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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 29, 1904)
THE MOSSING OREGONIAN, THURSDAY, DECEMBEH 29, 1901.
Entered at the Postofflce at Portland. Cr.,
is second-class matter.
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PORTLAND, THURSDAY, DEC. 29, 1901.
BACK TO THE COUNTRY. !
"With our .people of the United States j
country life once was all in all. The !
first settlers all went upon the land, to j
till it, to graze their flocks and herds,
and to get the means of support that
thus only could be obtained. This was
the way of life to the newcomers to
America, from two to three centuries
ago. It was carried westward till it
was stopped by the limits of the conti
nent. The Oregon Country was occu
pied or settled in the same way forty
to seventy years ago. Everybody went
upon the land, to make a home and to
get a living. Towns began to spring up
later, and as population increased the
towns grew. "With the growth of the
towns and with the attractions they
offered, the movement to the towns,
throughout the whole country, in
creasedfrom one ocean to the other.
It was the gregarious instinct of the
race, that asserted Itself, in opposition
to pioneer adventure and to solitary
life, as soon as opportunity offered.
Towns and cities grew, and rural life
lost the preponderance It had held so
When our towns sprang up and our
cities began to grow there was warn
ing from our elders that it was dan
gerous to -break away from country life,
where plenty and comfort were as
sured. The warning came to little or
nothing; for the new aspiration was
uncontrollable. Our young- people felt
there was a new and a larger world.
It was a necessary impulse, for deliv
erance of a people from a single and
simple way of life, and for the vast
and varied differentiation of society
that snakes the life of our country
what it is today. Nothing is so strange,
so mysterious, so impressive, as these
evolutions of human society. No era
in this progress can be like the era that
preceded it. There is ceaseless ebb and
flow, but an evolutionary movement
A tendency is again observed among
us towards the rural districts; from
the towns and cities there is a
reactionary movement towards the
country, and yet the country life to
which our people return is not the
country life thait -their ancestors left.
It is active, suburban, in daily touch
with all the currents of the activities
of the world; whereas in the former
time life in the country was that of se
clusion, isolation and solitude.
xne trena countrywara has come
with a new development, of which rapid
transit is the chief factor. People now
can come and go quickly. The products
of the farm are carried quickly and
cheaply to market. The family in the
country is no longer isolated. There is
dally postal delivery. Money enough
can be made on the .farm to render
farm life attractive. The children can
have what they long for, and to finish
their academic education can "be sent
to distant schools. Thus the old con
Irasts between town life and country
life are minimized, and country life
modernized is again taking the place
to which its Importance entitles it
Before the State Grange of New
Hampshire the other day President
Tucker, of Dartmouth, spoke of the in
creasing trend of the present day from
the cljty towards the country, and ,the
advantages of it. The gospel of getting
on the land is no new -thing; and one
of the oldest of myths is that of An
taeus, son of Earth, who never could
be" vanquished, even by the gods, so
Jong as he could touch earth again
tor bo often as he was iolled and yet
could touch earth again, he rose with
new strength; so that even Hercules,
- who at last throttled him in midair and
so prevented him from touching his
mother earth, never till then could
overcome him. This myth President
Tucker though unconsciously puts In
a new way. "Ownership of land," he
says, "is the only guarantee of the con
tlriuance of family life, apart from
great wealth." Here you see the diffi
culty which the socialist and collectiv-
ist will encounter, wheri he (proposes to
place the land under the ownership or
control of the state. The family in
stinct Is against it, never will concede
It; and the private ownership of land.
that was the first necessary and indls
pensable step to civilization, will con
tinue to assert itself, to save civiliza
tion. The home life of the masses of
the city is written In water, (but the
home life and family life that Is -based
on ownership of land has an inexpug
But the city had to grow, in order
to prepare the way for the new home
.life and family life in the country-
Through the evolution, country life gets
an uplift, that was necessary to It. It
Is redeemed from Ais isolation, and
therefore from its cheerless grind. A
certain "urbanity" is carried .into the
country that was not known in the
country in the days of our fathers. Of
this development steam locomotion .was
the precursor, followed by electricity as
a still greater agent. The transforma
tion is fairly begun, yet the liveliest
imagination can even now scarcely
conceive the extent of it.
NATION-MAKES G PROCESSES.
Now the Paper Trust is to get a
shake-up. Inquiry, under direction of
the President, through the Department
of Justice, Is to ascertain whether in
the work of "the paper combine" there
is not violation of the Interstate com
merce laWi This investigation has long
been brewing. Prominent newspaper
men brought the matter to the atten
tion of the President nearly a year ago.
With-the rapidity that characterizes
all his actions he at once gave orders
for an investigation and report. Time
has been necessary for "this work; till
now, the data having been obtained,
suit is begun.
Many believe that print paper, of'
which there is immense use in the
United States, ought to be entered on
the free list. Tet there Is difference of
opinion here, even among the consum
ers of print paper; for experience proves
that trusts often do control products
and prices, even when the goods are
on the free list It is always combina
tion; yet In so many cases not the
tariff, that no general rule as to the
effect of the tariff as a supporter of
trusts can safely be adopted.
