THE MOSSING OREGONIAN, THURSDAY, DECEMBEH 29, 1901. Entered at the Postofflce at Portland. Cr., is second-class matter. REVISED SUBSCRIPTION RATES. Br mail (postace prepaid In advance) Dally, with Sunday, per month Dally, with Sunday excepted, per year. . l.oO Sally, with Sunday, per year ,. 9.00 Sunday, per year The Weekly, per year 1 The Weekly. 3 months -. Sally per week, delivered. Sunday ex- ceptod IS";""." " Sally. Per week, delivered. Sunday In- . eluded. -so POSTAGE RATES. United State 8. Canada and Mexico 10 to 14-page paper 18 to SO-page paper.... ......c 33 to 44-page paper . ac Foreign rates, double. EASTERN BUSINESS OFFICE. The S. C BeclcwlUi Special Agency Xork: rooms 43-00. Tribune building-. Chi cago; rooms 510-512 Tribune building. The Oregonian does not buy poems or sto ries from individuals and cannot undertake to return any manuscript sent to It without to 11 citation. Ho stamps should be Inclosed lor this purpose, KEPT ON SALE. Chloaco Auditorium Annex: - Postofflce 2ewa Co.. 178 Dearborn street. Denver Julius Black. Hamilton & Kend rlck. 906-912 Seventeenth St.. and Frueauff Bros.. 605 16th st trn.f City, Mo. Rlcksecker Cigar Co.. plinth and Walnut. Xjo Anxeles B. 7. Gardner. 2S9 South Eprlnc. and Harry Srapkln. Oakland. CaJL "W. H. Johnston. .Four teenth and Franklin st. Minneapolis M. J. Xavanaugh. 50 South Third: I. Recelsburcer. 217 First avenue Eouth. Jfew Tork City I. Jones & Co.. Astor Souse. Ocden F. R. Godard and Myers and Har rcp. , Omaha BaxksJow Bros.. 1C12 Far nam: ilacecth Stationery Co. 180S Farnam. Salt Eake Salt Lake Kew Co.. 77 "West Cecond South street. Saa Francisco J. K. Cooper Co.. 746 Mar ket etreet: Foster & Orear. Ferry News Stand: Goldsmith Bros.. 236 Sutter: I- E. PnloB Hotel N'am Stand: F. W. Pltt, J008 Market: Frank Scott. 0 Ellis: N. "VTheatley. S3 Stevenson: Hotel St. Francis New Stand. Washlmrtoxi. D. C Ebbitt House News Stand. PORTLAND, THURSDAY, DEC. 29, 1901. BACK TO THE COUNTRY. ! "With our .people of the United States j country life once was all in all. The ! first settlers all went upon the land, to j till it, to graze their flocks and herds, and to get the means of support that thus only could be obtained. This was the way of life to the newcomers to America, from two to three centuries ago. It was carried westward till it was stopped by the limits of the conti nent. The Oregon Country was occu pied or settled in the same way forty to seventy years ago. Everybody went upon the land, to make a home and to get a living. Towns began to spring up later, and as population increased the towns grew. "With the growth of the towns and with the attractions they offered, the movement to the towns, throughout the whole country, in creasedfrom one ocean to the other. It was the gregarious instinct of the race, that asserted Itself, in opposition to pioneer adventure and to solitary life, as soon as opportunity offered. Towns and cities grew, and rural life lost the preponderance It had held so long. When our towns sprang up and our cities began to grow there was warn ing from our elders that it was dan gerous to -break away from country life, where plenty and comfort were as sured. The warning came to little or nothing; for the new aspiration was uncontrollable. Our young- people felt there was a new and a larger world. It was a necessary impulse, for deliv erance of a people from a single and simple way of life, and for the vast and varied differentiation of society that snakes the life of our country what it is today. Nothing is so strange, so mysterious, so impressive, as these evolutions of human society. No era in this progress can be like the era that preceded it. There is ceaseless ebb and flow, but an evolutionary movement throughout. A tendency is again observed among us towards the rural districts; from the towns and cities there is a reactionary movement towards the country, and yet the country life to which our people return is not the country life thait -their ancestors left. It is active, suburban, in daily touch with all the currents of the activities of the world; whereas in the former time life in the country was that of se clusion, isolation and solitude. xne trena countrywara has come with a new development, of which rapid transit is the chief factor. People now can come and go quickly. The products of the farm are carried quickly and cheaply to market. The family in the country is no longer isolated. There is dally postal delivery. Money enough can be made on the .farm to render farm life attractive. The children can have what they long for, and to finish their academic education can "be sent to distant schools. Thus the old con Irasts between town life and country life are minimized, and country life modernized is again taking the place to which its Importance entitles it Before the State Grange of New Hampshire the other day President Tucker, of Dartmouth, spoke of the in creasing trend of the present day from the cljty towards the country, and ,the advantages of it. The gospel of getting on the land is no new -thing; and one of the oldest of myths is that of An taeus, son of Earth, who never could be" vanquished, even by the gods, so Jong as he could touch earth again tor bo often as he was iolled and yet could touch earth again, he rose with new strength; so that even Hercules, - who at last throttled him in midair and so prevented him from touching his mother earth, never till then could overcome him. This myth President Tucker though unconsciously puts In a new way. "Ownership of land," he says, "is the only guarantee of the con tlriuance of family life, apart from great wealth." Here you see the diffi culty which the socialist and collectiv- ist will encounter, wheri he (proposes to place the land under the ownership or control of the state. The family in stinct Is against it, never will concede It; and the