Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, April 20, 1905, Page 8, Image 8

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Entered at the Pcslofflce at rortland. Or.,
as eecond-claas matter.
(By Mall or Express.)
Dally and Sunday, per year ?9.00
Dally and Sunday, six month.. 6.00
Dally and Sunday, three month . 2.55
Daily and Sunday, per month o
Dally -without Sunday, per year .B0
I"sJlv -without Sunday, elx months 3.1X)
Dally without Sunday, three months.... 1.03
Dally without Sunday, per month 65
Eunday per year 2.00
Eiinday, olx months L00
Sunday, three- months.... CO
Dally -without Sunday, per week 15
Daily per week. Sunday included.. .20
(Issued Every Thursday.)
Weekly, per year..... tBO
"Weekly, six months "&
Weekly, three months 50
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The S. C. Beekwith Special Agency New
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ttorles from Individuals and cannot under
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closed for this purpose.
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Kanaa City, Mo. Rlcksecker Cigar Co.,
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Lob Angeles Harry Drapkln; B. E. Amos,
514 West Seventh street.
Minneapolis M. J. Kavanaugh. 50 South
Third; L. Begelsburger, 217 First avenue
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teenth and Franklin streets.
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Washington, D. C. Ebblt House News
For many reasons it Is desirable that
the charges alleged in the Indictments
pending in the United States Court at
Portland should be cleared up and dis
posed of as quickly as possible.
The Senator and the Representatives
in Congress against whom Indictments
have been presented, with a sensibility
that does them credit have declined to
appear in their seats while under ac
cusation. Mr. Hermann indeed did ap
pear once or twice in the House after
ward, but on reflection ceased to do so.
Keenly susceptible to an unwritten law
of courtesy and honor, the three mem
bars of our delegation In Congress
against whom the accusations have
been made absented themselves from
their duties as representatives of their
people and state, to await the issue of
these proceedings. And of course they
will not &galn appear In the halls of
Congress until cleared fully of the
charges against them.
But Oregon needs their services and
Is entitled to them. These cases there
fore ought to be tried, out fully and
disposed, of wholly before the next
meeting of Congress.
Yet in order to satisfy the people and
to establish beyond all cavil the honor
of the-accused, the cases ought to be
tried on their merits, an'd ajl the facts
should be developed. Assuming that
there can be no actual proofs, and that
the testimony will be only of flimsy
and trifling character, yet the people
want the story told, for they have
right to know on what basis the char
acter of their honored representatives
has been so fiercely assailed. Then also
they -will form their final opinion of the
jprosecutCrs, and, awaiting vindication
of their representatives, will rejoice
in it
Further, the cases ought to be tried
ito a result"' in order that theSenator
and Representatives may again feel at
liberty to take their seats in Congress
at the first opportunity. Till these cases
are tried out they cannot, because any
defects that might be found on technl
cal points In present Indictments might
he expected to bring another grand
jury on the scene; indictments holding
over would still keep the members out
of their seats in Congress, and they
would remain without the vindication
to which respect for their integrity and
(position entitles them.
On these cases there has been a great
blare of trumpets, all over the land
"What the great -public wants, and -what
the people of Oregon especially want,
Is presentation of the testimony in full
on which these accusations are made.
It doesn't matter much in what special
form it may come whether through
technical pleadings of one kind or an
other. What is wanted is the evidence
which the' prosecution professes
have. No doubt the accused are anxious
to have it laid in full before the coun
try, so that their own vindication may
he sure and complete; and doubtless.
too, after some further skirmishing
with Mr. Heney, so as to get the proper
.points on his quality as a fighter, they
will be ready to withdraw pleas
abatement, objections by demurrer and
motions to quash, and renew the dec
laration that they want early trial on
the merits, challenge the prosecution to
"come on with its bears," and calmly
wait the vindication sure to come to
innocent, honorable and worthy men.
The proposed wool-scouring plant for
Portland would, be a decidedly valuable
addition to our manufacturing enter
prises. It would not only confer on us
all of the benefits attendant on Increase
in the "Dayroll." but the wool men
themselves would be gainers by its
presence here. Every year many mil
Hon pounds of wool are shipped to the
Eastern markets just as it comes from
the sheep's back, so dirty and greasy
that the shipper must stand the freight
clear across the continent for about
three pounds of refuse for every pound
of wool that is shipped. Through lack
of a large scouring mill. Portland, the
commercial metropolis of the greatest
sheep region on earth, seldom derives
any profit from the cleaning or han
dling of the wool, the Eastern buyers
working it Into marketable shape after
It is shipped from Oregon "In the
VELT. . Mr. Bryan, in his Jefferson banquet
speech at Chicago, and In the article he
has just published in the widely circu
lated pages of Public Opinion, has fa
vored the Nation with his ideas about
President Roosevelt. He has suggested
the questions which he thinks the Pres
ident has to meet, but the curious fact
is that he starts his article with the
query, "Has the President the cour
age to be a reforrder?" Courage, for
sooth he must be the only man to
whom such a suggestion has presented
Itself. Theodore Roosevelt has had to
meet and satisfy many a half-sarcastic
fling at want of balance, need of pru
dence, excess of activity, undue strenu-
ousness and the like but it has been
left to Mr. Bryan to submit and gravely
argue a doubt of his courage. If cour
age, physical and moral, is all that is
needed for the President to stand forth
as what Mr. Bryan styles "a reformer,"
he will receive a practically unanimous
answer to a needless question. The
open book of the President's life his
tory should have relieved him from
both branches of the inquiry. .