The New Tork Times, always a care-'
ful "newspaper, has a report from
Washington to the effect that those
best acquainted with the President's
purposes say that in a message to Con
gress, after the holiday recess, he will
urge the wisdom of requiring that all
corporations engaged in Interstate com
merce shall organize under Federal
charters, and thus pass under control
of the General Government, so far as
their corporate capacity and behavior
are concerned. This recommendation,
it is said, will be made in connection
with the submission of the results of
an exhaustive investigation of the Beef
Trust, the Oil Trust, the Paper Trust
and the Tobacco Trust. If the Presi
dent should take the step indicated In
the Times' dispatch, he will open up
one of the most important and far-
reaching questions of National policy
that have come before the American
people since the Civil War.
In his annual message he seems to
have foreshadowed this, when he said:
"Our peculiar form of government, with
Its sharp division of authority between
the Nation and the several states. . .
is undoubtedly responsioie Tor mucn
of the difficulty of meeting with ade
quate legislation the new problems pre
sented by the total change In industrial
conditions on this continent daring the
last 'half century." It requires study
to meet the difficulties thus presented
by the "sharp division of authority'
but they must be met. It is an im
portant phase of the necessary transi
tion from colonial and provincial to na
tional conditions. This vast economic
movement is part of a great nation-
making process, just as the Civil War
was an earlier part of It.
STRENGTH AT EA. ...
Were the Russian fleet from the Bal
tic anxious to meet the Japanese fleet
In the Orient, It would have been in the
Eastern seas long ago. It Isn't anxious
for the meeting. It Is making a show
merely of offense, -but doesn't push on
to the scene of conflict.
The Russians are fully aware of their
own inefficiency on the sea. Else they
would have pushed up the divisions of
their Baltic fleet long ago. Else they
would have made the demonstration
while yet their Port Arthur fleet might
have been in condition to render aid.
But the Russian Port Arthur fleet has
now been aisaDiea. completely elimi
nated, by the land batteries of" the
Japanese. The Russian fleet from the
Baltic probably never will meet the
Japanese fleet that is waiting for It or
searching for it. Brave as Russians
are, the sea is not their element, and.
like the sailor in "The Tempest," they
would "fain die a dry death."
Yet if Russia could destroy the naval
armament of Japan, the war for her
would be won. Japan would be com
pelled to sue for peace, and to accept
such terms as the conqueror might be
pleased to grant. Japanese armies on
the continent would be cut off from
succor and from hope. Their capitula
tion would soon follow. Japan stakes
everything on her ability to maintain
command of the sea.
Russia's slowness to press forward to
this vital point of the war Is proof
that she has no confidence In ihe abil
ity of her naval force to meet and to
overcome that of Japan.
In the rivalries of nations command
of the sea is all in all. It has been so
from the days of Salamls, Actium, Le
panto, Trafalgar. If Japan can retain
her ascendancy on the sea, she will
defeat Russia. If she cannot, she is
In our country we have a lot of peo
ple who object to maintenance and in
crease of our naval armament. They
are sentimental nonebmbatants, who
would be pleased if we should receive
insults and have no means of making
effective protest against them. They
say, of course, that we have no ene
mles. But we may have enemies, have
had them;. and a naval armament can'
.be created in a day, nor In a year, no:
in five years.
ARMY CANTEEN AGAIN.
The dispute over the Army canteen
Is likely to be brought to an issue or
test during this session of Congress,
Representative Morrell, of Pennsyl
vania, will press his bill to repeal the
prohibitory law, so that former condi
tions as to sale. of liquors under mill
tary regulation may prevail at Army
posts. The proposal, has the almost
universal support of Army officers
even of those who themselves never
touch liquors in any form.
The opposition of the W. C. T. U. to
the Army canteen, which is sentimental
merely, is met by an organization com
posed of wives and widows of Army
men, who have had much experience
about military posts and who -are a unit
in asking for repeal of the anti-canteen
law. This association recently held
meeting at Washington, and sent a pe
tltion to Congress for repeal.
The best of all witnesses and judges
in such matters are the officers of the
Army and their wives; for they alone
have had best opportunity for observa
tlon and judgment. Theoretical prohl
bltlonlsts are the worst of judges In
such a matter; because, first, they lack
experimental .knowledge; and second,
their devotion to -their hobby shuts
their minds to the facts. As tho Mil
waukee Sentinel says: "The sent!
mental argument to the effect that the
Government by allowing the canteen
engages in the liquor business is puer
lie. The Army canteen is not a bust
ness venture. It is a device for proraot
ing the temperance, contentment and
orderliness of the soldier, and experi
ment has now demonstrated that it
serves its -purpose. - Congress should
defer to" public opinion, comnym sense
and experience, and pass the Morrell
canteen bill without v.unnecessary delay."
THE MODEL NEWSPAPER.