private ownership of land. that was the first necessary and indls pensable step to civilization, will con tinue to assert itself, to save civiliza tion. The home life of the masses of the city is written In water, (but the home life and family life that Is -based on ownership of land has an inexpug nable foundation. But the city had to grow, in order to prepare the way for the new home .life and family life in the country- Through the evolution, country life gets an uplift, that was necessary to It. It Is redeemed from Ais isolation, and therefore from its cheerless grind. A certain "urbanity" is carried .into the country that was not known in the country in the days of our fathers. Of this development steam locomotion .was the precursor, followed by electricity as a still greater agent. The transforma tion is fairly begun, yet the liveliest imagination can even now scarcely conceive the extent of it. NATION-MAKES G PROCESSES. Now the Paper Trust is to get a shake-up. Inquiry, under direction of the President, through the Department of Justice, Is to ascertain whether in the work of "the paper combine" there is not violation of the Interstate com merce laWi This investigation has long been brewing. Prominent newspaper men brought the matter to the atten tion of the President nearly a year ago. With-the rapidity that characterizes all his actions he at once gave orders for an investigation and report. Time has been necessary for "this work; till now, the data having been obtained, suit is begun. Many believe that print paper, of' which there is immense use in the United States, ought to be entered on the free list. Tet there Is difference of opinion here, even among the consum ers of print paper; for experience proves that trusts often do control products and prices, even when the goods are on the free list It is always combina tion; yet In so many cases not the tariff, that no general rule as to the effect of the tariff as a supporter of trusts can safely be adopted. The New Tork Times, always a care-' ful "newspaper, has a report from Washington to the effect that those best acquainted with the President's purposes say that in a message to Con gress, after the holiday recess, he will urge the wisdom of requiring that all corporations engaged in Interstate com merce shall organize under Federal charters, and thus pass under control of the General Government, so far as their corporate capacity and behavior are concerned. This recommendation, it is said, will be made in connection with the submission of the results of an exhaustive investigation of the Beef Trust, the Oil Trust, the Paper Trust and the Tobacco Trust. If the Presi dent should take the step indicated In the Times' dispatch, he will open up one of the most important and far- reaching questions of National policy that have come before the American people since the Civil War. In his annual message he seems to have foreshadowed this, when he said: "Our peculiar form of government, with Its sharp division of authority between the Nation and the several states. . . is undoubtedly responsioie Tor mucn of the difficulty of meeting with ade quate legislation the new problems pre sented by the total change In industrial conditions on this continent daring the last 'half century." It requires study to meet the difficulties thus presented by the "sharp division of authority' but they must be met. It is an im portant phase of the necessary transi tion from colonial and provincial to na tional conditions. This vast economic movement is part of a great nation- making process, just as the Civil War was an earlier part of It. STRENGTH AT EA. ... Were the Russian fleet from the Bal tic anxious to meet the Japanese fleet In the Orient, It would have been in the Eastern seas long ago. It Isn't anxious for the meeting. It Is making a show merely of offense, -but doesn't push on to the scene of conflict. The Russians are fully aware of their own inefficiency on the sea. Else they would have pushed up the divisions of their Baltic fleet long ago. Else they would have made the demonstration while yet their Port Arthur fleet might have been in condition to render aid. But the Russian Port Arthur fleet has now been aisaDiea. completely elimi nated, by the land batteries of" the Japanese. The Russian fleet from the Baltic probably never will meet the Japanese fleet that is waiting for It or searching for it. Brave as Russians are, the sea is not their element, and. like the sailor in "The Tempest," they would "fain die a dry death." Yet if Russia could destroy the naval armament of Japan, the war for her would be won. Japan would be com pelled to sue for peace, and to accept such terms as the conqueror might be pleased to grant. Japanese armies on the continent would be cut off from succor and from hope. Their capitula tion would soon follow. Japan stakes everything on her ability to maintain command of the sea. Russia's slowness to press forward to this vital point of the war Is proof that she has no confidence In ihe abil ity of her naval force to meet and to overcome that of Japan. In the rivalries of nations command of the sea is all in all. It has been so from the days of Salamls, Actium, Le panto, Trafalgar. If Japan can retain her ascendancy on the sea, she will defeat Russia. If she cannot, she is lost. In our country we have a lot of peo ple who object to maintenance and in crease of our naval armament. They are sentimental nonebmbatants, who would be pleased if we should receive insults and have no means of making effective protest against them. They say, of course, that we have no ene mles. But we may have enemies, have had them;. and a naval armament can' .be created in a day, nor In a year, no: in five years. ARMY CANTEEN AGAIN. The dispute over the Army canteen Is likely to be brought to an issue or test during this session of