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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 30, 1904)
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PORTLAND, WEDNESDAY, NOV. 30, 1904.
THE POINT OF VIEW.
Truth is truth, always. But partial
truths, or half truths, may be danger
ously misleading. It Is so especially as
to sociological or economic facts,
wherein man also is a factor though
the same postulate or idea runs through
every branch of inquiry and science.
But especially where the human ele
ment enters the element of human life
and consciousness and spirit there
you have a new force, of which account
must always be taken.
This statement is suggested by a let
ter from Mr. C. E. S. "Wood, printed
yesterday. In this letter the idea that
"economic reform is the basis of all re
form" is made prominent. And eco
nomic reform depends, by require
ment of the argument, on the move
ments of socletyr on the condition of
the whole body. There is a truth here,
but only a half truth. It leaves too
little, or leaves nothing, for the opera
tion and action of the individuals and
personal spirit. It considers man only
as a machine or an indistinguishable
pari of it. It Is partly true, but man Is
more than that. The spirit of the hive
is the life of the bee; 'the spirit of the
hill Is the life of the ant. But there is
In man more than the spirit of the hive
or of the hill, or of the jungle. And
it is on this principle, and this princl
ole only, that man gets ahead that
human progress is made.
Mr. Wood's idea is that moral con
sciousness is but the reflex of particu
lar social conditions. It is only a half
truth. On one side of his life man is
but part, and usually an lndlstinguish
able part, of a vast machine. But he
is more than the bee or the ant or the
beast of the jungle, nevertheless. He
has a personality; there is reserved to
him, as Hamlet says, "some quantity
of choice' Most difficult of all sub
jects is free and personal, or Individual,
responsibility. There is everlasting
truth In Darwinism, but the ethical im
port, the human content, mustn't be
cut out of It.
Social conditions, in poverty, do in
deed present problems of extreme dlffl
culty. But Individual talents, seizing
the opportunities of fortune or of accl
dent, do often overcome all obstacles.
Every individual may hope to do it
may hope to "pursue the triumph and
partake the gale."
The defect of Buckle's "History of
Civilization" otherwise a great book-
is the Idea underlying It that man is
purely and wholly a creature of cir
cumstanoes and fate, from which he
may not hope to emerge or escape. Let
'it be admitted, indeed, that man is
largely a creature of social conditions,
But he is not wholly so. Hlght here
we are in the depths of the old debate
between free-will and fate. Right here
Is the point where the personal human
spirit breaks in, athwart the course of
the blind forces that surround it. Man
is not helpless and hopeless. He may
be. If he surrender himself to his en
vlronment But his glory Is that he
may escape Xrom any lower environ
ment though he will not always do 60,
The situation is hard, often pitiless, but
never quite hopeless. The human spirit
is so, constituted that It may hope and
expect to rise above all difficulties by
which it may be surrounded. Society
may assist, in various ways, but it can
not change its own constitution or the
orde? of its progress; for herein it is
governed far more by necessity than
the individual himself. The individual
may help himself and multitudes do
but society can't help him much. The
Oregoniana protest is against the no
tion of hopelessness and helplessness
that Insists on transformation of socl
ety as the only means through which
the individual may rise, and against the
corresponding notion that man is mere
iy nothing in himself, but is driven'on
by a late over which he can have no
control, and is therefore without per
sonal responsibility. Were that so, the
beaver colony would reach about the
Senator Mitchell, beset by Oregon
claimants, passed them along without
close investigation of the nature of
their claims. Commissioner Hermann,
"beset by Oregon claimants, passed them
rslong, without close investigation of
the nature of their claims. It was nat
"ural. in the circumstances, and it will
happen continually, under our system.
In politics The Oregonian opposed
Mitchell and Hermann, many a long
year, -with such power as it could com
snand. But it knows, and cannot but
admit, that any men of Oregon, in pub
lie place, would have favored appll
cants jum claimant from Oregon un
less they; had known, the claims were
fraudulentwhich it was impossible for
them to know. Let us see the men of
Oregon, inv representative place at
"Washington, who, when the application
is. made, fair on its face, would turn
applicants from Oregon down. Such
frauds as the Jury may find should be
punished; but Mitchell and Hermann
could not be on the look-out for them;
and they had the right to suppose, as
they did suppose, that the applications
were lawful. This is said by The Ore-
gonlan, that has opposed Mitchell and
Hermann "from 'way back," and would
have terminated the political career of
both thirty years ago, if it could. But
it opposed them on grave matters; and
it always has been aware, as it is now.
that there can be no just attack on
them or on other representatives of
Oregon, on the ground that they have
assisted citizens of Oregon, presumably
or apparently honest, In matters at
Washingtdn. If you have men at
Washington -who will not do this, you
will not keep them there long.