The reformer prepared, ac
cording to Mr. Bryan, to deal with im
perialism, the labor question, and the
money question some -time or other.
Adroitly he postpones them now. The
recent election has carried conviction
to every mind, except those of Mr.
Bryan and his followers, that as to Im
perialism (as he nicknames it) and the
money question two of his reserva
tions the Nation Is conclusively with
the President and against his mentor.
Those issues have been met and de
cided. No room for a "reformer" there.
How about labor? The term Is bo loose
that It should be barred from every dis
cussion unless limited and explained.
But. taking what Mr. Bryan seems to
have In mind, is it too much to sug
gest that there is no public man In the
United States today better trusted by
the laboring classes than the President,
and this largely from the "courage" he
has shown? Let us hurry to what Mr.
Bryan wishes his reformer to do, now,
at this juncture, and see what giants
he hopes to see the President fight and
on what grounds the war should be
He names the railroad question, the
trusts and the tariff. In the first he
specifies as his ideal a "really effective
rate measure." Is this all? Mind, the
question is not whether we shall see
such a measure passed, but whether the
President has courage to press It. Does
any reasonable being doubt that? There
may be many an honest question fought
out in the coming months whether a
strengthened interstate commission
shall be trusted with the duty of "fix
lng" railroad rates, or of "regulating"
them as between a complaining shipper
and the railroad. And this in full alle
giance to the governing principle that
the Nation can and shall exerolse con
trol over the public facilities it has
called into being. Burning questions of
secret rebates, of private car lines, of
discriminatory tariffs (not referred to
by Mr. Bryan), will be raised and set
tied. The Nation lsnows that the Presl
dent Is with It -in its demand for just
and reasonable rates, and even fair
dealing, from and with the railroads,
and under these signs, not victory, but
Justice, will emerge from the fray.
Higher needs than courage exist for
handling every one of the three ques
tlons now Urgent Knowledge is the
first for ignorance works as deep evil
as cowardice. Calmness is the second
in face of prejudice and of selfishness,
Love of Justice Is the third for each
side of these controversies puts forth
specious pleas, which need both sifting
and trying out in the crucible of In
structed experience. The saving grace
of common sense is thelfourth and by
no means the least.
What an all-covering word is the
trust in Mr. Bryan's vocabulary! Like
charity, it covers a multitude of sins
Sometimes monopoly, always TObbery,
invariably oppression. Its adherents
are "magnates," and the remedy for all
its evils is "extermination." Rathpr nn
executioner than a reformer, is required
by Mr. Bryan's gospel. What an old
style Calvlnlst what a dyed-ln-the-wool
Prohibitionist, is wasted In this advo
cate of the Idol he has set up and calls
reform. "Thorough" Is his motto, death
and destruction his battle-cry. And
along this path of his he has the au
dacity to Invite the President to march
Has this man no sense of proportion at
all? Does he not know that the prlnci
pie and fact of association underlie the
formation of every institution that he
.miscalls a trust?. That to prohibit the
running together and Wending of enter
prises Is as impossible In this century
as to make water run uphill? That all
that comports with the laws of the Na
tion and the conditions of social life Is
that the Interests of the many must be
sought in the" regulation and not In the
extirpation of associations of capital?
That the abuses, not the existence, of
associated capital must be fought?
That the regulated and ordered
strength of the Nation, not the torch of
revolution, must work reform? On
these lines the activity of the Ad
ministration has declared itself since
Theodore Roosevelt gathered the
dropped reins of power when McKlnley
fell. No slackness has been even sus
pected to require Mr. Bryan's spur.
Rightly, without doubt, Mr. Bryan
notices the interweaving of each of
these questions with the others. There
fore comes it, as he falls to. see, that
orderly sequence should govern the ef
fort to harmonize the rights of the pub
lic with those of the individual. First
the railroads, second the trusts, third
the tariff. If President Roosevelt has
cultivated, patience and self-restraint
even when he has heard loud calls for
hasty action, the Nation will credit him
with yet one more good gift added to
the double-sided courage which very
few (Mr. Bryan excepted) doubt.
