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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 2, 1905)
THE MOSNTNG OREGOvEJLN, MONDAY, SAOTABT 2, 1905.
yt- s . .were as moist as uia; 01 western w - t .maximum anil thi tnoan mln mnm fori.. V 1
OREGON is a land of two climates
as distinct as those of Minnesota and
Florida, but marked by the charac
teristics of neither of those states. Either
is delightfully healthy, as is shown by
the fact that Portland has a lower death
rate than any other city, with one excep
tion. The Cascade Mountains form the
boundary between the two climatic
belts, and define them as sharply
as would a wall running from
north to south. "West of that wall
BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN
Month. 1904 1303 1904 1903
January 142 112 105 69
February 151 104 100 91
March 128 142. 126 137
April 146 93 117 105
May 119 110 116 102
June 139 120 123 98
July 124 109 91 100
August 140 116 101 105
September 140 196 115 116
October 131 106 119 95
November 134 116 110 112
December (est.). 145 119 116 107
- Total 1629 1343 1345 1237
Increase 296 .... 108
Increase, p. c. 22.05 .... 8.76 ....
the prevailing winds are warmed by
the Japan current, which sweeps across
the Pacific from the Japanese coast, tem
pers the rigors of Winter in the Aleutian
Islands and -the Alaskan coast and car
ries the same beneficent influence down
the coast ,of British Columbia, "Washing
ton and Oregon. The west and southwest
winds laden with moisture pass over this
great ocean river and shed their burden
oyer the land. "When they reach the high
ridges of the Cascade range they are
squeezed almost dry and are quickly cooled
by striking the snow-capped peaks, hav
ing only a small remainder of cold rain or
snow for Eastern Oregon.
Thus It is that a high average of rain.
were as moist as that of "Western Ore
gon, the result would be the same.
The same law of compensation rules in
other respects. It is well known that the
oppressive heat which frequently pros
trates people on the Great Lakes and the
Atlantic Coast Is 'due more to excessive
humidity In the air than to high tempera
ture, also to the fact that there is slight
difference in temperature between day and
night. The excessive humidity In the
East also aggravates suffering from the
"Winter cold. In "Western Oregon, Nature
has provided that the prevailing winds of
Summer shall blow from the cool north
west, and shall be dryer than those from
the southwest and cause a decided fall of
temperature at night. ' The heat of the
sun is therefore tampered by day and the
nights are cool enough to" allow of sound,
refreshing sleep, which stores up energy
for the next day. On the other hand, the
prevailing winds of "Winter come from the
west and southwest bringing warmth and
rain. Not that "Western Oregon has no
frost, for clear, frosty weather often
comes for two or three consecutive weeks
in "Winter, but the cold; is not severe, rare
ly more than 10 degrees below freezing
point. A Winter when ice forms on the
Willamette River at Portland only comes
once in a generation, the last such season
having been in 1888, when the Ice was so
thick that skaters crossed on it.
IN WESTERN OREGON.
Long, Clear Summer Without Ex
tremes Makes Life Delightful.
ORDINARILY the heavy Spring rains
of Western Oregon come in February
and March an Increased proportion of
clear weather coming as Spring merges
into Summer, until an almost unbroken
until the equinoctial storms come in the
dry season begins in July and continues
third week of September. October Is usu
ally marked by two or three weeks of
clear, mild weather, equal In beauty to
the Indian Summers of the East and Mid
dle West. November is a rainy- month,
but in December and January the rain
storms alternate with clear, frosty weath
er. Snow comes two or three times in
each Winter, but is melted within 24
hours after Its fall, except In such rare
Winters as that of 1888.
How poor a guide latitude is to climate
OREGON'S TWO CLIMATES.
Weather of Portland, In Western Oregon, and Baker City, in East
ern Oregon, Compared.
Feature of Climate Portland. Baker.
Mean temperature, maximum. Dec 1, '03, to Nov. 30, '04, deg 62.2 57.S
Mean temperature, minimum. Dec. L '. u 4uv. i, 'ih, aeg....46 36.7
Mean temperature, annual since records began, degrees 53 45.