A STUDY OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Mr. Alleyne Ireland offers In the At
lantic Monthly a study of conditions in
the Philippine Islands. He has made
during several years careful examina
tion and comparison of English,
French, Dutch and American coloniza
tion in the Orient. His leading points
as to the Philippines may be stated
The principal fact in the constitution
of the Oriental mind Is that it is accus
tomed to one-man power in govern
ment and can act effectually under no
other. In the Philippine Islands this
trait is as marked as elsewhere. This
characteristic is the product of un
counted centuries of native experience
and development, and out of the condi
tions attending it the natives of a trop
ical country never have risen by their
own initiative, nor as yet by the help
of the white or governing race, any
wnere. $ut we have started on a
scheme in the Philippines of establish
ing representative institutions among
people who have known no govern
ment not purely autocratic In charac
ter. It is a clumsy mistake, due to the
supposed exigencies of politics at home.
the like of which has been committed
by no other of the great powers in any
tropical dependency. Yet no problem
has been presented In the Philippines
for which the experience of other na
tions in such situations does not afford
a parallel. We have lost heavily and
paid dearly for our refusal to avail
ourselves of their experience.
The industry of a people bears a very
close relation to their political condl
tlon effective political institutions- of
an advanced type being found only In
countries of advanced industrial devel
opment; a low economic condition being
invariably accompanied by a low polit
ical status. Now the Philippines "be
long to a clearly defined type of trop
ical countries. They have a high mean
annual temperature and a low social
and economical development; their in
ternal trade Is Insignificant; they de
pend for their economic welfare on an
export trade resting on agricultural in
dustries; nearly all the manufactured
articles used In the Islands are import
ed; the native labor is entirely inade
quate for the development of the nat
ural resources of the country; the great
majority of the people are of the usual
lazy. Indolent and thriftless character
which distinguishes the native of the
tropics; there is a small educated class,
but 90 per cent of the population can
neither read nor write."
So, when we attempt to force demo
cratlc institutions or corporate govern
ment upon tropical peoples we under
take what Is utterly unsulted to their
character. Moreover, such of the peo
pie of the Philippines as are intelligent
know that the Commission governs the
islands only so far as it is allowed to do
so by Congress; and in the United
States we all know very well that Con
gress acts on Philippine questions with
a view of meeting the requirements of
American home politics. In the islands
the effect Is to keep alive a restless and
revolutionary spirit; since the agitators
there hope for a change in parties and
policies here, and wish to be ready
Among other things, we are making
the mistake of trying to give the Fill
plno a political education wrhen what
he needs is industrial help. The whole
future of the islands, Mr. Ireland de
clares, lies In the solution of the labor
problem. We have demoralized the sit
uatlon by paying absurdly high wages
to persons engaged not in production.
but In transportation. Congress has
excluded the Chinese, with whom lies
the industrial salvation of the islands,
and, more than this, It excludes capltar
by a rate of taxation that it cannot
bear. The public health board the
scientific department of the adminis
tration alone is efficient; and it has
done as much in the face of incredible
difficulties as similar departments of
any colonial government.
In his intercourse with the American
officials, Mr. Ireland tells us, he was
constantly brought face to face with
two facts one, that with very few ex
ceptions the members of the civil ser
vice were animated by an honest and
sincere desire to do the best thing for
the general welfare of the islands; the
other, that side by sldeuith this ex
cellent intention there existed an lg
norance of the broad established facts
In relation to tropical administration,
and an absence of information as to
the work of the European nations in
the neighboring colonies, which could
scarcely fall to impair most seriously
the usefulness of the most conscien
tious and hardworking official." The
writer gives it as his opinion that the
following measures are necessary im
mediately to insure the welfare of the
1. The tree entry of all Philippine products
into the United States.
Admittance to the Islands of Chinese
and Japanese laborers by the Government
or by responsible private parties.
3. Good roads to open the country.
4. Encouragement of American capital by
liberal terms to investors.