Forty thousand at the opening game
In New Tork; twice as many propor
tionately on opening day in Portland;
big crowds wherever major and minor
leagues exist throughout the country
testify to the Increasing popularity of
our one distinctly National sport. What
is the secret of baseball's hold for the
past thirty-five years on boys, -youth
and rnen of every class and every sta
tion, and In recent years on young
women also?
Men like baseball because every one
of them played It as a boy's game. None
of its rudiments are beyond the ken of
an average 12-year-old. 'He needs only
to be able to run, catch, throw, swing
a club and "holler." Baseball appeals
naturally to the American boy, just as
the doll appeals to girls. Unfortunately
in its evolution from townball the game
has become too hard work for grown
men, except such as are trained ath
letes. Unlike cricket In England,
men of ordinary physical strengthened
baseball entirely too strenuous. It is
doubtful whether even Roosevelt could
pitch nine innings and next day write
a message to Congress with the same
Baseball retains its hold because It is
a manly sport, and, though it is In the
hands of professionals, has been kept
remarkably clean. As played today,
the game requires strength, endurance.
strategy, nlmbleness, esprit de corps
and the fighting spirit To cover any
infield position well requires the use of
more muscles than any other form of
In the uncertainties of the game lie I
s chief drawing power. Much as a !
its chief drawing power.
man may like a sport, he wouldn't care
to see forty or fifty exhibitions of it in
five months, unless the result of a con
test were Involved In doubt. With only
two players out of the eighteen
changed, little novelty In the personnel
presents Itself to a spectator who at
tends on successive days.
Singularly, In a land where gambling
Is a common vice, there Is small betting
on baseball. One never hears of large
wagera. The desire to win money does
not enter Into the mind of the crowd as
it does at other athletic contests. Local
sentiment adds Interest, but the great
American public want baseball because
It Is-the best outdoor sport they know.
"I'll take the turkey and you take the
owl; or, If the other plan suits you bet
ter, you take the owl and I'll take the
turkey." This fabled division of the
spoils of the hunt between the Indian
and the white man presents features
similarity to the transportation
problem now confronting Portland. We
are told by experts on such matters
that facilities for handling the traffic
of certain localities are lacking because
there is an insufficient amount of
traffic. From equally good authority.
on the other side of the question, we
learn that the traffic is restricted in
volume by the lack of transportation
facilities. It can readily be seen from
this that, no matter which way she
turns, Portland, like the Indian In the
fable, always gets the "owl." But
there is increasing evidence that this
city will eventually secure some "tur
key." Some of the links In that endless "no-
facilltles-no-traffic and no-traffic-no-fa-
cillties" chain are weakening. Five
years ago there was no coastwise traffic
between Portland and ports north of
San Francisco, because there were no
boats on the route 'to handle It. The
growth was slow at first, on account of
the Infrequent service, but It has been
developing rapidly since the facilities
were improved, and Portland is now
enjoying a rapidly expanding trade
with ports as far south as Eureka.
This traffic, of course, cannot develop
as rapidly with nothing but water
transportation as it would if we had
rail connection. At the same time it is
growing, and it offers encouragement
for other efforts. The control of a mo
nopoly ceases when Its transportation
lines reach navigable 'water, inland or
Portland is gaining a foothold In the
trade of Coos Bay and other Oregon
coast ports, which In the past have, by
reason of superior transportation facil
ities, been at the mercy of the San
Francisco jobbers. But, while we have
been making persistent efforts to build
up that trade. San Francisco has re
mained unmolested In the ocean trade
of Gray's Harbor and Wlllapa Harbor.
Portland, of course, has access to these
ports by rail, but there are some classes
of goods on which the freight by
steamer from San Francisco is much
lower than it Is from Portland by rail.
The proposed steamer line from Gray's
Harbor, which was warmly indorsed by
the Chamber of Commerce Tuesday,
will undoubtedly reopen a trade field In
which Portland was once alone in her
Not only will a good passenger traffic
develop as soon as facilities for han
dling it are provided, but there will be
gradual gain in the trade which Is
now diverted to the more distant Cali
fornia port There are some rich trade
fields, like the Wallowa, Central Oregon
and the Nehalem. where the independ
ent steamboat and steam schooner can
not act as developers of trade; but
wherever the Almighty has provided
water sufficient to float a freight carrier
from point of production to market, we
should make the most of our opportuni
ties.- An Independent railroad or elec
tric line from Lewlston through the rich
Clearwater country would be worthless
if Its Independence were not made pos
sible -by a river on which the humble
flatboat of the rancher has equal right
of way with the craft of the big cor
porations. No transportation projects
presenting greater merit have in recent
years come before our commercial in
terests for Indorsement, and the people
qf the Clearwater country and of Gray's
Harbor wll receive the most cordial
support in carrying out their plans.