Congress, Representative Morrell, of Pennsyl vania, will press his bill to repeal the prohibitory law, so that former condi tions as to sale. of liquors under mill tary regulation may prevail at Army posts. The proposal, has the almost universal support of Army officers even of those who themselves never touch liquors in any form. The opposition of the W. C. T. U. to the Army canteen, which is sentimental merely, is met by an organization com posed of wives and widows of Army men, who have had much experience about military posts and who -are a unit in asking for repeal of the anti-canteen law. This association recently held meeting at Washington, and sent a pe tltion to Congress for repeal. The best of all witnesses and judges in such matters are the officers of the Army and their wives; for they alone have had best opportunity for observa tlon and judgment. Theoretical prohl bltlonlsts are the worst of judges In such a matter; because, first, they lack experimental .knowledge; and second, their devotion to -their hobby shuts their minds to the facts. As tho Mil waukee Sentinel says: "The sent! mental argument to the effect that the Government by allowing the canteen engages in the liquor business is puer lie. The Army canteen is not a bust ness venture. It is a device for proraot ing the temperance, contentment and orderliness of the soldier, and experi ment has now demonstrated that it serves its -purpose. - Congress should defer to" public opinion, comnym sense and experience, and pass the Morrell canteen bill without v.unnecessary delay." THE MODEL NEWSPAPER. The Oregonian has received the text of an address on "The Modern News paper." by B. B. Herbert, editor Na tional Printer-Journalist, Chicago, de livered before the students of the Kan sas State University on December 19. It is a most elaborate essay on all branches of the newspaper business by a newspaper man of intelligence and experience. It is incidental only to the discussion of the general subject that in naming nine model newspapers in the United States the essayist included The Oregonian. The papers termed worthy by Mr. Herbert for this high encomium are as follows: New York Times, Brooklyn Eagle, Springfield (Mass.) Republican, Chicago Record-Herald, Chicago Tribune, Chi cago. Chronicle, St. Louis Globe-Demo crat, New Orleans Picayune, Portland Oregonian. With no purpose to pay a compliment to itself. The Oregonian will say that Mr. Herbert's list con forms with the general judgment of the newspaper profession. It will be observed that he has selected his model journals without- reference to geogra phy. From New York, the great finan cial, commercial and news center of the country, he takes two newspapers only; from Massachusetts one, Illinois three, Missouri one, Louisiana one, and Ore gon one. The author does not give in detail his reasons for making this find ing, except to say: These newspapers cover moat effectively every department of newspaper work, and are rare models. ... It may be objected that these are metropolitan papers, but a metropol itan paper Is not so very different from the local paper In this day. About the only dif ference between a metropolitan and a local paper la that the city paper makes the rooet of its general news. There are no rules In tho one that do not prevail In the other with re gard to the preparation of matter, the gather- Ins and writing of news stories, and the treat ing of all Questions of education, local lm provement. good government and morals, sani tation and so on throughout the vast unlimited field of newspaper work and usefulness. We have heard a great deal in late years from newspapers about decay of the editorial page its loss of influence, of character, and its practical useless ness. But if these nine newspapers stand for anything they reflect day by day the sober thought, intelligence and morality of the communities In which -they are printed. In every in stance they consider all questions of public moment seriously and with refer ence to their ultimate effect on the gen eral welfare. They are conspicuous for their absolute independence, fearless ness, breadth and intellectual grasp, In other words, they have character. Each and ever. one or them is con ducted for its own sake alone and Is Influenced by no considerations what ever except those of the public good. Any" newspaper that permits itself to be swayed by any motive of supposed im mediate importance to itself or by any other purpose except to present- any fact truthfully and attractively, and discuss any subject candidly and vigor ously, will not long retain its influence. With scarcely an exception these nine newspapers are not only the most in fluential factors in their respective cit ies and states, but they have been un interruptedly influential through a long series of years. They have gained general respect by their unwearying effort to be precisely what they ought to be faithful mirrors of public events and conscientious Interpreters of their meaning. However, this Is not at all to say that the policy of the paper as re fleeted upon its editorial page Is suffi cient to give It great prestige and con tlnued importance. The head cannot exist without the body; so the news paper that presents the news with. care and discrimination, and makes the wld est and best survey of the entire news field, will simply be doing Its duty by Its readers. Not one of the nine news papers mentioned by Mr. Herbert has paid less attention to Its news features than to its editorial page, or has failed to keep pace with modern development in methods and equipment. INCREASING COST OF PANAMA CANAL The not Infrequently expressed .be lief that It Is no crime to rob the Gov ernment finds many votaries who con fine their operations to petty larceny operations and thus escape capital pun Ishment. Robber.' may be a harsh term for the hold-up