3. Abolition ot the Philippine Commission
and provincial governments, and In their
place a Governor-General, with an appointed
council of Americans and Filipinos, to leg'
lslate tor all the Internal affairs ot the
Island, subject to the veto of some authority
In the united states.
0. Creation of a nonpolltlcal Insular Office
In Washington, like the Army and Navy De
7. The transference of the control o all
public works, except such as tall to the mu
nicipalities, to the insular government
To the demand that the United States
withdraw from the islands Mr. Ireland
answers that the Filipinos are utterly
unfitted for Independence and self-gov-prnment:
that -Vgulnaldo over thim
would have meant a bloody tyranny
and course of outrage, ended by Japan
or some other nation; that but a few
agitators desire independence, and that
SS per cent of the people are indifferent
to it; that beoauee & few Mtlra ikw
themselves bright and capable of work,
under direction, the idea that they
could carry on a government is wrong;
that government is founded not on In
tellect, but character, devotion to the
common interests and. executive ability,
and that these the Filipinos have not;
that independence cannot be con
ferred on a people as you would pre
sent them with a library or a drinking
fountain; and that "whatever the fu
ture may hold for the Filipinos, it is
certain that today they have scarcely
taken the first step on that long road
of industry and self-discipline which
alone leads to a sane and wholesome
national life." Finally, our own enter
prise or undertaking there merely re
peats history in this, "that there is no
Instance to be found of a nation which,
having reached a certain stage of eco
nomic development, has not embarked
upon enterprises of territorial expan-
sion; that this phenomenon in the
growth of nations has persisted in all
climates and under every form of gov
ernment; that It is common to all races.
and that It has been associated with
every form of religion, heathen or
Christian, of which we have any knowl
edge." Moreover, "it is not too much
to say that no single element in the
human character has done more to
mold the destinies of mankind than this
Intimate relation between Intellectual
and physical vigor and territorial ex
pansion." It is the national spirit.
moving within our people, that carries
us on in this undertaking.
JASON LEE'S HISTORICAL BANE.
Jason Lee founded the first perma
nent American settlement in the Ore
gon Country just seventy years ago,
He was a Methodist missionary, zeal
ous, intense, but withal visionary, like
other, evangelists of the period. He
will occupy a lasting place In Oregon
annals, but his importance will shrink
In future estimate of his achievements.
Lee came to save Indians to eternal
life, but, seeing the futility of the ef
fort, ended his career in an attempt
to build up a Methodist colony. He did
not altogether succeed, for the free
spirit of American pioneer settlers
would not endure supremacy of any
religious sect It is just as clear that
he did not perceive the force of pio
neer expansion as that he was not Its
stimulus. There Is no evidence in -the
annals or psychology of that movemetit
to substantiate the assertion that Lee.
"saved Oregon." Like Dr. Whitman, he
came with the irresistible drift.
On French Prairie, ten miles north of
the site of Salem, Lee built his first
mission. In the Autumn of 1834. Ten
years later he departed, never to re
turn, and in March, 1845, died at Lake
Memphremagog, Lower Canada. His
remains now He temporarily In a de
posit vault In this cjty, whither they
have been brought over the continent,
finally to rest beside those of his wives,
Anna Maria Pitman and Lucy Thomp
son, and his daughter, Lucy Anna
The missions of Lee near Salem, of
Tiltman near Walla Walla, and
Spauldlng near Lewiston, have been
credited with far more Importance in
establishment of American claims to
Oregon than is due.- Heally they were
but Incidents, always to be remembered
as transcendent examples of courage
and devotion and as potent Influences
leading to American occupation. But
the real claims of the United States to
Oregon were already established In
1834, and only Immigration was needed
to enforce them.
A multiplicity of influences in the
Mississippi "Valley made inevitable the
advent of American settlers. Financial
depression brought pioneers discontent
in the Middle West The Pacific sea
board stirred their imagination with
the promise of an outlet for their prod
ucts. The writings of Hall J. Kelley,
the "Astoria" and "Bonneville" of
Washington Irving; the explorations of
Bonneville and Wyeth; the book of Dr.
Parker, the missionary, and the letter
of Robert Bhortess; the tales of Jason
Lee and Dr. Whitman and of trappers
and explorers; the diplomatic contro
versy with Great Britain over rights
which the United States had secured by
original discovery, by treaty, explora
tion and settlement, and the "Oregon
bills" Introduced In Congress by Sena
tor Llnn, of Missouri, made "Oregon"
a household word.
