the
range of prices for food and lodging Is
considerable, but so it is everywhere.
The person of modest means who comes
here with a purpose of seeing many-
things will find that he can make
very little money go a long way. If
he wants broiled chicken, truffles and
custard .pie three times a day, he will
have to pay for them; but he should
Portland always was a place where an
adequate meal could be obtained for
50 cents, even for 25 cents, and so it
will doubtless be for the ensuing six
These things are said for the' benefit
of those persons outside of Portland
who still have their doubts. They can
take The Oregonian's word for it that
from June 1 to October 15 it will be
worth their while every' day to see the
Lewis and Clark Fair; and that none
will be disappointed through lack of
preparation on June 1. The Oregonlan
hopes, too, that every person In Oregon
who can come to Portland on June
wm he here, so that -he may return
home and inform his friends and neigh
bors of the completed magnificence of
the great Lewis and Clark. Exposition
FARMERS AND A TLAX MILL.
It is unfortunate that the building of
a flax mill in the Willamette Valley-
must be delayed a few years longer,
but, perhaps, all things considered, It
Is better so. The difficulty seems to be
that the farmers do not engage in flax
growing to such an extent as to supply
the necessary material, and there being
no established supply of flax, manufac
turers will not come here to build
mill. On the other hand, the farmers,
seeing no certain market for their
product, will not displace their grain
fields with fields of flax. Many of the
Oregon farmers came from Missouri
and they are waiting to be shown that
there is a greater profit in flax than in
the crops they are now growing.
Oregonians have the reputation of
being conservative, and are often
charged with being too slow to embark
in new enterprises that involve some
degree of risk. It Is this spirit of con
servatism the inclination to travel in
beaten paths that causes farmers to
hesitate to give as many acres to flax
as the flax-growing promoters would
wish. "Willamette Valley capitalists are
not investing their money in linen mills,
and farmers are not giving their fields
to the production of flax.
But it Is not intended that this situ
atlon shall put an end to the produc
tion of flax for fiber in the "Willamette
Valley. The Southern Pacific, which
some time ago manifested interest in
the enterprise by sending an agent to
Salem to investigate the situation, has
made a reduced rale on flax fiber from
the Coast to Eastern manufacturing
points, and it Is expected that by this
means the production of flax can be
encouraged. When farmers have
learned that it will pay them to raise
flax here they will increase their flax
acreage. When capitalists find by ac
tual operations that flax liber can be
produced in the Willamette Valley,
J shipped East, manufacture there into
thread, twine, towels, etc., and then
shipped back and sold to "Willamette
Valley consumers, they will begin to
see thnt the manufactured products can
be turned out of Valley mills and the
double freight charge be saved.
No question whatever exists as to the
quality of flax fiber produced Jn West
ern Oregon. Repeated experiments have
shown that the quality is unsurpassed.
There is some doubt In the minds of
men who have Idle money whether It
will pay to undertake the manufacture
of linen products in Oregon. It will
take some time to settle this point, but
soon or late the facts and figures will
bring about the building of linen mills.
"With water power going to waste, with
fertile fields yet uncleared, with a grow
ing population seeking employment and
creating a larger demand for manufac
tured goods, there can be no other out
come. The day may be distant, but the
time will come when Oregon will point
to her flax fields and her linen mills
with the same pride that she points-
to her hopyards. They will furnish
profitable employment for men, women
and children, and add each year their
proportion to the growing wealth of
SAME OLD TACTICS.
News dispatches from Lewiston indi
cate that the railroad combine which
has throttled trade In the North Pacific
states Is making an effort to head off
the proposed independent line from
Lewiston to Grangeville. Great excite
ment Is reported in the Panhandle
metropolis, and real estate is booming
anticipation of something that is
supposed to be about to happen. . To
the people who have followed the meth
ods of the railroads on similar occasions
In the past It does not appear that there
Is any immediate necessity for becom
ing excited. The trick of throwing
surveying parties in the field for the
purpose of forestalling some enterprise
hostile to their Interests is an old one
with the railroads. They have worked
It In all parts of the Pacific Northwest,
and on at least two occasions have
made it sufficiently effective to block
Portland's plans for reaching the rich
trade field of the Nehalem.