The Oregonian has received the text
of an address on "The Modern News
paper." by B. B. Herbert, editor Na
tional Printer-Journalist, Chicago, de
livered before the students of the Kan
sas State University on December 19.
It is a most elaborate essay on all
branches of the newspaper business by
a newspaper man of intelligence and
experience. It is incidental only to the
discussion of the general subject that in
naming nine model newspapers in the
United States the essayist included The
Oregonian. The papers termed worthy
by Mr. Herbert for this high encomium
are as follows:
New York Times, Brooklyn Eagle,
Springfield (Mass.) Republican, Chicago
Record-Herald, Chicago Tribune, Chi
cago. Chronicle, St. Louis Globe-Demo
crat, New Orleans Picayune, Portland
Oregonian. With no purpose to pay a
compliment to itself. The Oregonian
will say that Mr. Herbert's list con
forms with the general judgment of
the newspaper profession. It will be
observed that he has selected his model
journals without- reference to geogra
phy. From New York, the great finan
cial, commercial and news center of the
country, he takes two newspapers only;
from Massachusetts one, Illinois three,
Missouri one, Louisiana one, and Ore
gon one. The author does not give in
detail his reasons for making this find
ing, except to say:
These newspapers cover moat effectively
every department of newspaper work, and are
rare models. ... It may be objected that
these are metropolitan papers, but a metropol
itan paper Is not so very different from the
local paper In this day. About the only dif
ference between a metropolitan and a local
paper la that the city paper makes the rooet
of its general news. There are no rules In tho
one that do not prevail In the other with re
gard to the preparation of matter, the gather-
Ins and writing of news stories, and the treat
ing of all Questions of education, local lm
provement. good government and morals, sani
tation and so on throughout the vast unlimited
field of newspaper work and usefulness.
We have heard a great deal in late
years from newspapers about decay of
the editorial page its loss of influence,
of character, and its practical useless
ness. But if these nine newspapers
stand for anything they reflect day
by day the sober thought, intelligence
and morality of the communities In
which -they are printed. In every in
stance they consider all questions of
public moment seriously and with refer
ence to their ultimate effect on the gen
eral welfare. They are conspicuous for
their absolute independence, fearless
ness, breadth and intellectual grasp,
In other words, they have character.
Each and ever. one or them is con
ducted for its own sake alone and Is
Influenced by no considerations what
ever except those of the public good.
Any" newspaper that permits itself to be
swayed by any motive of supposed im
mediate importance to itself or by any
other purpose except to present- any
fact truthfully and attractively, and
discuss any subject candidly and vigor
ously, will not long retain its influence.
With scarcely an exception these nine
newspapers are not only the most in
fluential factors in their respective cit
ies and states, but they have been un
interruptedly influential through a long
series of years. They have gained
general respect by their unwearying
effort to be precisely what they ought
to be faithful mirrors of public events
and conscientious Interpreters of their
meaning. However, this Is not at all to
say that the policy of the paper as re
fleeted upon its editorial page Is suffi
cient to give It great prestige and con
tlnued importance. The head cannot
exist without the body; so the news
paper that presents the news with. care
and discrimination, and makes the wld
est and best survey of the entire news
field, will simply be doing Its duty by
Its readers. Not one of the nine news
papers mentioned by Mr. Herbert has
paid less attention to Its news features
than to its editorial page, or has failed
to keep pace with modern development
in methods and equipment.
INCREASING COST OF PANAMA CANAL
The not Infrequently expressed .be
lief that It Is no crime to rob the Gov
ernment finds many votaries who con
fine their operations to petty larceny
operations and thus escape capital pun
Ishment. Robber.' may be a harsh term
for the hold-up game which Senator
Galllnger is arranging for the Amer
lean shipowners In connection with the
Panama Canal construction, but, as the
scheme is to force the Government to
pay more for a freight service than it is
worth, It might require hair-splitting
to draw the line of distinction. Sena
tor Galllnger, wherever his Merchant
Marine Commission held meetings, ex
hlbltcd a decidedly strong leaning
toward the subsidy graft. All of his
questions were leading ones, and unfa
vorable testimony for his cause was
not Infrequently treated almost con
temntuously. With such an avowed
friendliness for the millionaire shipown
ers who control American shipping, it Is
not surprising that this ridiculous and
unfair bill for increasing the freight on
Government supplies to Panama should
come from Senator Galllnger.
The bill provides that "all supplies,
machinery and equipment for the con
struction or operation of the Panama
Canal shall be transported between
ports of the United States- and the
canal zone exclusively In American
bottoms." It is frankly admitted by
the gentlemen behind this hold-up
movement that this restriction of trans
portation facilities will result in
freight rate that will materially add to
the cost of everything used In the con
struction or the operation of the canal
It Is explained by the friends of the
graft that the Government will be will
Ing to pay an Increased freight rate
because it is the general policy of the
Republican party to encourage the
American merchant marine. As the
scheme Is simply one to help the rich
shipowners at the expense of the tax
payers, it is not clear why it should be
the policy of any party or any people.