game which Senator Galllnger is arranging for the Amer lean shipowners In connection with the Panama Canal construction, but, as the scheme is to force the Government to pay more for a freight service than it is worth, It might require hair-splitting to draw the line of distinction. Sena tor Galllnger, wherever his Merchant Marine Commission held meetings, ex hlbltcd a decidedly strong leaning toward the subsidy graft. All of his questions were leading ones, and unfa vorable testimony for his cause was not Infrequently treated almost con temntuously. With such an avowed friendliness for the millionaire shipown ers who control American shipping, it Is not surprising that this ridiculous and unfair bill for increasing the freight on Government supplies to Panama should come from Senator Galllnger. The bill provides that "all supplies, machinery and equipment for the con struction or operation of the Panama Canal shall be transported between ports of the United States- and the canal zone exclusively In American bottoms." It is frankly admitted by the gentlemen behind this hold-up movement that this restriction of trans portation facilities will result in freight rate that will materially add to the cost of everything used In the con struction or the operation of the canal It Is explained by the friends of the graft that the Government will be will Ing to pay an Increased freight rate because it is the general policy of the Republican party to encourage the American merchant marine. As the scheme Is simply one to help the rich shipowners at the expense of the tax payers, it is not clear why it should be the policy of any party or any people. The canal is a $300,000,000 project, and there will be some rich grafting in monopoly or. tne transportation con nected with its construction. There will not only be a monopoly held by the American shipowners, 'but there is al most certain to be an "inner circle" of one company or one combination of companies who will secure the plunder. and the, help to that much-loved "American merchant marine" will be confined to this one job and one com blnatlon. In magnitude this schenTfc can hardly be placed in the petty lar ceny class, but the indirect methods by which it Is sought to rob the many for the benefit of the few are petty indeed-compared with openly announced grafting measures like the Frye bill for paying direct subsidies to owners. This latest attempt to restrict transportation facilities and increase rates is a part of the same plan which compels the shipment of Government freight for the Philippines in American bottoms. This law has already cost the Government many thousands of dollars more than it ould have been necessary to pay on supplies shipped from Pacific Coast ports, had we been permitted to get the work done by the most economical method. ' Still greater hardships will be en countered when the extension of the American coastwise laws to the Philip pines in 1906 leaves all of the trade of our new dependencies at the "mercy of the American millionaire shipowners. In the old days the gentlemen who sought to levy tribute on the commerce of the high seas went forth with a 'Jolly Roger" flying from the masthead and made no other excuse for their dep redations than that they needed the money. The modern buccaneer escapes the hardship of such a course by re maining ashore and promoting legisla tion which eliminates the competition that stands between him and exorbi tant profits. There Is something decid edly un-American In the attitude of these wealthy shipowners standing for ever in the public light like blind beg gars on a street corner making their de mand for alms. Their latest plea is perhaps the most contemptible of any they have made, for, like the affluent beggar who tells you that he only asks for a dime when he might just as well ask for a dollar, these other beggary ask that this petty graft be .permitted n lieu of a greater one which they ex pect to succeed with later on. There is no need for three State Nor mal Schools irr-Western Oregon, and there will be no better time than the Legislative session opIsOo to get rid of at least one of them. It la true that the annual cost of maintenance -is. not- great, but this Is one of the many Items that go to swell the state's expendi tures. The appropriation for mainte nance' is not the only burden, for the schools must have new buildings and additional equipment occasionally If they are "to be a credit to the state. One normal school in Western Oregon would be sufficient, and no good- reason can be given why there should be more than two. If the state must spend a given amount every two years for the support of schools of pedagogy, let the work be concentrated rather than scat tered, so that Oregon will have institu tions as good as any. There is nothing to be said against the normal schools as such, but the state should exercise good judgment In the expenditure of money for this purpose. It Is announced that the President has notified United States Marshal Charles Hopkins to -cease participating in the forthcoming Washington Sena torial election. It is further said that the action was taken after a conference with Senator Foster. This Is not the first time that a demand has been made that Federal officials refrain from tak' ing part in Senatorial elections, but In the present case It may be a two-edged eword that Foster is wielding. Federal patronage Is the most powerful factor In the Foster fight, and If the senior Senator from the Evergreen State kdeps too close watch on Hopkins he may be deprived of the valuable assistance of some of his own Federal brigade. The President Is not Inclined to make fish of one and flesh of another, especlaly In a fight in which he Is not directly con cerned. One Ferris, whose fame rests upon his having been Democratic candidate for Governor of Michigan, has