If discipline Is needed any place, it
is needed In a state penitentiary where
criminals are confined. Not even In an
army in the field In time of war Is
there greater'need of watchful care and
strict observance of a thorough system
of rules and regulations. In a prison
there are always desperate men await
ing an opportunity to break out and
on the outside there are men no less
desperate Teady at any time to render
assistance to their confederates inside
if that assistance promises to be suc
cessful. Sleeping at his post of duty
is one of the most serious offenses a
soldier can commit, and heavy punish
ment is provided therefor. Such dere
liction on the part of a prison guard
should be held no less reprehensible
and mere discharge from his position
should- riot be the limit of punishment
The guard who sleeps at his post not
only endangers his own life, but places
in jeopardy the lives of his fellows
and Invites an outbreak which may
easily result In the death or injury of
numerous citizens.
Several times In the last three years
guards at the Oregon penitentiary have
been caught asleep at their posts, and
have been discharged, but one discharge
seems not to prevent a repetition of
the offense. Some system 6f signals
and checks should be provided which
will promptly give notice of lapse on
the part of the guards and then pun
ishment, severe and certain, should be
provided for those who prove unfaithful
to duty.
But a few days ao a con
vict turned off the lights at the peni
tentiary one dark night and scaled the
wall upon which the guards were sta
tioned. Where responsibility -for the
escape rests It may be difficult to say,
but some one should have been held
accountable and should have been dis
charged. If It was possible for a con
vict to go out over the wall, it would
seem possible for some one to go in
over the same place, and take in rifles,
as was done in 1902 when Tracy and
Merrill made their escape. Eternal vig
ilance is the price of safety in- an In
stitution like a state prison.
There is a belief current in the potato
market in this city that, whenever the
price soars above 51 per sack, sellers
dig them up from beneath the cobble
stones or from any old hiding-places
where their presence wouldaiever be re
vealed by a lower price! The jrftiglcl
1 dollar mark seems to have a similar
effect on the supply of wheat, for the
attempted corner of Mr. Gates, like that
of Lelter, Is bringing to light unsus
pected quantities which are piling up In
readiness to break the market and In
cidentally the "cornerer," If It can be
accomplished. If Gates Is carrying as
long a line as he Is credited with, yes
terday's break in the market meant a
loss of $300,000. Meanwhile the. distant
options, which at this season of the
year are governed by legitimate condi
tions, show very little change.
The County Court is asked to oil the
Linnton road. The petition Is backed
by important taxpayers who think the
expense Justified In order that this
beautiful driveway may be made as at
tractive as possible. The Linnton road
passes the Lewis and Clark Fair
grounds, and it is for many miles along
the west bank of the Willamette River.
During the coming season many visit
ors will travel over It The advantage
of oil lies in the fact that it lays the
dust and keeps it laid, and It Is Imper
vious to any ordinary rain. If the
County Court shall see fit to allow the
petition, it will have done much for the
pleasure and benefit of the people of
Portland and all sojourners here who
may desire to drive Into the country.
Portland's export trade continues to
expand in keeping with the rapidly de
veloping Internal commerce of the port-
Tuesday there was cleared through the
Custom-House in this city a big cargo
of lumber for Callao. another for Japan
and a 7000-ton cargo of flour and mer
chandise for the Orient There are now
loading In port for foreign countries
half a dozen lumber vessels with a com
bined carrying capacity of more than
7,500,000 feet, while for the Orient two
steamers are loading full cargoes of
flour and merchandise for the Far East
Meanwhile the coastwise lumber and
grain trade by water Is the heaviest
on record, and instead of shrinking Is
growing more rapidly than ever before.
The Canadian government Is at last
considering the question of establishing
a Hfesavlng station on the west coast
of Vancouver Island. At no other point
on the Pacific Coast Is such a station
so badly needed. It would be difficult
to estimate the number of lives that
might have beeri'saved along the bleak
and Inhospitable shores of that death-
haunted island had there been- one or
two Hfesavlng stations maintained there
for the past twenty or twenty-ve
years ls is a matter In which Amer
icans are more Interested than Cana
dians fr by far the larger number of
wrecks occurring there were of ivessels
sailing for or from ports on the Ameri
can side of the line.
Clatsop County has secured posses
sion of the tolfroad between Seaside and
Elk Creek, and orders have been Issued
to repair the bridges and place the road
In good condition for Summer travel.
This will be welcome news to a large
number of people who spend their Sum
mers at the beach and who are usually
prevented from visiting the famous Elk
Creek and Cannon Beaches on account
of the wretched condition of the old
tollroad. A good road between ClatsoD
Beach and Cannon Beach would In
crease the Summer travel to both of
these resorts.
"Primrose day," on which many Eng
lishmen wear a primrose in honor of
Disraeli, served to revive one of the
great conservative's phrases: "Protec
tion Is not only dead, but damned," was
emblazoned on the Disraeli statue by
some free-trade admirer, and In view
of the ordinary Englishman's admira
tion of "Dizzy" and of a good phrase,
this little Incident has probably done
Chamberlain more harm than many a
profound speech.