The canal is a $300,000,000 project, and
there will be some rich grafting in
monopoly or. tne transportation con
nected with its construction. There
will not only be a monopoly held by the
American shipowners, 'but there is al
most certain to be an "inner circle" of
one company or one combination of
companies who will secure the plunder.
and the, help to that much-loved
"American merchant marine" will be
confined to this one job and one com
blnatlon. In magnitude this schenTfc
can hardly be placed in the petty lar
ceny class, but the indirect methods
by which it Is sought to rob the many
for the benefit of the few are petty indeed-compared
with openly announced
grafting measures like the Frye bill for
paying direct subsidies to owners. This
latest attempt to restrict transportation
facilities and increase rates is a part
of the same plan which compels the
shipment of Government freight for the
Philippines in American bottoms. This
law has already cost the Government
many thousands of dollars more than it
ould have been necessary to pay on
supplies shipped from Pacific Coast
ports, had we been permitted to get
the work done by the most economical
Still greater hardships will be en
countered when the extension of the
American coastwise laws to the Philip
pines in 1906 leaves all of the trade of
our new dependencies at the "mercy of
the American millionaire shipowners.
In the old days the gentlemen who
sought to levy tribute on the commerce
of the high seas went forth with a
'Jolly Roger" flying from the masthead
and made no other excuse for their dep
redations than that they needed the
money. The modern buccaneer escapes
the hardship of such a course by re
maining ashore and promoting legisla
tion which eliminates the competition
that stands between him and exorbi
tant profits. There Is something decid
edly un-American In the attitude of
these wealthy shipowners standing for
ever in the public light like blind beg
gars on a street corner making their de
mand for alms. Their latest plea is
perhaps the most contemptible of any
they have made, for, like the affluent
beggar who tells you that he only asks
for a dime when he might just as well
ask for a dollar, these other beggary
ask that this petty graft be .permitted
n lieu of a greater one which they ex
pect to succeed with later on.
There is no need for three State Nor
mal Schools irr-Western Oregon, and
there will be no better time than the
Legislative session opIsOo to get rid of
at least one of them. It la true that
the annual cost of maintenance -is. not-
great, but this Is one of the many Items
that go to swell the state's expendi
tures. The appropriation for mainte
nance' is not the only burden, for the
schools must have new buildings and
additional equipment occasionally If
they are "to be a credit to the state.
One normal school in Western Oregon
would be sufficient, and no good- reason
can be given why there should be more
than two. If the state must spend a
given amount every two years for the
support of schools of pedagogy, let the
work be concentrated rather than scat
tered, so that Oregon will have institu
tions as good as any. There is nothing
to be said against the normal schools as
such, but the state should exercise good
judgment In the expenditure of money
for this purpose.
It Is announced that the President
has notified United States Marshal
Charles Hopkins to -cease participating
in the forthcoming Washington Sena
torial election. It is further said that
the action was taken after a conference
with Senator Foster. This Is not the
first time that a demand has been made
that Federal officials refrain from tak'
ing part in Senatorial elections, but In
the present case It may be a two-edged
eword that Foster is wielding. Federal
patronage Is the most powerful factor
In the Foster fight, and If the senior
Senator from the Evergreen State kdeps
too close watch on Hopkins he may be
deprived of the valuable assistance of
some of his own Federal brigade. The
President Is not Inclined to make fish of
one and flesh of another, especlaly In a
fight in which he Is not directly con
One Ferris, whose fame rests upon
his having been Democratic candidate
for Governor of Michigan, has been tell
Ing women that they should not marry
until able to support a husband. While
this advice does not apply to the ordi
nary woman In any great degree, it
should be taken to heart by the girl
that Is desirous of acquiring a Duke or
even a mere Baron, to marry a con
finding young peer and then fail to sup
port him In the style to which he was
accustomed is a heartless act, and it
Mr. Ferris causes even one girl to re
frain from maknlg a young nobleman
unhappy he will not have spoken In
If there is any place In Oreg6h "where
.the automobile has an opportunity to
win the approval of the people, It Is In
Central Oregon, which is still resting in
the dark ages of the stagecoach. A
proposed automobile line from Shanlko
to Bend, Or., Is expected to carry pas
sengers between the two points In 46
hours. This is not a very good substi
tute for the railroad to which the Cen
tral Oregon people are entitled, but.
pending the arrival of the iron horse. It
may be a marked improvement .over
the present facilities for getting in and
out of the country.