The action of the Northern Pacific In
planting a few colonies of surveyors in
the Clearwater field was practically a
certainty, for emmlsaries of that road
were decidedly active all the way be
tween Grangeville and Lewiston while
the subsidy was being raised for the
electric line. They assured prospective
contributors to the subsidy that it was
the intention of the Northern Pacific to
construct immediately a road from
Grangeville to Lewiston. This asser
tion failed to check the movement In
favor of the independent line, and It
has accordingly become necessary to
put up the old bluff with a surveying
party. Neither is the act of dusting
out the cobwebs and cleaning the paint
work on the Northern Pacific steamer
J. M. Hannaford a very strong indica
tion that that craft Is to be placed in
service In opposition to the O. R. & N.
steamers. The Hannaford is not as
good a boat as the O. R. & N. steamers,
and if the management of the Northern
Pacific had any immediate desire to get
into the Snake River steamboat trade.
they would simply resort to their favor
ite "strong-arm" methods and make the
O. R. & N. steamers deliver the freight
to the Northern Pacific, with no ques
tions asked and no back talk permitted.
This railroad "bluffing" in the Lewis-
ton country" reached a much more acute
stage several years ago, when the O.
R. & N. followed the surveying decoys
with graders, rockmen and bridge
gangs. Jso freight has yet been hauled
out over the grade they made, however,
and if the Lewiston people should lis
ten to the song of the Northern Pacific
siren until their own project was aban
doned, it may be many years before the
surveyors who are causing the present
excitement are followed by the con
struction gang. Railroads would be
about three deep in many sections of
the Pacific Northwest if the rails had
been put down wherever the surveyors
ran their lines and set their stakes. Less
surveying and more construction work
in the Idaho country, and also in Cen
tral Oregon, would be more encourag
ing to those "bottled-up" districts.
CERMANY DEMANDS RECIPROCITY.
.Delightful, indeed, would be the con
dition of trade in this country if we
could continue to dispose of all of our
raw and manufactured products to .for
eign buyers without the necessity of
buying anything from them. Under
such conditions we should soon Individ
ually and collectively be reveling in
wealth, and the old slogan, "Uncle Sam
Is rich enough to give us all a farm,"
could be changed to, "Uncle Sam is rich
enough to give us all a bank." This
Utopian trade condition will never
exist, for the reason that If we con
tlnue to sell to the foreigner without
taking some of his products in ex
change. It is only a question of time
until his buying power Is exhausted and
he ceases to he a customer. We have
not actually refused to buy goods from
some of our best foreign customers, but
in many cases we have erected a good
strong tariff barrier, which has made
it much more difficult for them to en- J
ter our markets as sellers than It Is for I
us to get into their markets. j
A case In point which is attracting
considerable attention at this time on
account of the threatened reprisals of
the foreign buyer is that of Germany.
Our producers and manufacturers have
had a pretty free rein in that country,
the tariff, where any is levied, being of
very modest proportions. Under such
conditions It is not surprising to learn
through the Department of Commerce
and Labor that our export trade to
Germany has been Increasing more rap
idly than that of any other country do
ing business with the Vaterland. The
department's figures show that our ex
ports to Germany have risen from $94,
551,000 in 1S90 to $222,414,000 in 1903. an
increase of 135 per cent. The nearest
approach to this gain was made by
Russia, which is credited with 60 per
cent increase in that period.
But while we were scoring this 135
per cent Increase in exports the prin
ciple of reciprocity was working so
badly that our imports from Germany
showed an Increase of but 12 per cent,
and amounted to only one-half as much
as the export, while Russia, pursuing a
more liberal policy, showed' an increase
in Imports from Germany of 90 per
cent. The imports Into Germany from
the "United Kingdom showed a decrease
for the period mentioned; but, despite
this unfavorable balance of trade, the
United Kingdom Increased her imports
from Germany more than 42 per cent.