The general agents of the Equitable
come In personal contact with their pol
icy-holders, and they know what the
policy-holders want, which Is simply
that Mr. Hyde get out. Naturally, the
general agents have united to demand
that Mr. Hyde retire. Mr. Hyde is con
fronted by the dilemma that he will
wreck the company if he stays in, and
he will wreck Mr. Hyde If he goes out.
No wonder he spars for time.
air. uarnegie a niece marries a poor
but honest riding teacher, and now they
have the avuncular 'blessing. "I want
no rich men In the family," says the
old gentleman. A large number of very
worthy young gentlemen can qualify to
enter the Carnegie family on that basis.
The Germans drink more alcohol,
work longer hours and live longer than
Americans. So says a great German
doctor. But we are left In doubt as to
whether Germans live longer because
they drink more alcohol or drink more
alcohol because they live longer.
Shooting bears, riding horses at full
speed over rough trails, eating camp
food, running foot races and sleeping
out under the starry skies, is the Presi
dent's idea of a "rest." Doubtless it Is
a rest for the President
If young Mr. Hyde, of the Equitable,
can show that ho doesn't get skinned
at these great poker games of his, he
will advance greatly In the. public es
What Is needed now Is for Lafe Pence
to file a lien on the clouds and divert
some or all of the water away from
Twenty-fourth and Vaughn streets.
Candidate Albee now has no objection
to the "legally legitimate saloon." He
is down on both the illegally legitimate
and the legally Illegitimate saloon.
President Roosevelt, doesn't say much
from his camp, but sends out a bear
skin. That's how he wants the new
Canal Commission to act
Rojestvensky may be delaying to get
the latest scores.
The little Indianapolis newsboys who
sold 4'extrys" with an account of the
fatal panic In which the newsies had
themselves been a few minutes before
are typical members of their profession.
John Paul Jones should" not be con
founded with Davy Jones.
Columbus was a humbug, says an East-
em paper. In the light of recent discov
eries. Spain believes him sometning
worse than a mere humbug, an out-and-
out bunco man.
Eastern magazines lead us to believe
that when an artist produces a picture
that won't do for anything else, he labels
It "Easter and sells it to the editors
for use as a cover design or a frontis
piece. It cost JS2.0CO. it i said, to produco the
Nan Pattersop trial.
Now that the umpire. comes again
And cries aloud "Play Ball!"
How many inessential things
From memory we let fall.
We forget all about:
Open town.
Closed town.
Board bllln.
Meat market.
Trammelled candidates
Untrammelled candidates.
Land fraudf. . ,
All-night saloon.
Colonel Hawkins.
And all the other trifles of lit.
Portland stuttered a little at the start
Chinatown is to be cleaned up or cleaned
Referring to Portland's justly famous
"Golden Singers," the New York Evening
Sun says: "Talk about discrimination!
Are the fair-haired women vbelng crowd
ed by the brunettes, that It should be
necessary to make the possession of locks
of a carroty hue a ground for special
treatment?" The Sun Is away off. The
red-haired choir is not an organization
for protection from the dark women, but
an organization designed to pleasure the
ear with notes of gold, and the eye with
tresses of gold: in short, to placo the
woman with ardent locks on that pinna
cle of admiration merited by her natural
Prince Ferdlhand of Bulgaria has issued
an edict prohibiting girls and young wom
en attending the public schools from
wearing corsets. No wonder the dis
patches say that the pupils affected and
their female relatives are In a storm of
rebellion against such an order, even If
it Is based on a desire to promote their
health. The unfortunate schoolmasters
seem to be the persons most deserving of
pity. On one side an edict signed by the
Prince, on the other defiant pupils whose
disobedience of orders can. at the best
be only guessed at
From the manner In which men crowd
to a fire, Impeding the work of the fire
men and the police, It would appear that
If hades were to pop open there would
be such a rush of open-mouthed starers
that halfthe population would be shoved
Into the bottomless pit.
In an editorial in the New York Sun
dealinc with younc Mr. Hyde, of the
Equitable, was this, paragraph:
Of court. It Is a universally conceded point
of law that a pickpocket who has abstracted
a nurfce, and, being detected, Tstorei It to the
owner, by that act absolves hlmsilf from the
Intention and the consequences of crime.
Several correspondents have been writ
ing to the Sun concerning this "amazing
statement." One asks what school of law
this comes from. We never suspected be
fore that the Sun. was read by quite
serious persons.
Lord Mayor Dunne, of Chicago, has
written his own epitaph:
Here lies the body of
He died a poor man, but waa the father of
municipal ownership and 13 children.
May he rest In peace.
Before his term expires. Mr. Dunne
may amend the Inscription to read:
Here lies the body of
He was Dunne when he died, but he was thy
father of 13 children and of municipal owner
ship, which died abornln.
May Chicago rest In peace.
Big Diamond by Post.
According to the new London paper.