Humidity in air. average since records began, per c't morning.87 71
Humidity in air. average since records began, per c't evening.63 50
Precipitation. Dec 1. '03, to Nov. 30, '04. inches 42.37 11.4
Precipitation, average annual since records began, inches 45.6 13.7
Days on which more than .01 inch of rain or melted snow fell,
Dec 1. '03, to Nov. 30. '04 .7 162 107
Clear days, Dec. 1, '03. to Nov. 30, '04....; 98 112 .
Cloudy days. -Dec 1. '03, to Nov. 30, ""M 169 151
Partly cloudy days. Dec 2. "03, to Nov. 30, '04 99 103
a. moist air and a moderate temperature
s.t all seasons mark the climate of West
tern Oregon, while a small fall of rain and
snow, greater extremes of temperature
and a dry air mark that of Eastern Ore
gon. If the temperature rose as high or
fell as low in Western as in Eastern Ore
gon, there would be as many deaths from
cold and sunstroke as are attributed to
the blizzards and hot spells of the At
lantic Coast; while, if the air of Eastern
may be seen from a glance at the impor
tant cities which lie" near the 45th parallel,
which runs a little south of Portland.
Helena, Mont, is tight in the grip of the
frost, with temperature at times reaching
35 degrees below zero, all Winter. So are
St. Paul. Milwaukee and Eastport, Mc,
while Portland. Me., some distance fur
ther south, is only slightly warmer.
Across the Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok,
which is a long distance south of paral-
TEMPERATURE OF LEADING CITIES.
Comparison of Temperature in One Typical City of. Each Section of
the United States for Each Month of 1903.
MEAN MAXIMUM, IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.
Stations. 5 ? ! : : 3 f 3 -
M :! i I :
z - - ' -' r1 i ? '
"Portland 47 4SJ 54 6S 66 73 74 76 72 64 51 46 61
Ronton 36 38525668 6S 80727361 47 3757
Nflro York 37 40 54 60 72 70 82 75 72 63 4S 36-59
rScaeo 30 31 48 54 68 6S 78 74 72 60 43 28 54
tLouls . 41 41 5767777SS9S4796850 SSG4
Nor& Platte 40 29 47 62 19 75 84 S4 7C 70 52 46 61
SS, 37 31 40 52 60 74 75 78 66 61 36 36f 54
c-u take 39 28 51 59 65 K 86 90 93 63 52 37 60
At nntaT 48 55 63 67 76 SO 87 S6 $0 71 .55 481 6S
New Orleans S3 64 71 76. SI 85 S3 90 86 78 68 61 70
MEAN MINIMUM IN DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.
stations , a g f : : : r 3 3 g. E.
: : : : : S3:
: ; : : ; . : . ? z r 1 - ; '
PorUand A- 3T-3l 38 42 481 551 541 56 51 47 411 36 45
Boston - 21 24 26 40 SO) 53 ' 63 58 56 47 33 21 42
New York....... 24 28 40 45 56 59 6S 64 59 50 35 24 s46
Chicago . 18 20 33 40 52 65 66! 63 57 4S 30 13 41
St. Louis -v 27 26 42 48 61 C3 73) 681 C0 51 33J 21 48
North Platte IS 11 26 37 47 52 611 CO 47 39 25 17l 37
Helena a .22 14 19 33 39 52 52 54 . 44 40 20 23 34
Salt Lake . 25 12 341 38 45 59 61 64 50 43 32 22 40
Atlanta k 35 38 51 1 50 00 63 70 70 62 53 41 32 62
New Orleans .... 45f 49 5S) 59 66 70 74 76 70 62 50 43 60
MAP OF OREGON, SHOWING ITS POTTS ICAL, GEOGRAPHY.
lei 45, is Icebound all Winter. The same
parallel runs through the heart of
France, where the vines grow and through
sunny northern Italy.
At the same time that Russian ships
are frozen in the Ice of Vladivostok, har
bor .And the same cause stops navigation
on the Great Lakes, roses are blooming
in the gardens of Portland, and in such
profusion that they have earned for the
Oregon metropolis the name "Rose City."