It is this unfavorable showing for Ger
many that is responsible for the present
radical demand on the part of the
Germans for legislation intended either
to restrict our expert trade with
Xgcwms5 or ferce & rjc4jcl tariff
which will give the Germans easier ac
cess to our markets.
Of course, it may be argued? that the
Germans did not buy anything from
us except commodities of which they
were in need. Equally true it might be
said that we would have purchased
more from the Germans had it been to
our advantage to do so. This, however,
does not make It clear that a slight re
adjustment of tariff charges tending
more toward a reciprocal basis might
not be to our advantage. Our millions
of consumers might find it profitable to
purchase more German wares if tariff
conditions were easier, and. In turn,
Germany would have more money to
spend for American products.
The official figures show that in 1903
we sold Germany $222,414,000 worth of
goods, and for the same period pur
chased from that country but $111,
626.000 worth. With this balance of
trade of more than $110,000,000 per year
against them, it is not to be wondered
at that the Germans are scowling over
the matter and threatening retaliation
unless we practice a mild degree of
The young men and women who are
preparing to be graduated from the col
leges of Oregon next month should
spend some of their leisure moments
absorbing the spirit of a comment made
by the Saturday Evening Post upon one
danger of college education. The Post
says that "If, while getting the educa
tion, the youth gets also social snob
bishness, he or she goes forth the worse
for college and a force for evil." That
young man has already passed the day
of usefulness, who looks with contempt
upon the laborer, who works with his
hands. That young woman is still
densely Ignorant of the highest duties
of life If her education causes her to sit
In Idleness in the parlor while her
mother toils in the kitchen. A snob of
the most disgusting type Is he who
makes a display of his learning for the
mere purpose of gratifying his vanity.
Work with the mind is as honorable
as any If it be honest and useful, but
it is no more honorable than honest,
useful work with the hand. Don't be
an intellectual peacock.
The antiquated navigation laws of
our country prevent Americans from
Increasing our merchant marine by the
methods in vogue In Germany, England
and other enlightened countries which
are foremost In the ocean-caminc
trade. At the same time storms, fire
and other disasters help some, and our
fleet is growing. About a month ago
the British steamship Peconic, which
was wrecked on the Atlantic Coast,
was given American register, and now
the owners of the German ship Colum
bia, which was dismasted and towed
into Victoria almost a total wreck a
year or two ago, will convert her into
a barkentine and ask for American reg
ister. Some day we shall awaken to the
fact that this is a foolish and slow
method for securing1 American ships,
and. on awakening, we shall buy ships
fresh from the foreign yards, and put
the American flag over them and suc
cessfully operate them In competition
with the nations which have for years
enjoyed the privileges denied us.
The action of Secretary of State Dun
bar in sending conspicuous notices' of
the forest fire law throughout the state
is timely and commendable. The prop
erty loss through the indiscriminate
burning of slashings each year amounts
to many thousand dollars. This year
there is a special reason why extraor
dinary care should be exercised in pre
venting this nuisance. There will be
thousands of people here from all parts
of the United States, and they will be
here In the greatest numbers In what
Is usually known as the smoky season.
They will be deprived of the sight of
one of the chief attractions of the trip
across the continent if their view of our
magnificent mountain and river scenery
Is obscured by the heavy smudge of the
forest fire. This is a matter in which
every citizen of the Northwest ought to
take a personal interest, and if due
care is exercised old Mount Hood and
her sister peaks will be visible in all of
their glory throughout the season.
It is obvious from the official report
of the Portland Open-Air Sanatorium
that a beneficent work Is being done.
The number of patients Is so large
that the facilities are overtaxed, and
the financial strain is so heavy that a
deficit must be met. It is probable, in
deed, that the generosity of the public
must be depended on for an indefinite
time to carry on this humane enter
prise, but there are many good people
In the world who have money to bestow
on worthy objects, so that they will
not complain If they are satisfied that
their bounty is judiciously disposed.