It begins to look as though the Jap
anese intentionally delayed the capture
of Port Arthur for the purpose of en
couraging Russia to send the Baltic
fleet around Into the Pacific. Had
Japan pressed the assault earlier and
made- it appear that the fleet could not
arrive In time to be of service, the
ships would have remained In the Bal
tic, where they were safe from Togo's
iruns. Now Japan seems certain of
taking Port Arthur and also having a
chance to destroy a few. more Russian
Admiral Togo returns to Japan to re
ceive the congratulations of his coun
try on a duty well done and to prepare
for the execution of another duty of
hardly less importance. Americans can
appreciate the Japanese feeling at pres
ent by imagining how exultation over
the destruction of Cervera's squadron
at Santiago would have been tempered
by the approach of a second powerful
If there Is any warship to which a
Chinese cruiser could do things, it is a
Russian, and should the Askold en
deavor to leave Shanghai against Chi
nese wishes, the battle would be worth
watching, provided the innocent by
standers were removed 'beyond gunshot
If Togo should meet the Baltic fleet, it
is to be hoped that he will not attack
on the side farthest from us, for If he
should get them running this way they
might pile up on Tillamook Rock and
damage the lighthouse.
When the Czar's advice to the Zemst
volsts is boiled down, It amounts to
saying "Go ahead, but stay where you
Somebody must be Governor of Colo
NOTE AND COMMENT.
What the Zemstvos should develop is a
There and Here.
In the East they freeze and shiver,
While! bealde AVIUamette River
We don't feel a single quiver. '
There the snow is madly snowing.
And the wind Is wildly blowing
Here the garden truck is growing.
There the mercury's a-freezlng.
And the folks are all a-sneczlng
Here the air is mild and pleasing.
There the spear-heads of the blizzard
Pierce a man right through the gizzard
Here it's warm from A to iszard.
There the ports are lcccncrusted.
And the coasting-schooners busted
Here the weather's well adjusted.
There Is Hades; here Is Heaven.
Mrs. Chadwlck would be justified In
pleading insanity of her banking friend.
Not a divorce suit began In Chicago on
December 27. Can't have been a merry
It Ib perhaps due to jealousy of a man
who can soar through the air that Bal
wln's return to Los Angeles, towing the
Arrow, Is regarded as a humorous picture.
When the automobile was a novelty, the
world smiled to see one lugged back to
town behind a team, and now that the
airship is beginning to do some real fly
ing, the world smiles to see one of the
best come back from an aerial journey
pulled by a rope In the grasp of it3
The first person sending In a correct
solution of the riddle, "Who Is Governor
of Colorado?" will be presented with a
Carnegie note for $5,000,COO.
Chicago Is to have a subway. The city
hates to admit that New York Is more
N. W. Ferris, of Michigan, advlse3
women not to marry until they are able
to support a husband. Prospective hus
bands will applaud the sentiment. It Is a
terrible risk for a man to leave his moth
er's house and marry a girl without
knowing definitely that she Is able to pro
vide for him. Mr. Ferris should change
the form of his advice. He should warn
young men not to marry a girl before she
has a home of her own and money in
the bank. Can't we have a matrimonial
The Louisville Times says that no mat
ter how conservative Chinese editors may
try to be, thoy will always remain yellow
journalists. There are shades and shades
of yellow journalists, however, and if the
Chinese editor's papers arc no yellower
than their skins, the Times need not bo
alarmed about the result.
A New Jersey jury recently decided an
Important case by flipping a coin. That's
a better way than trying to have a New
Jersey jury think.
Man is put In his true place every now
and again. He is a mere detail, according
to Mrs. Lillle Dcvereux Blake, who said
when addressing the Society of Pilgrim
Mothers: "What really happened was
that 33 women landed on December 22
1620, at Plymouth Rock. They were ac
companied by a few men. It Is true, but
that was a mere detail." After this the
Pilgrim Fathers must pale Into insignifi
cance beside the Pilgrim Mothers.
In tho account of a charivari party at
Kettle Falls, Wash., is tho sentence, "It
Is the sixth matrimonial venture of tho
bride, and she was desirous of suppress
ing the news." Strange how modest Is
the true record-breaker. However, the
lady and No. 6 were found by a chari
vari gang, and the chimney of the house
was stuffed up until the groom capitu
lated and bought a keg of beer for "the
boys." If each of his predecessors had
to do the same, the lady should get a
rake-off from the brewery.
It 1s said that a preacher once lived in
Atchleon who accepted fees 'for preaching at
funerals. Atchison Globe.
The editor of the Smith's Grove, Ky.,
Times goes in for brevity. He calls. the
attention of his readers to the fact that
"Oakland merchants are going to ad with
According to the Forest Grove News,
the Loving telephone line Is in order.
Hope there will be no scrapping over such
Some Kentucklans died recently as the
result of swallowing too much wood alco
hol, and the papers of the state are much
perturbed. The Louisville Times says to
Its readers, "If the center of your anat
omy feels like a red-hot chafing-dish, ex
amine the label on the bottle to see if it
is not 'wood alcohol.' " Thus our early
beliefs aro shattered. Think of a Ken
tucklan who has to look at tho label to
know whether he has been drinking whis
ky or wood alcohol.
A marriage license was recently Issued
In Washington, D. C, to Max Mix.
Most Are Dissatisfied.
Springfield (Mass.) Republican.