Last January the delegates to the Na
tional 'Livestock convention were re
galed with fresh strawberries grown in
the open air in the suburbs. These are
not freaks of Nature, but are regular oc-
monla, and the second lowest from dis
eases of the nervous system.
The vitality of Portland's people- Is due
to two main causes, the equable climate
and the supply of pure mountain water
the city draws from Bull Run. Pure
water explains the low death rate from
typhoid fever and diarrhoeal diseases, and
has some effect on that from diphtheria.
The absence of sudden, extreme changes
in temperature accounts for the low ratio
of deaths from consumption and influenza.
The low deathrate from heart disease and
nervous diseases is due to the small pro
portion of deaths from, other causes. If
a person who. has a. tendency to heart
disease is attacked by typhoid fever, the
NATURAL INCREASE OF POPULATION.
Number of Births In Portland Far Exceeds That of Deaths.
Number of births in 1903. . T343
Number of births in 1904 (December estimated) 1639
Increase, 22.5 per cent 296
Number of deaths in 1903 1237
Number of deaths in 1904 (December estimated) 1345
Increase, 8.76 per cent ; '108
Marriage licenses issued in 1903 . .1329
Marriage licenses issued in 1904 (December estimated) 1491
Increase, 7.96 per cent 162
currences every Winter. The same con
ditions are common to the whole Willam
ette Valley, and the belt west of the
Coast Mountains. Grass grows thero
continually and dairy cattle find green
pasture in Winter as well as Summer.
Such a climate gives promise to those
who contemplate visiting the Lewis and
Clark Fair, not only of seeing the best
works of all nations and of Nature her
self, but of doing so in weather which
makes life a pleasure, not a test of en
HEALTHTEST OF CITIES.
Portland Has Low Death Rate, and
Births Far Exceed Deaths.
OREGON is an easy country to live in,
for all the harvests are good except
that of dpath, taking Portland as an ex
ample of conditions throughout the state.
This city has the lowest death rate of all
cities in the United States, with'the sole
exception of St. Joseph, Mo. That state
ment is based on the figures contained
in bulletin No. 15 of the United States
Census Bureau. There was -also a large
Increase in the birth rate In 1904, show
ing that the growth of the city is due
not merely to immigration from other
states and foreign countries, but to the
natural Increase in the population already
The census report also vshows the death
rate from the principal classes of dis
ease, and these figures for the ten cities
having a population of 80.000 to 100,000 In
1900 arc given on this page. They show
that Portland has the third lowest death
rate from diphtheria and croup, the low
est from influenza, the third lowest from
typhoid fever, the fourth lowest from
diarrhoea diseases, the lowest from con
sumption, heart disease, dropsy and pneu-
,A WEATHER TALE OF TWO
Dally temperature of July, 1904,
a typical Summer month. In Portland-
and New York compared.
PORTL'ND NEW YK
(Deg. Fah.) (Deg. Fah.l
g 2 g g g s
? 5 ? 2
; . -3 .3
73 56 64 83 69 76
76 52 64 75 63 69
82 61 72 74 60 67
72 5S 63 SO 63 72
77 57 67 90 71 SO
S3 57 70 S3 71 78
75 58 66 79 71 75
79 56 68 76 65 70
87 61 74 79 65 72
91 62 76 7t 67 69
81 61 71 82 SS 75
67 54 60 82 63 75
70 43 56 75 64 70
62 50 56 80 62 71
63 52 58 81 63 73
57 52 54 84 69 76
69 51 60 84 69 76
76 56 66 SS ES 78
S7 5S 72 93 72 S2
95 64 SO S4 74 79
94 65 SO S7 6S 78
74 5S 66 78 67 72
73 55 64 74 66 70
84 53 70 67 64 66
100 62 SI 75 64 70
74 59 66 80 70 75
67 56 62 80 66 73
69 34 62 80 67 74
69 32 60 79 66 72
79 56 68 77. 63 71
96 63 SO S3 70 78
77.5136.6 CT.ol 80.2 67i0 73.6
latter disease will develop the weakness
of the heart, which often proves fatal.