The record at the Sanatorium is won
derful. Cures of tuberculosis have been
effected. Many patients have been Im
proved, and all have been made to feel
that the world Is not so hard-hearted
after all. and cares a great deal what
is done for Its invalids.
Arthur J. Collier, a graduate from the
University of Oregon in the class of
1SSS. Is one of the writers of a bulletin
just issued by the Department of the
Interior setting forth the progress of
Investigations on the mineral resources
of Alaska. Mr. Collier, who was a pro
fessor In Portland University and Wil
lamette University from 1S95 to 1900,
has been connected with the "United
States Geological Survey since 1901, and
has rendered the Government valuable
service during his four years' work In
Alaska. Oregon Is pleased to see her
college men succeed, and feels a just
pride in their achievements.
San Francisco Is expecting a call
from a Japanese third-class cruiser,
which has been scouring the Pacific In
quest of prey, and, like the Russian
cruiser Lena, is supposed to- be In need
of fuel and repairs. If the Lewis and
Clark Fair management could extradite
this pair of fighters and anchor them
off the Fair grounds this Summer, they
would prove attractions which, just at
this time, would put the star feature of
the Trail "way to the bad.
General Kuropatkin, who figures as a
war hero, scapegoat or coward, accord
ing to the standpoint from which he is
viewed, says, that Russia is not sending
her best men to the front. It has "been
obvious for the past year that the men
she was sending were not as good as
the Japanese, hut the good soldiers. If
there are any, are so busy rounding up
nihilists and protecting the royal fam
ily from bombs that they cannot very
well "be spared.
fruitgrowers report an unusual nam
her of caterpillars this year. Well,
then, we afeall have. as uauiual number
Often the first step in divorce proceed
ings Is the marriaKC. ;
Herbert Croker Is. said to have been
traveling for his health." Travels that
include stop-over privileges at booze and
opium joints can hardly be regarded as
Ideal from a health standpoint.
The Argonaut says that In Italy, when
ever a laraous criminal inai is on, mc
newspapers take sides violently, search
for evidence, and assume all the preroga
tives of the court. That they are even
more sensational than the American press
in this regard is Indicated by the fact
that Italians reading accounts of great
cas& in the American papers are always
struck with the moderation of tone shown.
and wonder how it Is that Americans take
so little interest in what Interests the
whole world. "The Americans arc a great
people," say the Italians, "but cold; they
don't even warm to their own crimin
als:" It would be worth while to Icarn Italian.
just to read more sensational criminal
stories than appear In the American press.
Two Kansas City people have been mar
ried three times and divorced twice. Up to
date the parsons are ahead of the lawyers
in number of fees. It not In amount.
The Italian government is watching' an
art gallery upon which Connoisseur j.
Pierp. Morgan has cast his eye. An Italian
law forbids 'the exportation of certain
works of, art. but the government prob
ably thinks that J. Picrp. might get the
treasures, return them as he did the
Ascoll cope and obtain another decoration1.
It requires great courage to be born a
Jew in Russia.
The beef packers complain that.they are
treated as criminals, which is, of course,
In St. Louis a woman has obtained a
verdict for $50,000 damages in a brcach-of-nromlse
case. Such a sum should at
tract skilled labor to St. Louis:
High school "frats" will try the effect of
an injunction against the School Board
of Seattle, which has come out against
the secret societies. This will at least
give the pupils some practical knowledge
Because of suspected Japanese designs
upon Indo-China.- France will expend
lot of money in protecting her possessions
there. Pretty soon every square mile In
the Orient will have Its fort and garri
The Crown Prince of Germany Is evi
dently a born ruler. He succeeded In hav
inc "miff slvevos" removed from the
wedding dress of the Duchess Cecilia.
Articles on "How Kuroki Fought" are
not so Interesting to the Russians as
would be an authentic story on "How
Kuroki Will Fight."