been tell Ing women that they should not marry until able to support a husband. While this advice does not apply to the ordi nary woman In any great degree, it should be taken to heart by the girl that Is desirous of acquiring a Duke or even a mere Baron, to marry a con finding young peer and then fail to sup port him In the style to which he was accustomed is a heartless act, and it Mr. Ferris causes even one girl to re frain from maknlg a young nobleman unhappy he will not have spoken In vain. ' if If there is any place In Oreg6h "where .the automobile has an opportunity to win the approval of the people, It Is In Central Oregon, which is still resting in the dark ages of the stagecoach. A proposed automobile line from Shanlko to Bend, Or., Is expected to carry pas sengers between the two points In 46 hours. This is not a very good substi tute for the railroad to which the Cen tral Oregon people are entitled, but. pending the arrival of the iron horse. It may be a marked improvement .over the present facilities for getting in and out of the country. It begins to look as though the Jap anese intentionally delayed the capture of Port Arthur for the purpose of en couraging Russia to send the Baltic fleet around Into the Pacific. Had Japan pressed the assault earlier and made- it appear that the fleet could not arrive In time to be of service, the ships would have remained In the Bal tic, where they were safe from Togo's iruns. Now Japan seems certain of taking Port Arthur and also having a chance to destroy a few. more Russian vessels. Admiral Togo returns to Japan to re ceive the congratulations of his coun try on a duty well done and to prepare for the execution of another duty of hardly less importance. Americans can appreciate the Japanese feeling at pres ent by imagining how exultation over the destruction of Cervera's squadron at Santiago would have been tempered by the approach of a second powerful Spanish squadron. If there Is any warship to which a Chinese cruiser could do things, it is a Russian, and should the Askold en deavor to leave Shanghai against Chi nese wishes, the battle would be worth watching, provided the innocent by standers were removed 'beyond gunshot If Togo should meet the Baltic fleet, it is to be hoped that he will not attack on the side farthest from us, for If he should get them running this way they might pile up on Tillamook Rock and damage the lighthouse. When the Czar's advice to the Zemst volsts is boiled down, It amounts to saying "Go ahead, but stay where you are." Somebody must be Governor of Colo rado. NOTE AND COMMENT. What the Zemstvos should develop is a Lawson. ... There and Here. In the East they freeze and shiver, While! bealde AVIUamette River We don't feel a single quiver. ' There the snow is madly snowing. And the wind Is wildly blowing Here the garden truck is growing. There the mercury's a-freezlng. And the folks are all a-sneczlng Here the air is mild and pleasing. There the spear-heads of the blizzard Pierce a man right through the gizzard Here it's warm from A to iszard. There the ports are lcccncrusted. And the coasting-schooners busted Here the weather's well adjusted. There Is Hades; here Is Heaven. Mrs. Chadwlck would be justified In pleading insanity of her banking friend. Not a divorce suit began In Chicago on December 27. Can't have been a merry Christmas there. It Ib perhaps due to jealousy of a man who can soar through the air that Bal wln's return to Los Angeles, towing the Arrow, Is regarded as a humorous picture. When the automobile was a novelty, the world smiled to see one lugged back to town behind a team, and now that the airship is beginning to do some real fly ing, the world smiles to see one of the best come back from an aerial journey pulled by a rope In the grasp of it3 panting owner. The first person sending In a correct solution of the riddle, "Who Is Governor of Colorado?" will be presented with a Carnegie note for $5,000,COO. Chicago Is to have a subway. The city hates to admit that New York Is more low down. N. W. Ferris, of Michigan, advlse3 women not to marry until they are able to support a husband. Prospective hus bands will applaud the sentiment. It Is a terrible risk for a man to leave his moth er's house and marry a girl without knowing definitely that she Is able to pro vide for him. Mr. Ferris should change the form of his advice. He should warn young men not to marry a girl before she has a home of her own and money in the bank. Can't we have a matrimonial Bradstreet's? The Louisville Times says that no mat ter how conservative Chinese editors may try to be, thoy will always remain yellow journalists. There are shades and shades of yellow journalists, however, and if the Chinese editor's papers arc no yellower than their skins, the Times need not bo alarmed about the result. A New Jersey jury recently decided an Important case by flipping a coin. That's a better way than trying to have a New Jersey jury think. Man is put In his true place every now and again. He is a mere detail, according to Mrs. Lillle Dcvereux Blake, who said when addressing the Society of Pilgrim Mothers: "What really happened was that 33 women landed on December 22 1620, at Plymouth Rock. They were ac companied by a few men. It Is true, but that was a mere detail." After this the Pilgrim Fathers must pale Into insignifi cance beside the Pilgrim Mothers. In tho account of a charivari party at Kettle Falls, Wash., is tho sentence, "It Is the sixth matrimonial venture of tho bride, and she was desirous of suppress ing the news." Strange how modest Is the true record-breaker. However, the lady and No. 6 were found by a chari vari gang, and the chimney of the house was stuffed up until the groom capitu lated and bought a keg of beer for "the boys." If each of his predecessors had to do the same, the lady should get a rake-off