The high birthrate proves that race sui
cide is not prevalent in Portland and also
furnishes indirect proof of the general
prosperity of the people. When people
are poor, they cannot afford to marry,
and a shortage In the crop of babies re
sults. The Increase in births Is not a
sudden spurt, but has been continuous
for the last four years-, the total having
been 1156 In 1901, 1199 In 1202, 1343 In 1903,
1639 in 1904. Deducting the number of
deaths from the number of births, there
Is a balance of 294 on the right side.
This is at the rate of a net increase in
population of 2.177 per 1000 every year. ' .
EAST OF THE CASCADES.
Invigorating Climate of -Intermoun-tain
Belt in Oregon.
EASTERN OREGON'S climate, has the
same characteristics which mark the
whole inter-mountain belt. It; is nearly
all at a considerable elevation, which
gives it a dry, clear atmosphere. While
the Summer days are often hot, cool
nights bring invigorating sleep. The Win
ters are colder than In Western Oregon,
but the temperature seldom goes down
to zero or below and then only for short
periods and .the dry air makes both cold
and heat endurable.
The chief point in which the climate of
Eastern differs from that of Western
Oregon Is the deficiency of moisture.
While the average annual precipitation
at Portland for 10 years Is 39,8- inches, it
Is only 13.7 Inches at Baker City, the
chief cltv East of the Cascades, and this
comes largely in the form of snow. buch
a climate turns the farmer to crops which
thrive on little moisture, or to irriga
tion as a means of .making up the defi
ciency left by Nature. .
To the dweller In the prairie and East
em States, Eastern Oregon can boast of
freedom from the hot winds of Summer,
which blast the crops and from the bliz
zards of Winter, which frequently cause
great losses of livestock and often of hu
man life. In fact. Eastern Oregons ell
mate strikes the happy mean between
the moist warmth of the country west
of the Cascades and the extremes of heat
and cold, experienced In the Rocky Moun
tain prairie and Eastern States. It pro
duces sound lungs and allures one to
vigorous outdoor life the. life of the cat
tle and sheep range, the farm, the mines
and the lumber camp.
WHY IT IS HEALTHY.
Differences in Temperature Between
Oregon and Other Sections.
WIHAT makes the climate of Western
1V Oregon more healthy and more en
joyable than that of other sections of
the United States? The answer Is found
in the range of temperature of the vail
ous cities. To illustrate the characteris
tics of the climates of the various sections
of the United States, The Oregonlan has
obtained from the United States Weather
Bureau the mean maximum and mini
mum temperature for each month of 1903
in a typical city in each section, and pub
lishes them in tabular form.
From these It will be seen that In Jan
uary the difference between the mean
maximum and the " mean minimum for
Portland was only S degre'es, while for1
Boston It was 13 degrees; New York, 13;
Chrcago, 12; St. Louis, 14; North Platte.
Helena, 15; Salt Lake, 14: Atlanta, 13;
New Orleans, 14. This means that the
riee and fall of temperature during each
2t hours in Winter Is less In Western
Oregon than in any other section of the
United States or it Is cot much colder
at night than by day, taking the whole
But the great desideratum In Summer Is
cool nights, to give relief from the heat
off the day and bring sound sleep; In
other words, a wldS difference between
the maximum and minimum temperature.
This Western Oregon has In a greater
degree than any other city at a low ele-.
vatlon. the prairie and mountain cities
having a greater difference, on account
of their 'elevation. In July the difference
between the mean maximum and mean
minimum temperature was In degrees:
Portland, 20; Boston. 17: New York, 16;
Chicago, 12; St. Louis, 16; North Tlatte,
3; Helena, 23; Salt Lake. 25; Atlanta, 17;
New Orleans, 13. In fact, Portland en
joys one of I the great advantages of a
mountain climate without its drawbacks.
Another point In favor of the Oregon
climate is that, while Its mean maximum
temperature for the whole year is high.
having been exceeded in 1903 only by St
Louis, Atlanta and New -Orleans among"
the cities named; the mean maximum in
Summer 13 low, having-been the lowest
in July and among- the lowest In August,
which was abnormally hot In 19C3.