Hence, when the four Nez Perces in
1832 followed a trail of many moons
from the setting sun and at St Louis
begged vainly for the white man's
Book of Heaven, the country responded
by sending Jason Lee to Oregon; Ja
son Lee will be a figure In Oregon an
nals, always honored. The monument
of his work Is the City of Salem and
Willamette University. It is fitting
that Oregon should hold his remains
and keep them forever.
SCHEME THAT TAILED.
This has been a bad year for the crop
statisticians who from the seclusion of
their two-by-four offices in Portland
figured the wheat yield of Oregon,
"Washington and Idaho at 53,000,000 to
60,000,000 bushels. As the turn of the
year approaches and the size of the
crop Is more accurately defined, the
extravagance of these claims, which
were Inspired by local representatives
of foreign shipowners anxious to ad
vance freights, becomes all the more
apparent The Oregonian Incurred the
displeasure -of these foreigners and
their cheaply purchased "statistician
when, last September, it printed est!
mates showing 45,100,000 bushels as an
outside figure ior the crop of -the three
states. This estimate was the result of
the personal inspection of the principal
wheat districts of the three states by
a number of trained correspondents for
whom . .shipowners' patronage had no
The figures at the time they were
printed were accompanied by the
qualifying statement that later thresh
ing returns from the Spring wheat dis
tricts would probably cut down the es
timates somewhat, vyitn the season
nearly half over, it is now quite clear
that an out-turn of 43,000,000 bushels
Is about the best that will be secured.
Even the shipowners themselves, who
inspired the reckless figures sent out
early in the season, have not profited
by their -misrepresentation. None of
the exporters who had to provide ton
nage "lost their heads" and made ar
rangements for handling a mythical 10,
000,000 to 15,000,000 bushels of wheat that
never existed outside of the cobwebby
brain of a subsidized statistician.
Fortified with the pleasing intelligence
that Oregon and Washington would
require the services of from 100 to 150
ships more than in any previous sea
son, these deluded shipowners estab
lished a minimum rate out of Portland
and Puget Sound and then lay back
and awaited the coming of the export
ers and the expected soaring of rates
above the minimum figure. They are
still waiting, and their hip, swing idly
at anchor in every port on the-Paclf c
An xtnnsB&l movement of wheat by
rail to the Eastern .States has, of
course, reduced the amount of. wheat
available for export from tidewater, but
this movement, great as It has been.
was Insufficient to account-for the dis
appearance of from 10,OW,OQO to 15,000.-
000 bushels of wheat which- the foreign
shipowner had led himself to believe
actually existed. Fortunately for the
farmers, this Eastern movement was
of sufficient volume to thwart the ef
forts of the freight, boomers, but, had
it not been for this abnormal condition
of affairs, the scheme of the shipowner
and his subsidized statistician would
have been more successful. Instead of
a 20-ehllllng rate to the United King
dom, -at least 30 shillings would be de
manded, and the Increased cost of
transportation would, of course, come
out of the farmer.
Facts as they exist are not always
pleasing or profitable to some people,
but seldom is permanent good resultant
from distorting them, and a clumsy liar
who is unable to cover up his prevari
cations in the end proves expensive to
those who make use of him In the be
lief that they can delude the public
A foolish story has been printed in
Chicago that the Republican .Secretary
of State In Oregon, aided and abetted J
by the Democratic Governor, has de
dined to give a certificate of election
to a Republican candidate for Presi
dential elector, because he did not reg
ister, and was therefore disqualified
from serving as an elector. This sad
blow to the Republican candidate for
President is softened by the statement
that the Democratic Governor has ad
vised the fortunate Democratic elector
(who was to be given the certificate) to
vote for President Roosevelt All this
may be set down as interesting, but not
true. "One would like to know," asks
the Chicago Tribune, "what right the
Secretary of State of Oregon had to re
fuse a certificate of election to a man
who had received a majority of the
votes?" He didn't The four Oregon
electors, all Republicans, will meet at
Salem, on Wednesday, December 7, in
obedience to the Federal statute, and
they will cast four votes for Theodore
Roosevelt for President of the United
St Petersburg papers receive the
text of the Anglo-Russian convention
with expressions of favor that are
easily understood - after a perusal of
the document The commissioners are
to "report ... where the responsib
ility lies and the degree of blame at
taching to subjects of the two high coni
tractlng parties." As to the responsi
bility that is already fixed upon the
Russian officers, as the persons com
mitting an act must be responsible for
it The question of "the degree of
blame" is a different matter. There
are no defined gradations of blame in
such a case, and the report of the con
vention will have to be couched In gen
eral terms. It is difficult to see how a
satisfactory decision can be reached
by the convention, even with a merely
The marvelous change that . ha3
transformed California from -a doubt
ful state to a state overwhelmingly
Republican Is shown in the official re
turns for November 8, just published.