from the brewery. It 1s said that a preacher once lived in Atchleon who accepted fees 'for preaching at funerals. Atchison Globe. Degenerate Atchison! The editor of the Smith's Grove, Ky., Times goes in for brevity. He calls. the attention of his readers to the fact that "Oakland merchants are going to ad with us." According to the Forest Grove News, the Loving telephone line Is in order. Hope there will be no scrapping over such a line. Some Kentucklans died recently as the result of swallowing too much wood alco hol, and the papers of the state are much perturbed. The Louisville Times says to Its readers, "If the center of your anat omy feels like a red-hot chafing-dish, ex amine the label on the bottle to see if it is not 'wood alcohol.' " Thus our early beliefs aro shattered. Think of a Ken tucklan who has to look at tho label to know whether he has been drinking whis ky or wood alcohol. A marriage license was recently Issued In Washington, D. C, to Max Mix. WEX. J. Most Are Dissatisfied. Springfield (Mass.) Republican. The teaching profession Is also filled with persons who wish, or think they wish, that they hadn't gone into iti Of 20 clergymen, who were asked by a. writer In World s Work, nine answered that they would not be ministers if they could live their lives over again; but of 11 experienced tcachors to whom a similar inquiry was put by a. writer in Leslie's Monthly, only one stood out for the teaching profession. The other 10 were sorry that they had not be come great lawyers, doctors or captains of industry. It Is only necessary to com plete tho circuit of the professions to prove how absurd, on the whole, these men who wish they were something else really are. A Song of the Plains. H. H. Bashford, in Spectator. No harp have I for the singing, nor fingers fashioned for skill. Nor ever shall words express it, the song that is In my heart, A rags, swept from the distance, horizons be yond the hill. Elnging of life and endurance, and bidding me bear my part. For this is Song, as I sing it, the song that I love the best. The steady tramp in the furrow, the grind of the gleaming steel. An anthem eung to the noonday; a chant of the open "West, Echoing deep. In my spirit, to gladden and help and heal. And this is Life, as I read it, and Life in Its fairest form, To breathe the wind on the ranges, the scent of the upturned sod. To stride, and strive, and be thankful, to weather the shine and storm, Penciling over the prairies, the destiny planned by God. And no reward do I aslc for, save only to work and wait. To praise the God of my fathers, to labor beneath his sky. To dwell alone in his greatness, to strike and to follow straight, ' Silent, and strong, and contented the limit lets plains and I. GREAT WOMEN OF MODERN TIMES MADAME DE STAEL (By Arransemcnt with the Chicago Tribune.) I have never committed a wrong which did not become the source of a misfortune. ... To give up elf-Interest without ceasing to oe Interested In others puts a eometning divine into the eoul. . . . We think that we may lnnuence revolutions, yet we are only a stone thrown aside by the turning of the great wheel. The name of chief signifies the nrst to be precipitated by the crowd that marches be hind. Sayings of Mme. de Stael. ADAME DE STAEL is interesting as the pioneer of the school of brilliant women writers which flourished in the latter part of the ISth and the first half of the 19th century, and included Hannah Moore. Jane Austen, Mme. Dacler, Char lotte Bronte, Georges Sand and George Eliot. She Is interesting as being the most gifted of women conversationalists. She is most interesting of all. perhaps because of the ten years' duel which she carried on with Napoleon when at the summit of his power. Her character was marred by vices characteristic of the age. But despite the mawkish sentimentality, dubious virtue and habit of grandiose posing which bleminshed her. she wao a woman of noble heart and virile, striking personality. M. Necker. her father, was the rich and popular Minister of Finance of Louis XVI. Her mother, the beautiful Susanne Curchod. had been loved at Lausanne In girlhood by Gibbon, the. historian of the Roman empire. A sentimental and pre cocious child, she steeped herself in ro mantic novels. Under her mother s aus.ere care she also read heavier works, in cluding those of Rousseau, of whose po litical and social gospel she became devotee. She was one of the richest heir esses in France and a great marriage was wished for her. Among her suitors was William Pitt, the younger. Her parents' choice fell, when she was 20 years old, on a Swede. Baron de Staef-Holsteln, whom, In consideration of the marriage, .King Gustavus HI of Sweden promised to keep as his Ambassador at Paris for 12 years. Stael was 17 years older than his wife. cold, dull, a gambler and deep In debt. His bride, although of homely qounte- nance, had fine black eyes, a good figure. grace, ease, a brilliant mind, and a nature which craved to be loved. The match was unhappy. In 1799 tho pair formally sepa rated. Her marriage, however, gave Mme. de Stael what she craved only less than love. As Ambassadress her social position was secure. Her salon became the resort of all the philosophers and wits In Paris, wnen Farts had more wits and phlioso phers than any city ever had before or has had since. -Her rich, fertile mind and marvelous conversational talents made her the Intellectual queen of the capital. Her success excited envy. Her talk was extremely animated, and her enemies said with Senac de Meilhan: "Her manners are so vehement, one Is stunned: her con versation seems an assault" The most scandalous stories were told of her. But despite criticism and calumny the rovo lutlon found her one of the most promt nent and influential persons in France. Tho circle of Mme. de Stael did' not understand the revolution In Its early stage. They thought It a philosophers' movement to reform the government, and hailed it with delight. When they found it a people's movement to overthrow tho established order they first opposed It and then fled. Mme. de Stael went to her father's estato at Coppet and thence to England, where she was soon again sur rounded by Narbonne, Talleyrand, Mont morency, Lally and the other members of her "court." In 1793 she published her "KCnecuons on the Trial of the Queen." with the vain hope of saving Marie Antoi nette from tho ax.