The maximum and minimum tempera
ture of each day in July, 1904, explains
partly why the climate of New York in
Summer is so much more oppressive than
that of Portland. With a mean maxi
mum for the whole month only 2.7 degrees
below that of New York, Portland had
a mean minimum 10.4 degrees lower. That
means that on an average for the .whole
montn tne ia in temperature at mgnc
I3 10" degrees greater In Portland than
New York. That ten degrees makes the
difference between climbing on the roof
to sleep and lying in bed, snuggling un
der the blankets.
This point Is emphasized by a com
parison of the temperature on the night
following a particularly hot day. The
temperature reached a higher point In
New York; explain why Oregonlans never
die. of heat prostration and why New
Yorkers often do. .
MORE BAIN ON ATLANTIC.
Records Show Greater Moisture on
Eastern Gulfs Than Oregon.
THROUGH frequent repetition, the
statement has become proverbial
that Western Oregon has more rain than
any other part of the "United States. Yet
the records of the United States. Weather
Bureau, the correctness of which even
the oldest inhabitant will not dispute.
ALL IN THE SAME LATITUDE.
Mean maximum and" minimum
temperature of a typical Summer
and Winter month at places on or
near the 45th parallel, of latitude,
average of 30 years, 1S71 to 1901:
St. Paul. Minn....
prove that It Is far from correct. As re
gards annual fall of rain and snor. the
latter measured when-melted,, the climate
of Oregon Is the same as that of the
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The rainfall
is decidedly less In the central valleys of
the Mississippi and Missouri, is still less
on the Great Lakes, -diminishes vastly
when the prairies are reached, and is
lowest In the Rocky Mountains, with a
slight Increase in the lntermountaln belt.
NOT SO WET AFTER ALL.
Several Leading Cities in United States Have More Rain Than
Portland. ' " J
Average annua.1 precipitation in typical American cities for ten
years, 1894 to 1903, inclusive.: " Inches
Pacific Coast Portland, Or 39.8
New England Boston " 40. 8
Hiddle Atlantic States New York City 43 .4
Lake States Chicago - 29.8 v
Central Valleys St. Louis, Mo 34.6
Prairies North Platte, Neb 16.2
Eocky Mountains Helena, Mont. . 13.0
Intermountain Belt Salt Lake City 15.0
South Atlantic States Atlanta.! 46. d
Gulf States New Orleans 49.7
Portland last July than in New York,
the highest recorded being 100 degrees on
the 25th, while the highest In New York
was 93 on the 19th. But after reaching
100 in Portland, the temperature fell to
62 at night, while In New York it fell from
93 only to 72.
The mean minimum for New York, on
the other hand. Is only 13.2 below the
mean maximum, giving but slight relief
at night, after the heat of the day.
These facts and the usual dryness of
the air in hot weather in Portland, In
contrast with Its excessive humidity In
Of the ten sections into which this
country is naturally divided as to cli
mate, four have more annual rainfall
than Western Oregon. These are New
England, the Middle Atlantic States, the
South Atlantic States and the Gulf
States. The highest average is In New
Orleans, for the Gulf States, 49.7 Inches
a year. Next comes Atlanta, in the South
Atlantic group, 46.4 Inches, then New
York. In the Middle Atlantic group. 43.4
inches, then Boston representing New
.England, with 40.8 inches, and fifth, Port
land, with 39.8 Inches.
DEATH RATE THE LOWEST.
Easier to Live and Harder to Die in Portland Than in Any Other
City of Its Size.
Portland has the lowest death rate among all the cities of the United
States except St. Joseph, 3Jo., and has the lowest rate among cities with a
population of 80,000 to 100,000, according to the census of 1900. The following
table" shows the rate In such cities and the proportion of deaths from the
most common diseases, taken from a census bulletin:
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Albany, N. Y.
Death rate per 100,000 whites, from
principal causes. '
41105.41 95.51 45.!
S 117.3114.6 144.
61.01184.3)172.11 74.5 249.0
: ; ; ; : ; ;
. ? LEADING OTIES IN OR' NEAR THE SAME LATITUDE AS THAT OF Z
' " " V -;:y-ifcV ' ".'j PORTLAND, OREGON, BUT HAVING VERY. DIFFERENT CLIMATE A
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j 734N0 , f --r: MONTREAL fii-J
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