The results are: "Roosevelt 305,226, .Par
ker 89,294, plurality 115,932. The pro
portionate Republican gain Is not so
great as in Washington, but It suffices.'
In 1896 McKinley carried the state by
a bare 1922, In 1900 he had 39,770. But
in 1S02 Pardee (Rep.) narrowly escaped
defeat, having only 2553 over Lane
(Dem.). In San Francisco the revolu
tion has been most marked. In 1896
McKinley carried San Francisco by
only 392, and In 1900 he. lost It by 4, al
most a tie in each Instance. But in
1904 Roosevelt has 39,816, and Parker
18,03-inore than, two to one.
Mr. Knute Nelson? who -certainly
bears an 41lustrlous name, is the latest
testimonial to the truth of the old
adage that a fool and his money are
soon parted. Succeeding -after a long
period of patient toll In accumulating
5500 with which to .liquidate a mort
gage on his farm, he drifted down to
Portland's famous North End, where
riches take wings quite suddenly. The
rest of the story Is the same old yanr.
One drink and then another, and when
Knute awakened the money was miss
ing. This same old story has been re
peated so often with other Nelsons and
numberless others of all kinds of names
that It falls to excite even the slightest
sympathy for the victim.
The Kansas City Star, an important
newspaper, supported itooseveit and
Folk. The returns for Jackson County
(Kansas City) give Roosevelt a. plural
ity of 5256 and Folk 12,038. The success
of the Republican electors In old Mis
souri was due in no small part to the
active work of the Star.
According to President Francis, the
President saw everything from every:
where on his St. Louis visit, and was
pleased. Twenty-four hours at St
Louis was sufficient for the President
who finished the whole thing up on
As matter of fact, If the issue in the
land trials before the United States
i Court were unlawful cohabitation, we
should say the United States, through
its able attorneys, had made out a very
good case for the Government
The Chinese nave a provero tnat a
man should not stoop to tie his shoe in
a neighbor's melon patch. -Similarly,
Heir Most and his followers should not
assemble where the President is on a
Parker's plurality in Arkansas is 17,r
500, as against 36,000 for Bryan In 1300.
Booker "Washington" as an Issue did not
create any wild enthusiasm In the Dark
If the President still has a commend
able curiosity to view the Philippine
exhibit, we respectfully and cordially
refer him to the Lewis and Clark Fair.
Governor Vardaman's reply, to the
message of President Francis strength
ens his position as the greatest boor in
the United States.
If Japan continues to pour reinforce
ments into the theater of war at Port
Arthur, Nogi will soon have to display
the S. R. QC sign.
The ZKistvoIts have gone home.
Their speeches, also, seem to have gene
NOTE AND COMMENT.
Magazine Stories a la Meets.
It was 'Christmas eve.
Little Willie went to bed hungry. He
had eaten nothing but his dinner for three
hours. Although he knew his father
would not return from Alaska for Ave
years, the shivering boy hung up his lit
tle stocking and fell Into a troubled sleep,
dreaming that he was being ' butted
amidships by a gigantic automobile.
Millionaire Lockjaw was going home.
loaded down with presents for his pam
pered children. It was Christmas eve.
and he had been drinking far Into the
night Consequently he was in that state
in which poorer people aro called drunk.
Passing the door of Willie's house he
heard tae boy crying In his sleep. Lock
jaw reeled into the room, and catching
sight of the stocking, proceeded to fill it
with the presents he carried. In went an
automobile, a doll, a pony, a peanut,
gun, a drum, a bull-terrier, a box of
cigars, and a lot of other things.