-The next year she met at Coppet Benjamin Constant, a libertine. PANAMA'S COMMERCE. IZ. S. Vice-Consul-General Ehrman, City or Panama. During the past 12 months there has been a decided advance in all branches and lines of business In Panama, and both Imports and exports have crept forward to somethlnjr like the figures of flvo or six years ago. before tho civil struggles broke out In the different sections of Co lombia, during which period both the Im port and the export trado fell off 60 to 70 per cent. Now however, there seems to be an upward tendency on all sides. This business movement Is to a great extant prompted by tho anticipated ac tivities on the Panama Canal, which will bring people and money to the Isthmus; but Panama Is naturally a rich country. Gold, silver and manganese are mined, and it is claimed that very good stoam coal can be found In tho Republic. Rub ber, Ipecac, ivory, nuts, sarsaparilla and balsam abound. The trade In hard woods, such a3 mahogany, cocobolo and dye'woods, Is being dally developed. One American firm here has shipped to the United States during the past seven months 1,500,000 feet of mahogany. This Republic has an almost inexhaustible supply of hard woods, and the near fu ture promises a large development here in. While theso woods aro being shipped from Panama, thero Is a largo demand here for building lumber. Much pine and redwood are imported from the United States, the, greater part coming from Louisiana. Alabama and Florida,, and some from California. There is great demand, and, as Is the case on all build ing material, the prices aro high. It is impossible to get an idea of the pearl industry' of this section, slnco no accounts are kept of the fisheries, and shipments are made by parcel post, and as specie, etc. Tho pearls are sent prin cipally to Paris, with some few to the United States. Panama pearls bring good prices. They aro very fine, and have a good name in tho pearl market. Large quantities of mother-of-pearl shell go to London and European cities, but the shipments to the United States have greatly diminished In the last few years. Statistical statements of imports are almost Impossible to procure here. The bulk of goods comes from tho United States, and almost every article In gen eral use by civilized people Is Imported shoes, hats, underwear, collars, clothes, cotton prints, stationer, hardware, naval stores, drugs, machinery of different kind, eta In regard to wearing apparel, I wish to emphasize the demand for cheap clothes. The high-priced article, as an American understands the term, will not find a market on tho Isthmus, but there is a market here for cheap clothing. American shoes, for men. seem to be extremely popular. Several enterprising manufacturers have established agencies here and seem to be doing a good busi ness. Women's shoes made in the United States, unless tho makers have investi gated, the requirements of this market, generally fall to meet the popular de mand, from the fact that they arc not high enough In the instep. They arc also considered too light and tho soles too thin. .The Spanish women have small feet and very high insteps. The new currency of the Republic is soon to be Introduced. In fact, some few of the coins have been received for ap proval. It is understood that the Co lombian coins will soon f be gradually withdrawn and tho now ones put Into cir culation. The monetary unit Is the gold "balboa." which, although none will be coined, is the basis of the system and equal to one dollar United States gold. One-half of one balboa is equal to one "peso" silver; one-fourth balboa Is equal to 50 'cents silver. In brief, the balboa corresponds to the American dollar, and the Panama silver is to be worth 50 per cent of the gold value. gambler and duelist, with much natural talent and a taste for literature and pon tics. A connection was formed between them which lasted for many years and caused Mme. de Stael a. great deal both of happiness and misery'. In 1735 she re joined her husband in Paris. But she talked and wrote so much about a gov ernment modeled on England's that the directory ordered her away. She was allowed to return to Paris In April, 1797. Among the guests at her din ners now were Lucien and Joseph Bona parte. Their brother, the young con queror of Italy, was about to return, and. homely &s she was, Mme. de Stael dreamed of fascinating him as Cleopatra had fascinated Julius Caesar. The first time she came under the gaze of 'the steely-eyed Corslcan her foolish hopes died. One look from hlnvcomplctely dried the voluble river of her eloquence a river that never was dried before. In stinctively they began to hate, each other. She sarcastically called Napoleon "the bourgeois gentleman on the - throne." spoke of his manners as "a combination of the bad grace of a parvenu and the audacity of a tyrant," and said his genius was 'only charlatanism." "She talks back in a way I don't like," said Napol eon. She became suspected of plotting with disaffected Frenchmen, such as Moreau and Bernadotte; and at last. In May. 1S03, she was ordered to keep at least 40 leagues from Paris. M. Stael had died the year before. His widow was now free to marry Constant. But she had no mind to make of her slave a master, and in ' December she went with her children to Germany. The death of