In Frankfort. K. is a quaint charac
ter named Ezekiel Hopkins, says an
exchange, who once gained local fame
by discovering a piece of broken track
and flagging an excursion train in time
to save disaster. So it was decided to
present Ezekiel with a gold watch
The head of the presentation commit
tee, approaching Ezekiel with . grave
bow, suid: "Mr. HOpkins, it is the de
sire of the good people of Frankfort
that you shall, in recognition of your
valor and merit, be presented with this
watch, which, thoy trust, will even, re
mind you of their undying friendship."
Without the least emotion Ezekiel
ejected from his mouth a long stream
of tobacco Juice, took the watch from
its handsome case, .turned It over and
over in his wrinkled hand, and flnally
asked with the utmost naivete
"Where's the chain?"
Wear a rose; lots more growing.
Mrs. John Lane, writing in the Out
look, says: "Why do all the big shops
employ, for the destruction of the pub
lic, those tall, sylphlike creatures who
float about like denizens of a higher
sphere in their. wonderful black satins?
They are a serious,-unbending race to
whom all things are becoming. Why
not be merciful and employ a dumpy
lot for dumpy customers?" Customers
usually like to be led into temptation
and this plaint is quite by itself.
A cabinetmaker, it is reported from
Antwerp, was so enraged at finding
that a lottery ticket which he had used
as a pipe-light had gained a prize that
he cut his child's throat and drowned
himself In a canal. From this we learn
that one should never:
First Buy a lottery ticket.
Second Burn a lottery ticket.
Third Win a lottery prize.
Fourth Give way to pique.
An exciting news Item says that the
City of Vienna has established a phyto
pathological institute for the study of
diseases of plants. They might begin
upon the municipalitis evident In Chi
cago's street-car plant.
Why Japan Fights.
Ku Hung Ming, a Chinese writer, in an
article on the moral causes of the Russo
Japanese ar. In the Japan Mall, says
"in snort, to put tne truth in Its truest
and broadest sense, the real Issue of the
Far Eastern question, the great cause for
which, as I have said, the whole Jap
anese nation nas Deen making sacrifices
and are now fighting, is to make the Eu
ropeans with their greater physical
strength, the European nations with the
might of their gunboats, machine guns
and lyddite shells; to make them recog
nize and treat men whom they call Asiat
ics as brothers, or, as Her Imperial
Majesty, the Empress Dowager of China.
put it, as members of one family, all one
family! In fact, here you have the true
real Issue of the Far Eastern question
Until the European nations, until those
who are responsible to God for the gov
ernment of European nations, bring about
such a state of affairs that those Euro
peans who are allowed to come to China
and Japan, recognize and treat men whom
they call Asiatics as brothers, as men
having equal rights before God and his
moral law; until then and not before then
can the Far Eastern question be satis
In Doubt in Alabama.
The Montgomery Journal poses
when it asks whether we think George
Fred Williams, of Massachusetts,
Theodore Roosevelt, of New Tork. is
the safer and saner man. Pon our life,
we cannot say. George Fred seems to
us a kind of fly-up-the-creek; but there
may be more in him than appears
As for Mr. Roosevelt, he has given tho
Constitution several severe jolts. We
Vloubt if Mr. Williams could surprise
us by doing anything worse In this
line of activity. Perhaps, on the prln
ciple that we should prefer the evils.
we have rather man ny to those wa
know net of, we should record here
shade of prefereace for the. roigs-rId
Insf Coleaal. but we will aet 3Vaen ia
JUwbtj ey. aetaiar.
WHAT THE ORIENTAL
The Bayonet Restored as a Useful Weapon Improved Snaltatlea
aad HyRleae EleveB-Tach CJans In Siege Operation.
Major LUsak. U. S. A., la Harper's "Weekly.