The teaching profession Is also filled
with persons who wish, or think they
wish, that they hadn't gone into iti
Of 20 clergymen, who were asked by a.
writer In World s Work, nine answered
that they would not be ministers if
they could live their lives over again;
but of 11 experienced tcachors to whom
a similar inquiry was put by a. writer
in Leslie's Monthly, only one stood
out for the teaching profession. The
other 10 were sorry that they had not be
come great lawyers, doctors or captains
of industry. It Is only necessary to com
plete tho circuit of the professions to
prove how absurd, on the whole, these
men who wish they were something else
A Song of the Plains.
H. H. Bashford, in Spectator.
No harp have I for the singing, nor fingers
fashioned for skill.
Nor ever shall words express it, the song
that is In my heart,
A rags, swept from the distance, horizons be
yond the hill.
Elnging of life and endurance, and bidding
me bear my part.
For this is Song, as I sing it, the song that I
love the best.
The steady tramp in the furrow, the grind of
the gleaming steel.
An anthem eung to the noonday; a chant of
the open "West,
Echoing deep. In my spirit, to gladden and
help and heal.
And this is Life, as I read it, and Life in Its
To breathe the wind on the ranges, the scent
of the upturned sod.
To stride, and strive, and be thankful, to
weather the shine and storm,
Penciling over the prairies, the destiny
planned by God.
And no reward do I aslc for, save only to work
To praise the God of my fathers, to labor
beneath his sky.
To dwell alone in his greatness, to strike and
to follow straight, '
Silent, and strong, and contented the limit
lets plains and I.
GREAT WOMEN OF MODERN TIMES
MADAME DE STAEL
(By Arransemcnt with the Chicago Tribune.)
I have never committed a wrong which did
not become the source of a misfortune. ...
To give up elf-Interest without ceasing to oe
Interested In others puts a eometning divine
into the eoul. . . . We think that we may
lnnuence revolutions, yet we are only a stone
thrown aside by the turning of the great
wheel. The name of chief signifies the nrst to
be precipitated by the crowd that marches be
hind. Sayings of Mme. de Stael.
ADAME DE STAEL is interesting as
the pioneer of the school of brilliant
women writers which flourished in the
latter part of the ISth and the first half
of the 19th century, and included Hannah
Moore. Jane Austen, Mme. Dacler, Char
lotte Bronte, Georges Sand and George
Eliot. She Is interesting as being the
most gifted of women conversationalists.
She is most interesting of all. perhaps
because of the ten years' duel which she
carried on with Napoleon when at the
summit of his power. Her character was
marred by vices characteristic of the age.
But despite the mawkish sentimentality,
dubious virtue and habit of grandiose
posing which bleminshed her. she wao a
woman of noble heart and virile, striking
M. Necker. her father, was the rich and
popular Minister of Finance of Louis
XVI. Her mother, the beautiful Susanne
Curchod. had been loved at Lausanne In
girlhood by Gibbon, the. historian of the
Roman empire. A sentimental and pre
cocious child, she steeped herself in ro
mantic novels. Under her mother s aus.ere
care she also read heavier works, in
cluding those of Rousseau, of whose po
litical and social gospel she became
devotee. She was one of the richest heir
esses in France and a great marriage was
wished for her. Among her suitors was
William Pitt, the younger. Her parents'
choice fell, when she was 20 years old, on
a Swede. Baron de Staef-Holsteln, whom,
In consideration of the marriage, .King
Gustavus HI of Sweden promised to keep
as his Ambassador at Paris for 12 years.
Stael was 17 years older than his wife.
cold, dull, a gambler and deep In debt.
His bride, although of homely qounte-
nance, had fine black eyes, a good figure.
grace, ease, a brilliant mind, and a nature
which craved to be loved. The match was
unhappy. In 1799 tho pair formally sepa
Her marriage, however, gave Mme. de
Stael what she craved only less than
love. As Ambassadress her social position
was secure. Her salon became the resort
of all the philosophers and wits In Paris,
wnen Farts had more wits and phlioso
phers than any city ever had before or has
had since. -Her rich, fertile mind and
marvelous conversational talents made
her the Intellectual queen of the capital.
Her success excited envy. Her talk was
extremely animated, and her enemies said
with Senac de Meilhan: "Her manners
are so vehement, one Is stunned: her con
versation seems an assault" The most
scandalous stories were told of her. But
despite criticism and calumny the rovo
lutlon found her one of the most promt
nent and influential persons in France.
Tho circle of Mme. de Stael did' not
understand the revolution In Its early
stage. They thought It a philosophers'
movement to reform the government, and
hailed it with delight. When they found
it a people's movement to overthrow tho
established order they first opposed It
and then fled. Mme. de Stael went to her
father's estato at Coppet and thence to
England, where she was soon again sur
rounded by Narbonne, Talleyrand, Mont
morency, Lally and the other members of
her "court." In 1793 she published her
"KCnecuons on the Trial of the Queen."
with the vain hope of saving Marie Antoi
nette from tho ax.-The next year she met
at Coppet Benjamin Constant, a libertine.