The Evening Standard, the great Cul-
llnan diamond, valued at over 500,000,
was recently sent by registered post
from South Africa to London for three
shillings. It was quite an ordinary-
looking packet, says The Evening
Standard, that was handed in at the
Johannesburg postoffice shortly before
the English mall-Jeft for the mining
center. Nobody but the directors of
the company in South Africa knew the
contents. The parcel was addressed to
S. Neumann & Co., London. E. C. and
the messenger, acting on instructions.
had it registered. It weighed a little
over a pound, and as tne charge is at
the rate of a penny a half ounce, and
twopence extra Tor registration, the
sum paid to the postoffice was about
three shillings.
As soon as it was stamped the packet
was placed wiih the other registered
parcels deposited In the mail bag, and
sent off to Cape Town, where It was
transferred to the steamer. . Nothing
further was heard of It until a tele
gram from Mr. Neumann announced Its
safe arrival.
There were no special precautions for
its safe transit Tne postal authorities
being unaware of the nature of tho con
signment, bestowed upon tt no greater
care than ' upon any other packet.
Apart, from the postal authorities, how
ever, tne diamond was insured lor
The present whereabouts or. the dla
mond in London Is kept a, secret, and
no decision has been come to yet on
the subject of exhibiting it.
The Ways of Maine.
New York Times.
Thomas W. Lawson tells of a friend
who had taken a trip up to the Maine
woods for a day's hunting. The hunter's
time being limited, he wished to crowd
as many hours into a day a3 was possi
ble, so he ordered the host at the little
back-wooda hotel to can mm at 4:30 In
the morning.
Promptly at 4:30 he was waked from a
sound sleep by a thump on the door of
his room.
"Well." he asked, sleepily, "what's the
'It's half-past four," came the answer.
'All right. .Til be right down," he said.
as he pulled the covers up to his chin for
another little nap. There was silence for
about five minutes, when he was awak
ened once more by a terrible clatter on
his door.
What's the ' matter now?" he asked,
thoroughly aroused.
"You Just sign this 'receipt' '
"Sign what 'receipt? "
"This receipt showing that I called you
at half-pazt four. You don't coma down at
S o'clock and say I didn't call you. Not
if I know It"
How They Have Fraudulently Acquired Millions of Acre In Oreeon
and California.
From an article by Bailey Millard in Every
body a Magazine ror May.
John A. Benson was a man of hyp
notic power. It was not long before
nod of his head or a wave of his
hand meant more In the land offices
than many a ream-long petition, with
ever so so many signers. He made a
close study of the land laws. He knew
what he could do and what he could
not do. - During all his gigantic oper
ations in the West for the past 24
years, in which over 5,000,000 acres
have been tied up as the result of his
pernicious activities, he has never
really been within the grip of the law
until now. He has from the first
known the brutal power of money, and
he has safely counted upon it He has
had, behind him. through good and
evil report ono of the most solid
financial institutions in the est
the Nevada Bank, of San Francisco.
As we have seen, Benson's word was
mlKhty In the land office.. He was
able to have all his field men appoint
ed as deputay surveyors without their
knowledge. He took contracts m
their names and had them sign in
blank bonds, contracts, powers of at
torney, etc.. of tho import of which
thev knew nothing. Many of these
unwitting deputies were mere boys,
who understood little about the work
in which they were supposed to be
engaged. One of them. In whose name
Benson took out contracts to the
amount of $50,000, confessed that he
would not know a solar compass If
he saw pne. So readily did the offi
cials fall In with Benson's schemes
that they accepted bonds ot surveyors
from store clerks, mechanics, street
car conductors and others, wholly
without worldly goods. Rarely was
an oath of office required. Surveyors
of 17 or 18 years of age were qualified.
Often for whole seasons the field
work of the Benson gang was the
merest sham. In the California coun
ties of Sonoma, Mendocino and Mon
terey .-township . after township for
which survey plots were made and
Held notes written up was never seen
by the surveyor. In Central Monterey
County, where mile after mile of lines
was supposed to have been run, not
a stake was driven. Men who tried to
locate land under the homestead or
timber claim acts could not find a sin
gle corner. And yet the Government
accepted the surveys and paid. Ben
son, In the name of his dummies, hun
dreds of thousands of dollars for them.
How was the fraud accomplished?
Simply by "faking" the surveys,
which were made In back offices In
San Francisco by men who did not go
within 100 miles of the land. The
surveyor would take a county map,
which showed some of the more prom
inent topographical features. That
would give him a field to work upon
where there was no need to weary
himself by dragging a jingling chain
mrougn tne nrusn. From this map
he could make up a fanciful survey
plot on a larger scale, showing land
monuments, blazed trees, rocks, hills
and other natural objects for the pre
scribed metes and bounds. Often
blazed trees would be put Into an ut
terly treeless plain, and branches of
streams would be made to run three
to four miles out of their true csurse.