This Is the first great war fought with j
modern arms, and military men every- 1
where will search its records to learn
from them the lessons they have to
teach. The chanced conditions and their i
effect on the conduct of this war will
lead probably to changes in organiza-
tlons. in tactics, in material of war, and '
will Indicate new problems to be studied,
new solutions to be obtained, In the sub- '
jects of supply and transportation and In ;
the care of men. But while much of the f
Information that has been already ro- '
celved may not be wholly reliable, and
though- our knowledge of details Is In no j
way" sufficiently complete to provide the
data for the formation of a final judg-
roent. enough may be gathered by care-
ful selection from official reports, from
the letters of correspondents, and -from
observers returned from the field to per
mit us to judge to a certain extent of the
effect of mbdern appliances on the con
duct of the war and to draw tentative
conclusions as to what the future will
develop. The war thus far has over
turned some of the Ideas almost univer
sally held by military men, has confirmed
others, has revived some, and has
brought forward new applications or new
ideas which are regarded with the great
Perhaps the most complete overturning
of a, well-fixed belief that this war has
brought about is In the matter of the
bayonet, which had come to be consid
ered an obsolete weapon, and had lost Its
true character as an adjunct to the gun
whose purpose was to convert the gun
into a pike. It had become a tool of gen
eral utility for cutting meat and saplings
and digging entrenchments, and was at
tached to the gun principally as the most
convenient means of carrying it, and that
It might be there for use as a bayonet In
the very few emergencies that were ex
pected to require such use. With the
Increase in the power and accuracy and
quickness of fire of the soldier's rifle
battles were expected to be decided at
long ranges, and it was thought that
hand-to-hand conflicts between the com
batants would be of such rare occur
rence that .special provision was not
needed for -them. But in the war in Man
churia there have been many conflicts
with the bayonet, and indeed it may be
inferred that n more than one instance
these conflicts were the decisive events
in the battle. In the, defense of Mukden
the last point held by the Russians was
the celebrated Putiloff Hill, so called
after the Russian colonel who led the
gallant charge by which the hill was re
captured from the Japanese in the first
days of the defense of Mukden. After
the recapture by the Russians, which
was not accomplished at the first effort,
and during the twenty days of fighting.
charge after charge was made by the
Jap?nese. in one .day as many as four.
The futility of the charges by day soon
taught the Japanese that their only hope
lay in attacks by night, for It was only
at night that they could come into suffi
ciently close contact with the enemy to
hope to dislodge him. One result of these
close combat3. we are Informed, was the
frequent mistaking of friend for foe, and
both sides incurred large losses from this
cause When the Japanese finally re
gained possession of the hill there had
fallen around it more men than were lost
by both sides during the whole of the
As it was at Mukden, so it had been
previously at Liao-Yang, where the re
sistance of the Russians at those points
held most stubbornly by them was over
come by the hand-to-hand attacks made
by the Japanese at night.
The quick-firing, long-range rifle, there
fore, makes short-range battles, increases
the amount of fighting by night, and re
establishes the bayonet as a serviceable
The enormous losses in battle, and the
seemingly total disregard of human life
on the part of the generals of both sides
in their endeavors to accomplish the pur
poses of the campaigns, call for special
comment. The circumstances attending
the war are of such a nature as to re
quire Japan to push the fighting with all
possible energy, so as not to give her
huge opponent time to gather and to for
ward to the seat of war a preponderating
number of troops. In this way Japan
overcomes the disparity between herself
and Russia in size and resources, and it is
this consideration probably that leads her
generals to throw line after line of troops
against entrenchments and the strongest
fortifications, regardless of the human
sacrifice involved. It may well be doubted
whether the people of the Western na
tions, particularly the English and Amer
icans, would uphold their generals who
THE PORTLAND PRIMARIES.
d?ool Theories Don't Count.
Mayor Williams, of Portland, now S2
years of age, was renominated last Satur
day, which shows the people of Portland
do not take much stock In Dr. osiers
theory that a man has reached his best
at 40 and should be put out of exist
ence at 60.
Sure to Be Williams.
Forest, Grove News.
There was no great surprise at the re
sults of Portlands primary election.
Everybody, except the other candidates,
seemed to know that it would bo Williams
again, notwithstanding page after page of
newspaper space was used to exploit tha
greatness of his opponents.