IZ. S. Vice-Consul-General Ehrman, City
During the past 12 months there has
been a decided advance in all branches
and lines of business In Panama, and both
Imports and exports have crept forward
to somethlnjr like the figures of flvo or
six years ago. before tho civil struggles
broke out In the different sections of Co
lombia, during which period both the Im
port and the export trado fell off 60 to 70
per cent. Now however, there seems
to be an upward tendency on all sides.
This business movement Is to a great
extant prompted by tho anticipated ac
tivities on the Panama Canal, which will
bring people and money to the Isthmus;
but Panama Is naturally a rich country.
Gold, silver and manganese are mined,
and it is claimed that very good stoam
coal can be found In tho Republic. Rub
ber, Ipecac, ivory, nuts, sarsaparilla and
balsam abound. The trade In hard
woods, such a3 mahogany, cocobolo and
dye'woods, Is being dally developed.
One American firm here has shipped to
the United States during the past seven
months 1,500,000 feet of mahogany. This
Republic has an almost inexhaustible
supply of hard woods, and the near fu
ture promises a large development here
in. While theso woods aro being shipped
from Panama, thero Is a largo demand
here for building lumber. Much pine and
redwood are imported from the United
States, the, greater part coming from
Louisiana. Alabama and Florida,, and
some from California. There is great
demand, and, as Is the case on all build
ing material, the prices aro high.
It is impossible to get an idea of the
pearl industry' of this section, slnco no
accounts are kept of the fisheries, and
shipments are made by parcel post, and
as specie, etc. Tho pearls are sent prin
cipally to Paris, with some few to the
United States. Panama pearls bring good
prices. They aro very fine, and have a
good name in tho pearl market. Large
quantities of mother-of-pearl shell go to
London and European cities, but the
shipments to the United States have
greatly diminished In the last few years.
Statistical statements of imports are
almost Impossible to procure here. The
bulk of goods comes from tho United
States, and almost every article In gen
eral use by civilized people Is Imported
shoes, hats, underwear, collars, clothes,
cotton prints, stationer, hardware, naval
stores, drugs, machinery of different
kind, eta In regard to wearing apparel,
I wish to emphasize the demand for cheap
clothes. The high-priced article, as an
American understands the term, will not
find a market on tho Isthmus, but there
is a market here for cheap clothing.
American shoes, for men. seem to be
extremely popular. Several enterprising
manufacturers have established agencies
here and seem to be doing a good busi
ness. Women's shoes made in the United
States, unless tho makers have investi
gated, the requirements of this market,
generally fall to meet the popular de
mand, from the fact that they arc not
high enough In the instep. They arc also
considered too light and tho soles too
thin. .The Spanish women have small
feet and very high insteps.
The new currency of the Republic is
soon to be Introduced. In fact, some few
of the coins have been received for ap
proval. It is understood that the Co
lombian coins will soon f be gradually
withdrawn and tho now ones put Into cir
culation. The monetary unit Is the gold
"balboa." which, although none will be
coined, is the basis of the system and
equal to one dollar United States gold.
One-half of one balboa is equal to one
"peso" silver; one-fourth balboa Is equal
to 50 'cents silver. In brief, the balboa
corresponds to the American dollar, and
the Panama silver is to be worth 50 per
cent of the gold value.
gambler and duelist, with much natural
talent and a taste for literature and pon
tics. A connection was formed between
them which lasted for many years and
caused Mme. de Stael a. great deal both
of happiness and misery'. In 1735 she re
joined her husband in Paris. But she
talked and wrote so much about a gov
ernment modeled on England's that the
directory ordered her away.
She was allowed to return to Paris In
April, 1797. Among the guests at her din
ners now were Lucien and Joseph Bona
parte. Their brother, the young con
queror of Italy, was about to return, and.
homely &s she was, Mme. de Stael
dreamed of fascinating him as Cleopatra
had fascinated Julius Caesar. The first
time she came under the gaze of 'the
steely-eyed Corslcan her foolish hopes
died. One look from hlnvcomplctely dried
the voluble river of her eloquence a
river that never was dried before. In
stinctively they began to hate, each other.
She sarcastically called Napoleon "the
bourgeois gentleman on the - throne."
spoke of his manners as "a combination
of the bad grace of a parvenu and the
audacity of a tyrant," and said his genius
was 'only charlatanism." "She talks
back in a way I don't like," said Napol
eon. She became suspected of plotting
with disaffected Frenchmen, such as
Moreau and Bernadotte; and at last. In
May. 1S03, she was ordered to keep at
least 40 leagues from Paris.
M. Stael had died the year before. His
widow was now free to marry Constant.