It Is a noteworthy fact that the maps
of these surveys were among the
finest ever sent to the Surveyor-General's
office. They were things of
beauty, full of fine details, and so sat
isfactory that at first, there was not
the slightest hesitation on the part of
the omciais in signing warrants in
payment for thorn.
Benson soon became a rich man and
enlarged the field of his usefulness
from year to year. His operations
extended over . Oregon, Nevada. Utah
and Arizona. It was in California, how
ever that he exerted his baneful ac
tivities to their utmost. It wns there,
too, that hi voice was loudest. If he
wanted 20 or more men made deputy"
surveyors, all he had to do was to
name them and they got the positions.
In the names of ten persons, contracts
amounting to $500,000 were taken out
without the request of the supposed
contractors and without their consent
or knowledge. Though the papers were
supposed to be entered In the records,
none of them discovered that these
contracts were in their names until
two years afterward, and In some
cases not until the frauds had been
exposed. So strong had Benson's In
fluence become with the California
land officials that whenever there was
any hint of his work being investigated
by a special agent from Washington,
he would have that agent removed and
another put in nis place.
In less than five years Benson made
over 52.000,000 out of his contracts:
but as he wns always a free spender.
he was often hard pressed for funds.
In 1SS2 he was forced to assign, but
the banks advanced money on new sur
veys and he went blithely on.
In personal appearance, Frederick A.
Hyde Is the very opposite of Benson.
He had been known for years as one
of the shrewdest land-experts In Cali
(From a letter to M. de Roy, of Paris, dis
cussing Spanish Panama surveys.)
Were they to make an opening
through the Isthmus of Panama, a
work much less difficult than some of
the inferior canals of France, how
ever small this opening should be In
the beginning, the tropical current en
tering it with all Its force would soon
widen It sufficiently for its own pas
sage, and thus complete, in a short time,
that work which otherwise will employ It
for ages. Less country would be destroyed
by It In this way.
These consequences would follow:
Vessels from Europe or the western
part of Africa, by entering the tropics,
would have a steady wind and tide to
carry them through the Atlantic,
through America and the Pacific Ocean,
to every part of the Asiatic coast, and
of the entire coast ot Africa, thus
performing with speed and safety the
tour of the whole globe, to within
about 24 degrees of longitude, or one
fifteenth of its circumference, the Af
rican continent occupying about that
Second, tho Gulf of Mexico, now the
most dangerous navigation In the
world on account of Its currents and
movable sands, would become stagnant
and safe.
Third, the Gulf Stream on the coast
of the United States would cease, and
with that those derangements of course
and reckoning which now impede and
endanger the Intercourse with those
Fourth, the fogs on the banks' of
Newfoundland, supposed to be the vap
ors of the Gulf Stream, rendered tur
bid by the cool air would disappear.
Fifth, those banks ceasing to receive
supplies of sand and weeds and warm
water by the Gulf Stream, It might be
come problematical what effect changes
of pasture and temperature would have
upon the fisheries.
However, it is time to relieve you
from this long lecture. I wish Its sub
ject may have been sufficiently Inter
esting to make amends for .Its details.
These are submitted with entire defer
ence to your better judgmental will
only add to them by assuring you of
the sentiments of perfect esteem and
respect with which I have the honor to
be, sir, your most obedient and humble
fornia. Benson bad heard of some of
his dazzling operations, in which he
had taken up whole townships by the
aid of unprincipled land officers, no
taries and dummies. The surveyor
greatly admired the sagacity of Hyde
and was anxious to employ it In "his
own behalf. The two men formed their
secret partnership. Since then Hy.l
has been a very valuable ally of Bon
son, for that gentleman had run nearly
to the end of his tether in the surveys.
For a time they were content with
the methods pursued by Hyde neat
and secret violations of the homestead,
timber-land and swamp-land laws by
means of dummies. They connects!
themselves with rings of small land
grabbers all over the Coast. Tnaee
rings transferred vast tracts of timber
and grazing-land from the Government
to the private ownership of California
Cleons who were stringing carloads uf
barbed wire. Benson and Hyde, as the
master minds, came in for a liberal share
of the proceeds In each. When a land
king wanted to grab a new principality
from the Government, they would hel
him In his predatory plan always for a
large consideration. In one case four dum
mies went before a corrupt notary and
took up 40 timber claims, for which the
notary received 1100 in fees ?10 for each
entryman. A man would come Into the
office as Jones, then go out and come
in as Smith, and repeat the operation
ten times. Hundreds of such dummies
were employed. They were, for the most
part, ranch-hands, stenographers, sailors,
stevedores and colored janitors. The pa
pers were all signed in blank and the men
who did the signing rarely knew the na
ture of their contents. Bach dummy re
ceived a small sum for his services ami
was satisfied. The making of final proof
was a matter of little concern to the con-
spirators, for they had a cohort of men
ready to swear they knew the land, hud
lived upon It for the prescribed length
of time, and were, locating upon it for
their own and for nobody else's benefit.