"Now, Ish able to go back-shze club,"
muttered Xockjaw, as he staggered out of
But little Willie never awoke to find
the good things In his stocking. Ho had
gone to Join the throng of little boys that
loved mince pie too dearly.
St Andrew's day will bo celebrated by
a wheen o braw lad? and bonnie lassies
the nlcht, and Portland Scots will no
doubt be glad to hear that In Shanghai-
where the liars come from the local St
Andrew's Society is stimulating interest
in Scotland by offering prizes of $100 cash
to be competed for at an examination In
Scottish history and literature. The China
Times offers the following list of questions
as suitable for one of the examination
1. Is there any place like Peebles?
2. "Te'll tak' the high road and I'll talc' tha
low road and I'll be In Scotland afore ye."
(1) "Where la Scotland? (2) Where Is Loch
3. Has a trueborn Scotsman any objection
to be addressed as "Mac" If h! name Is
4. "Bans went saspence." Explain the origin
of the phrase and Its bearing on alleged traits
of Scottish character.
5. Compile the longest Hit you can of Scots
men who having once crossed the border south
ward, have returned home again to bonnla
C. Write a short and merciful account of the
conquest of England by Scotland, barring all
reie.ence io uannocnourn.
7. Say anything you know about eheep-steal-
Ing. .without- Incriminating your ancestors. If
Kurbkl hesitates to admit his death.
The open shop remains an open ques
The "Simple Life" Is a very complicated
Manners make the man; lack of them
Public attention was temporarily drawn
from Generals Kuropatkln and Oyama by
Generals Nelson and Corbott
The progressive party In Centralla is
trying to give the other. crowd a milk
shake, or In other words to bar cows
from the streets. .
Prince Fushima has been viewing tho
Liberty Bell in Philadelphia. Probably he
will describe it in his letters hode as the
The husband of Mrae. Schumann-Heink
is dead. Death must be a.rejlef. to tho men
that have to be described as. the husband
of Mrs. So-and-Sb.
A Russian destroyer has put into Cher
bourg badly damaged in collision with her
own anchor. The farmhands on board
probably took the anchor for a pickaxe.
An undelivered letter was recently re
turned to the General Postofllce In Lon
don bearing the following mysterious no
tations, "Not in Jupiter. Try Mars." "Not
in Mars. Return to sender." The letter
was intended for a sailor aboard one of
the ships in the Channel squadron, and
had not been the rounds of the stellar
Japanese assaults upon the citadel of
English continue. A Kobe paper says that
a foreign resident of the city sent to a
Japanese veterinary "surgeon for exam
ination the carcass of a pet cat which
died suddenly. The following written re
port of the autopsy was received:
I think It is caused this death that your
amiable cate has eaten a polsnous Insect.
Oregonlans blushed with pride yester
day morning when they read that Presi
dent Roosevelt especially admired the
Oregon exhibit at St Louis. They pic
tured him gazing upon Fort Clatsop so
long that he had no time to visit any
Other state buildings at alL But a little
mpre reading disclosed the fact that there
were other pebbles on the beach, a whole
stretch of them, Great Is diplomacy.
Persons who hastily condemned the re
sults of female suffrage in Colorado
should reconsider their views In the light
of recent dispatches. From affidavits filed
in Denver it appears that a number of
women received f5 each for their votes.
As this is considerably above the average
price of male votes, we fall to see in
what way female suffrage has been un
successful. It hasn't caused the market to
break, as some feared, and unprejudiced
observers will admit we think, that re
sults In Colorado should, .cause other
states to emulate its liberal spirit towards
. "WEX. J.
Biggest Man in the World.
Theodore Roosevelt who has Just
reached the age of 46, Is decidedly the
most uowerful personality, old or
vounpr. whom the worid see3 today.
The youngest of all the 26 men jvho at
tained the Presidency, he had won dis
tinction in many fields of. activity be
fore reaching that office, and in it his
achievements have been more notable
than have been scored, by the head of
any other state in our day.
The chief of the freest government
of the earth, Theodore Roosevelt
wields greater power than any other
potentate now living or who has ever
lived. Except Lincoln during tne civil
War, when the limitations of the Con
stitution were sometimes, and neces
sarilv. disregarded in the interest of
"Vatlnnal nreservatlon. no other Pres
ident has wielded so much authority in
home affairs as Mr. Roosevelt No other
President in the long line beginning
with Washington has exerted anything
like the sway in the worlds affairs
which the present American Execu
tive had and has. i
Boston Opinion of Mr. Lawson.