But she had no mind to make of her
slave a master, and in ' December she
went with her children to Germany. The
death of her father recalled her to Coppet
and caused her the deepest grief of her
life. After a tour of Italy and a second
trip through Germany she settled for a
time at Coppet, where she surrounded
herself with a bizarre collection of gen
iuses, French, German and Russian,
whose chief business was to talk. They
began to talk at 11 o'clcck in the morn
ing and kept it up almost throughout
the day and far into the night. They also
had private theatricals, In which Mme.
de Stael appeared as a high tragedy
In 1S07 Mme. de Stael was ordered
away from the neighborhood of Paris,
whither she had gone to arrange for pub
lishing her book. "Corinne," and three
years later, after she tried to publish her
work in Germany, her friends were or
dered to stay away from her and she was
practically made a prisoner at Coppet.
She escaped across the Swiss and Tyro
leso Mountains to Vienna. She went
from Vienna to St. Petersburg, from St.
Petersburg to Stockholm, and "finally, in
June, 1S13, she reached London. She had
been married three years before, when
she was 47 years old, to Albert de Rocca.
an army officer 21 years her junior, but
had concealed the fact. Rocca accom
panied her on her travels. Her progress
through the northern capitals was a con
tinuous triumph; and she no sooner set
tled in England than she became an ob
ject of the most enthusiastic admiration
to that country's statesmen and literary
men. Biit sho pined for Paris, and when
Napoleon abdicated she Immediately re
turned to it. Napoleon s arrival from
Elbe again drove her forth. She returned
once moro after his overthrow, but her
life rapidly ebbed away. She was stricken
with apoplexy in February, 1S17, and died
three months later.
Mme. de Stael's best works were "Co
rlnno" and "Do l'AUemagne." She was
regarded by many of tho most discrim
inating among her contemporaries as onn
of the greatest literary geniuses of any
age; and the verdict of her contemporar
ies has in tho main been upheld by sev
eral able critics of later times. However,
she is not much read now, even in
France. S. O. D.
Holland and Germany Trying to Solve
London World's Work.
There aro 33 labor colonies throughout
tho German. Empire, nearly SO of which
aro entirely agricultural. Thoy are all
under the control of the German Labor
Colonies Central Board, with headquar
ters at Berlin, and though subsidized and
supervised to some extent by the state in
which they are situated, are really insti
tutions inspired and directed by Christian
philanthropy. Tho one at Luhlerhelm.
not far from Wesel, i3 described by Percy
Alden, who 'wrote 'on this subject in the
Dally Chronicle recently, as perhaps the
best example of what Germany has dona
In this direction. Since this colony was
founded In 1SSS, 250 acrc3 of waste sandy
desert have been mado fertile and now
grow good crops of ryo and potatoes,
while four acres have been set aside as a
garden for the growth ot vegetables.
Practically all tho buildings were con
structed by the colonists. There are shops
for tailoring, shocmaklng, carpentering,
also a smithy and a bakory, which sup
ply all the needs of the colonists.
In thl3 place tho inefficient and unem
ployed, the weak and physically unfit aro
housed and fed and made whole men.
Tho wholo work of the farm, with Its 123
colonists (the number Is moro than dou
bled in Winter), Is superintended by Herr
Slemon, tho director, as "haus vater;"
three assistant unmarried 'brothers,"
head stockman, a head carman and a
bookkeeper. Each colonist can earn a
nominal wage, part of which Is placed to
his credit and part given him for tho
purchaso of tobacco. Tho entire cost of
tho farm per annum is about 3200. and
tho sale of the farm produce brings in
about half of this amount. The average
cost per man per week, after all ex
penses have been paid. Including Interest!
on borrowed capital. Is a little over half
Mr. Alden also describes the Dutch la
bor colonies that are not subject to stats'
control, taking as an example the Frled
rlchsoord colony, which is situated near
Steenwyk, northeast of the Zuyder Zee.
It Is designed for the deserving unem
ployed, and helps married men with their?
wives and families. The colonists are.
admitted on tho recoramendatfon of char
itable associations working in the big
cities of Holland. They are nearly all
unskilled laborers from large towns. On
arrival, each laborer's family Is housed
in a separate cottage with a garden, and
the members of the family who are ca
pable of working are. given some light
employment. The man himself Is set to
work on one of the five large farms or in
the central dairying establishment, or in
the basket-making or mat-making work
ships. The children who are too young to
work are sent to the public schools, which
are built and maintained by the govern
ment. After the laborer has been In the
colony a certain number of years he Is
promoted to the class of free "farmer,"
that Is, providing there is a vacancy.
At present there are over 200 free farms
of 7 acres, nearly all in good condition.
The necessary capital Is advanced by tho
colony, and In many cases the free farm
er has more than doubled the value of hl3
stock and plant. Tho Dutch system ha3
this to recommend it, that it provides a
permanent home not only for the colo
nists, but also for his family; that It af
fords a test by a long period of probation
of the character and fiber of the man,
and so enables those who have the charge
to apportion free farms with the least
possible risk of loss. Meanwhile the chil
dren are well educated and well trained.
First Office Boy I should think de
boss d fireyouse fer smokin cigar
ettes an' kecpin' de offis littered up
wit" yer stumps.
Second Office "'Boy He das-sent. He
knows dat if he tried it I'd expose his
financial methods in de columns ot de