Want a Big Man.
Pilot Rock Record.
Oregon's "grand old man," George H.
tvnuamci was nominated for Mayor of
Portland at the Republican primaries held
In that city last saturaay. nis nomina
tion Indicates the desire on the part of
Portland people to have a big man at
the head of their municipal government
dnrinir the Lewis and Clark Fair. Mr.
Williams has been Mayor of Portland for
the past three years and his administra
tion has been In keeping with the wishes
of the majority.
Muzzle the Politician.
Pendleton East Oregonlan.
So far as the reports come from Port
land everybody Is satisfied with the
primary law. It seems to have given the
satisfaction that Its advocates expected
It to give, and it Is hoped that It is not
nrostituted nor warped to become a tool
of politicians. If there Is anything needed
In Oregon ju3t now (more than another
Senator and two Congressmen) it Is mora
purity in nominations and elections. Poll
tics Is all rigt, but in heaven's name
muzzle and abate the politician.
People Made the Choice.
The result of the primaries in Portland
municipal election was quite a surprise to
politicians In that their figuring was of
no avail. It Is probable that for the first
tlm8 In the history of the city, the people
have bad the say as to who should be
their standard-bearers. Mayor Williams
was renominated, which was not to tho
liking of the ringleaders, while men who
under the old sign would have been a
power In the contest by reason of their
disregard of honor In political methods'
were snowed under by the voters.
Open and Above Board.
Lewiston Interstate News.
Portland bag just noBUnated candidates
for the city offices under ,a new primary
law, the direct primary. Other localities
were watching the fight with. Interest to
gee bow the direct prbsary would oper-
att. Tit rwraltz aeeat feigUyj Mt&ftcterx..
WAR HAS TAUGHT
might be responsible for such great losses
as arc indicated In the .dispatches received
from Manchuria. It is in regard, how-
ever, to the numbers engaged and tho
numbers lost that the dispatches are the
most misleading, and it may be well to
await confirmation before beliavlng that
107.000 Russians, of the 300,000 reported aa
engaged in the battle of Mukden, wero
killed or wounded or taken prisoners. In
our Civil War General Grant was severe-
ly criticised for the large losses suffered
by the Union troops in the battles of tho
Wilderness. The orders to attack issued
by Lord Roberts, in the latter part of the
Boer war. are said to have contained the
words, "If this be possible without heavy
loss." Yet in neither of these instances
did the losses approach any such percent
age as Is reported in several battles of
tne present war, and, in addition, the
Civil War had been in progress for three
years when the Battle of the Wilderness
was fought, and the latter part of the
uoer war came after two years of
From the records of excessive losses
in battle we may happily turn to the
evidence of the most wonderful Im
provement, shown by the Japanese, that
has taken place In the cure or soldiers
on the march and in camps, and in tho
treatment of tiie wounded. By far the
greater part of ths losses in all previ
ous wars has been due to disease,' these
losses usually exceeding SO per cent of
the total loss, and in some cases, nota
bly In our war with Spain, amounting
to considerably over 90 per cent. By
strict attention to the most advanced
principles of military hygiene, by tho
most careful supervision of the sol
dier's food and of the water he drinks,
by strict application of all necessary
sanitary measures m the camps and
bivouacs, the Japanese have succeeded
in practically eradicating disease as a
source of more than temporary loss to
their armies. The thoroughness with
which these measures are caried out
may be inferred from the statement of
one correspondent, who, in traveling
through Korea to join the forces at tha
front, could discover on the road no
evidences that a large army had passed
over the same roa'd but a few days be
fore him. Dr. Seaman gives similar tes
timony. Japan is the first nation, too, that has
brought into the field, to assist In
seige operations, such huge guns as
her 11-Inch howitzers. These guns
weigh about ten tons each, and their
carriages, or mounts, about the same.