Miss Gilder thinks Hall Caine ought
to bear a grudge against Mr. Lawson.
Mr. Calne's latest novel has been run
ning serially in the. same magazine
with Mr. Lawson s -frexsled fiction, and
comparatively few; readers paid any'
attention to It And yet so discriminat
ing & critic as Miss Gilder profess Mr.
Caiae's romances to that- of Mr. Lawson.
GREAT SOLDIERS OF MODERN TIMES
FREDERICK THE GREAT gr
(By Arrangement "With the Chicago Tribune.)
I have no' resources more. . , . I will sot
survive the destruction of my country. Fare
well forever. Frederick the Great to hla Min
ister. .FiBckeasteln, after th battle pi j
The old must glvq place to the young, that
each generation may find room clsar for It;
and lite, if we examine strictly what Its
course la, consists in steins one's fellow cjea
turea die and be born. Frederick the Great to
the Dowager Duchess ot Brunswick. In. the
last letter he ever wrote. .
IT has been the lot ot few hereditary
monarchs permanently to alter tho
trend of world history. This Frederick the
Great King of Prussia, did. He doubled
the area of his diminutive kingdom, and
raised it ffom the rank of a fourth-rate
to that of a first-rate power. He began at
Rosabach the work which Bismarck fin
ished at "Versailles with the proclamation
of King "William as Emperor of Germany.
The fame of Frederick after tho victory
of Rosabach began, as Macaulay said, "to
supply In some degree the place of a com
mon government and of a common capital.
Then first it was manifest that the Ger
mans were truly a nation. Then was dis
cernible that patriotic spirit which in
1S13 achieved the great deliverance of cen
tral Europe," and In 1S70 and 1871 crushed
the French at Sedan and united all Ger
many under one crown.
Frederick's father, the knotty, eccentric
old Frederick "William I. who loved noth
ing but money and tall soldiers, contrived
far him a scheme of education Spartan in
its rigor, which was Intended to make him
a hardy and thorough soldier. The young
Prince rebelled against this severe regi
men, studied Latin, read French litera
ture, became a skillful player on the flute,
and acquired the most execrable vices.
The furious old King kicked the Prince's
Latin and French books from his hands
and broke his flute over his back. Fred
erick attempted to escape to the English
court He was an ofBcer in the army. He
was tried as a deserter and sentenced to
bo shot and doubtless would have been
but for the Interposition of the Emperor
of Germany. Resistance to his father's
wishes being useless. Frederick devoted
himself energetically to the study of civil
and military affairs. He continued, how
ever, to correspond with the leading
French poets and philosophers- in their
language he could speak scarce his own
and wrote pro3e .and verse with the as
siduity of a Grub street hack.
In 1740 Frederick "William I. died, leav
ing his son a full treasury and 60,000 of
the most perfectly drilled and disciplined
soldiers In Europe. The world thought
an effeminate poetaster had come to tho
Prussian throne. It was quickly disillu
sionized. Taking advantage! of the acces
sion of the youthful Maria Theresa to the
throne of Austria. Frederick revived an
antiquated claim of his family to Silesia,
and in 1741 hurled 30.000 soldiers Into that
province. "Ambition, interest, the desire
of making people talk about me, carried
the day," he wrote, with brutal frank
ness, In his memoirs. In his first fight,
which took place at Mollwitz, Frederick
became scared or excited and ran away.
His field marshal, Schwerin, stood his
ground and defeated the Austrian 3. The
Austrians were again beaten a year later
at ChotusltZt The first Sllestan war
ended in June, 1742, hjr the treaty of Bres
lau, left Frederick In possession of Up
per and Lower Silesia.
Frederick spent the ensuing two years of
peace preparing for a renewal of tha
struggle. He began the second Silesian
war by overrunning Bohemia. He had to
retreat from Prague, but he won the bat
tles, of Hohenfriedberg, Sorr, and Hen-
nersaorr, ana Leopold of :uessau gained
for' him that of Keaselsdorf. The peace
of Dresden again left In possession of SI
lesla. " "
Eleven years of peace ensued. Fredr
erlck. spent them In strengthening his
army, which he raised to 150,000 men, and
SPIRIT OF THE NORTHWEST PRESS
Cruel Remark From a Democrat.