Some of the syndicates which grabbed
kingdoms made contracts with the graft
ers to furnish final proofs at so muvh
per application.
When you have learned these things it
is not difficult to understand how one hun
dred men in the great Sacramento Valley
have come to own over 17,000,000 acres.
while in the San Joaquin Valley it 1s no '
uncommon thing for one man's name to
stand for 100.000 acres. This grabbing of
large tracts has discouraged immigration
to California more than any other single
factor. A family living on a small hold
ing In a vast plain, with hardly a house
In sight, will In timo become a very lone
ly family. Indeed, and will in a few yeara
be glad to sell out to the land king whoee
domain Is adjacent Thousands of small
farms have in this way boen acquired by
the large holders at nominal prices.
We have seen how Benson and Jlyde
helped many of the land kings to enter "
Into their kingdoms, by the aid of th
ever willing dummy; but we have not yet
seen the end of the iniquity. It remained
for the precious twain to hatch out and
exploit a scheme that would have made
most men balk at the beginning as be
fore the sheer, unscalable walls of tho
impossible. The new plan was to obtain
possession of large tracts of state school
lands and other lands through the me
dium of dummies, and dispose of them on
highly advantageous terms to the United
States Government itself I
Thousands of acres ot the school lands
"stood on end," as the real estate men
say in the Sierras and the foothills. Gen
erally they were of little value, being
covered by chaparral and dotted with
gr?.nlte boulders. How was It possible to
unload such land Upon the Government?
Simply by interesting Its trusted officers'
In the plan. The Government wa3 mak
ing forest reservations In California and
Indemnifying holders of land forfeited for
that purpose by giving them acre for
acre what were known as "lieu lands."
to be selected by the claimant at will in
any state where Government land was
to be found. Benson and Hyde's long ac
quaintance with the local land offices and
the offices In Washington placed them
on terms of intimacy with the officials.
This Intimacy was the means of their
acquiring advance information in regard
to the Intentions of the Department of
the Interior and the Land Office at Wash
ington. The information enabled them
to influence men who would recommend
to the Government the acquisition of cer
tain tracts as forest reserves. Having
established a modus vivcndl with these
men on a money basis the conspirators
not only decided what land should be rec
ommended for forest reservations, but
even drew. In their own offices, the map3
which subsequently went forward to the
Government with the recommendation'?
of the officials! They made the forest
reserve selections so as to include the
property which they had or knew they
could get. With the advantage of know
ing the lands likely to be declared within
a forest reserve, they went to work to se
cure persons who would take up the State
school lands In those prospective reser
Shocked we are, and pained beyond
expression, to find in Seattle papers a
terrible description of "the great red
light district" of that city, visited on
Monday night, by the revivalists,
under direction of Dr. Chapman. The
account "does not impress the reader
with "the superiority of the tone of
Seattle, moral and spiritual." Take this
description from the Times:
As the procession slowly approached the
southern part of the city, where the red
lamps throw fitful glares over the besotted
face of the underworld, where sin, vice and
crime sneak forth like human -wolves only
after the sun oes down, where the wakinp
hours are confined only to the darkness of
night, and where the rtsins of the sun finds
only the solitary policeman walking; his lone
ly beat. Dr. Chapman grew more serene. If
possible, than ever.
Hoboes jostled him and painted women
leered at him and rum dealers grinned
cheerfully at him from open doorways, but
he was still cool and calm and undisturbed.
"Three cheers for Jesus!" came from that
convert again.
Dr. Chapman turned slowly and looked at
the man who would cheer Christ as he would
a great ballplayer, and there was a rebuke
in that look more potent than words, a
sting of reproach more powerful than print-
It was the only time during that lonp
march through the tenderloin that the great
evangelist was disturbed. When It was all at
an end when the evangelist had said good
bye to these human lepers and turned his
back on their world he leaned heavily upon
the arm of a companion and his Hp moved
In silent prayer. ,
There are many columns of similar
description In the several newspapers
of the city. The account of the Times
closes thus:
In a little while the Tenderloin had re
sumed its natural shape and form. Men
flocked Into, the saloons and the bars did a
rushing business.
"CSnofl nrf fnr the Tnrtrlnln commented
one saloonman as the thirsty lined up against
the bar. 'We're glad they came."
Lights were again lit in the palaces of
vice and the women of the Midway .re
turned Co their cribs.
At the Grand Opera-House and at the gos
pel tent short services were held when the
parade was disbanded. Dr. .Ostrom led at
the theater and Dr. Walton presided at the
tent. The crusaders hurried home, as It was
then nearly midnight.
Expelled From the Flat.
New York Sun.
Baphael had just finished the cher
ubs. "yes," he said sadly. T shall have to
move; they aren't allowed in'thls flat"
Tucking the canvas under his, arm,
ho went; out to seek-other, quarters.