her father recalled her to Coppet and caused her the deepest grief of her life. After a tour of Italy and a second trip through Germany she settled for a time at Coppet, where she surrounded herself with a bizarre collection of gen iuses, French, German and Russian, whose chief business was to talk. They began to talk at 11 o'clcck in the morn ing and kept it up almost throughout the day and far into the night. They also had private theatricals, In which Mme. de Stael appeared as a high tragedy actros3. In 1S07 Mme. de Stael was ordered away from the neighborhood of Paris, whither she had gone to arrange for pub lishing her book. "Corinne," and three years later, after she tried to publish her work in Germany, her friends were or dered to stay away from her and she was practically made a prisoner at Coppet. She escaped across the Swiss and Tyro leso Mountains to Vienna. She went from Vienna to St. Petersburg, from St. Petersburg to Stockholm, and "finally, in June, 1S13, she reached London. She had been married three years before, when she was 47 years old, to Albert de Rocca. an army officer 21 years her junior, but had concealed the fact. Rocca accom panied her on her travels. Her progress through the northern capitals was a con tinuous triumph; and she no sooner set tled in England than she became an ob ject of the most enthusiastic admiration to that country's statesmen and literary men. Biit sho pined for Paris, and when Napoleon abdicated she Immediately re turned to it. Napoleon s arrival from Elbe again drove her forth. She returned once moro after his overthrow, but her life rapidly ebbed away. She was stricken with apoplexy in February, 1S17, and died three months later. Mme. de Stael's best works were "Co rlnno" and "Do l'AUemagne." She was regarded by many of tho most discrim inating among her contemporaries as onn of the greatest literary geniuses of any age; and the verdict of her contemporar ies has in tho main been upheld by sev eral able critics of later times. However, she is not much read now, even in France. S. O. D. THE UNEMPLOYED. Holland and Germany Trying to Solve the Problem. London World's Work. There aro 33 labor colonies throughout tho German. Empire, nearly SO of which aro entirely agricultural. Thoy are all under the control of the German Labor Colonies Central Board, with headquar ters at Berlin, and though subsidized and supervised to some extent by the state in which they are situated, are really insti tutions inspired and directed by Christian philanthropy. Tho one at Luhlerhelm. not far from Wesel, i3 described by Percy Alden, who 'wrote 'on this subject in the Dally Chronicle recently, as perhaps the best example of what Germany has dona In this direction. Since this colony was founded In 1SSS, 250 acrc3 of waste sandy desert have been mado fertile and now grow good crops of ryo and potatoes, while four acres have been set aside as a garden for the growth ot vegetables. Practically all tho buildings were con structed by the colonists. There are shops for tailoring, shocmaklng, carpentering, also a smithy and a bakory, which sup ply all the needs of the colonists. In thl3 place tho inefficient and unem ployed, the weak and physically unfit aro housed and fed and made whole men. Tho wholo work of the farm, with Its 123 colonists (the number Is moro than dou bled in Winter), Is superintended by Herr Slemon, tho director, as "haus vater;" three assistant unmarried 'brothers," head stockman, a head carman and a bookkeeper. Each colonist can earn a nominal wage, part of which Is placed to his credit and part given him for tho purchaso of tobacco. Tho entire cost of tho farm per annum is about 3200. and tho sale of the farm produce brings in about half of this amount. The average cost per man per week, after all ex penses have been paid. Including Interest! on borrowed capital. Is a little over half a crown. Mr. Alden also describes the Dutch la bor colonies that are not subject to stats' control, taking as an example the Frled rlchsoord colony, which is situated near Steenwyk, northeast of the Zuyder Zee. It Is designed for the deserving unem ployed, and helps married men with their? wives and families. The colonists are. admitted on tho recoramendatfon of char itable associations working in the big cities of Holland. They are nearly all unskilled laborers from large towns. On arrival, each laborer's family Is housed in a separate cottage with a garden, and the members of the family who are ca pable of working are. given some light employment. The man himself Is set to work on one of the five large farms or in the central dairying establishment, or in the basket-making or mat-making work ships. The children who are too young to work are sent to the public schools, which are built and maintained by the govern ment. After the laborer has been In the colony a certain number of years he Is promoted to the class of free "farmer," that Is, providing there is a vacancy. At present there are over 200 free farms of 7 acres, nearly all in good condition. The necessary capital Is advanced by tho colony, and In many cases the free farm er has more than doubled the value of hl3 stock and plant. Tho Dutch system ha3 this to recommend it, that it provides a permanent home not only for the colo nists, but also for his family; that It af fords a test by a long period of probation of the character and fiber of the man, and so enables those who have the charge to apportion free farms with the least possible risk of loss. Meanwhile the chil dren are well educated and well trained. Intimidated. Louisville Courier-Journal. First Office Boy I should think de boss d fireyouse fer smokin cigar ettes an' kecpin' de offis littered up wit" yer stumps. Second Office "'Boy He das-sent. He knows dat if he tried it I'd expose his financial methods in de columns ot de current magazines.