The guns are designed for high-angle
firing only, and are Intended for use
ordinarily in permanent emplacements,
from which their fire can be directed
against the decks of ships. The car
riages are bolted to heavy concrete
platforms in such a manner as to per
mit the guns to be pointed in any di
rection. The gun throws a projectile
weighing 300 pounds, which contains a
bursting charge of high explosive. The
guns were put ashore from the ships
at Dalny, and- transported by rail to
the lines around Port Arthur, and from
the railroad were hauled by the labor
of troops, to the site selected for the
battery. From the battery the range
to the fortificatJons still possessed by
the Russians was about 1 miles, and to
the ships in the harbor about 3
miles. By means of the vertical fire
from these guns the Japanese were able
to reach the Interiors of the forts, and
the parts of the town protected from
the direct fire of their siege guns.
Nothing was protected against the fire
of this battery, but the Ideal target was
presented by the ships lying In the
harbor. Then howitzer shells' attacked
them at their, weakest poIntrth"eileck;
and after passing through 'deckafter
deck, either continued on throdghjHei
bottom of the ship, or exploding" In the,
interior, as they were designed to do,
completely wrecked the vessel.
We will read with Interest of the revival
of that ancient weapon of war, the hand
grenade, which has been used by both
Russians and Japanese in tne recent
campaigns; and. with equal interest, of
the use of a more modern device, or,
rather, an ancient device modified to
serve a novel purpose, namely, the
small portable shields from behind
which the Japanese cut the wire en
tanglements in front of the Russian
fortifications with comparatively little
exposure of themselves.
The great all-embracing lesson to be
learned from the war, not a new les- .
son, but one never before so strongly
emphasized, may be summed up In the
one word "preparation.
The one thing noticeable was the public
ity given to .the several canaiaatcs ana
tr th nrincinlcs for which theyr stood.
Newspaper publicity becamo more than
ever a factor in setting out tne views ot
the contestants for civic honors. Tho
fif hi wa rMpntlv oncn and above board
and the people had a fair voice in deter
mining the Issues upon wnicn tne cam
paign was made.
AH Is Harmony.
Tllrof- nrlmarv was tested In Portland
Saturday and proved its ability to stand.
Something like 3000 votes were cast ana
Ti winnintr candidate received 3040.
against which was a combined vote of
over 6000 cast for all other Republican
candidates. In this Instance there were
six candidates, and each one considered
he had a good show. No candidate wan
thrust upon tho common mass of voters,
he had a group of six able candidates to
choose from and he did so. The result
demonstrates no hard feelings and all is
harmony and tne cnosen canaiaaies wu
Ifcver Shirks His Duties.
Mayor Williams ha3 been, nominated
again for Mayor of Portland. There Is
mi.ntinn oirmt- election. To have
witnessed the nomination of some of the
men who come forward ior mat very
office would have been a shame. Mayor
Williams has the high regard of all men
throughout the state, and while he is
well along in years, yet he has great
ability and energy and stamina enough to
speak out plain upon any and all subjects
where plain speech is needed. We have
never seen him shirk the duty call or op
pose honest will or thwart honest en
deavor. rian Entitled to Praise.
La Grande Chronicle.
The employment of the direct primary
method of nominating candidates for of
fice la Portland seems to have worked
satisfactorily. The plan has demonstrat
ed that the power of the political boss Is
on the glimmer. And that is what the
direct primary law was constructed for.
The Australian ballot reformed the traffic
In votes; now the direct primary cuts the
party boss off at the pockets. The only
thing left is for the prospective candidate
to extol his merits through the press. In
a reformatory way a great &te has been
made, but as a triumph for newspaper
advertising the new plan Is entitled to
the greatest measure of praise.
The Only Way.
New Orleans Times-Democrat.
Stop In a. street and stare up at a building;
Stare at a mast or a window or roof; " ,
Mark ye how quickly the tolk gather to yea!
Few have the courage to' linger aloof !-
XnA from the Incident draw the dedsetlos.
PatieBtv Inspiring. I think, oa the wael,
If In the world you weald have etle wit
you, . ' .
JD aac41isgt if oal to stare. t a .