Baker City Democrat
It looks like the timber-fraud cases
now on trial in the Federal Court at
Portland will yet involve others thaa
those on trial.
And the Boxes Still Stay.
The anti-box ordinance of Portland has
been declared valid, by the courts, but
even so. its validity will be of little im
portance if enforcement is not behind It
Astoria "Knocks" Again.
"What with tha land-fraud cases and
the Tanner-Creek sewer scandal and the
alleged dishonesty f all of her officials.
Portland may well be set down as a yel
Cynical Editor Spoils Love's Dream.
There are entirely too many young
women who insist on marrying for
love In order to be deemed heroic The
heroic is generally there and most fre
quently at the washtub or something
Next Year Never Comes.
The Oregonian has an editorial in ful
some praise of the Multnomah football
team. A year hence that same paper will
be busy explaining how M. A. A. C hap
pened to go down to defeat before the
An Editor Who Doesn't Bet.
Of course, it is to be regretted that
the great State of Oregon is so poor
that it has to hunt a 40-horse power
pool-gambling establishment in con
nection with the State Fair. If the
State Fair Board hasn't outgrown that
idea the rest of the people of the
Rotten Eggs for Portage.
We have undlsputable authority for
saying that a new supply of rotten
eggs has been put away about Salem
to shy at the State Portage Railway, in
accordance with the original arrange
ment that under no circumstances
must the project be finished. But the
people behind it now will politically
crucify the hobos concerned in the
Warning to Republican Bosses.
The wise are already casting about
for a man to beat Governor Chamberlain.
If the Republicans put up the right kind
of a man ho will be elected, but the
party managers will do well to remem
ber the lesson of the last state election.
-The people of Oregon are past swallowing
yellow dogs at the diction of the bosses.
Chamberlain has made a good officer and
unless as good or better man is put on
the Republican ticket he should be re
Albany Covets a Neighbor's Prize.
Varf'nn la a. mod nnntieh countv to
make a good showing at a county fair
of her -own. If the state fair Is held this
year, it will probably be properly classi
fied as a Marion County Fair anyway,
and why.. net let Marion have the grounds,
pay the bills and take the glory? Marion
basBOt takea' many first prizes la the
county exfarfMt class aad this wight be
her opportunity. The Satm papfs nat
urally objeet tp tha cmlmtom. of aarthiBg
that will cut off for th time toeal sources
Of ncofit" SbtL b state tear a rifcbt U
consolidating his kingdoms. His labors
were prodigious, his economy rigorous.
Louis XIV. was his own Prime Minister;
Frederick was his own sole Minister
Meantime he continued to take, an interest
in literature and philosophy. He had long
admired and corresponded with Voltaire,
whom he now invited to Prussia, intend
ing to xnako him the chief ornament of
hlj court Frederick and Voltaire at first
caressed each other like a new brida and
groom. The honeymoon soon ended. Vol
taire published the "Diatribe of Dr. Aka
kia," a ludicrous satire on Maupertlus.
president of Frederick's Academy of Ber
lin. There was outburst of kingly rage.
Voltaire started to leave Prussia, taking
with him. a book of Frederick's verses.
He was stopped at Frankfort by soldiers.
wno seized the royal verses and subjected
ine enraged Voltaire to every manner of
Maria Theresa had never gives up hope
of recovering Silesia. . Frederick's ambi
tion and, his sarcastic tongue had won
him the hatred of every sovereign;' on .the
continent Austria, France, Russia, Sax
ony, Sweden and the Germanic body com
bined to drive him from his throne and
dismember his kingdom. Discoverine
their designs, Frederick, JLn August, 1756.
took the aggressive, conquered Saxony,
and whipped the Austrians at Lowositz.
Thus began the seven years war. One
hundred millions of. people were in arms
against 5,000.000. Fortunate it was for the
latter that they had the greatest general
of the age and that England soon came
to their aid. In 1757 Frederick beat tha
Austrians at Prague and was whipped by
them at Kolln. In November of the same
year he dazzled the world by overthrow
ing with great slaughter at Rosabach a
DTench army twice the size of his own.
At Leuthen he won another splendid vic
tory over tna Austrians. who lost 27,000
men. The next year. 1758, he whipped the
Russians at Zorndorf.
So much glory was to be followed by
terrible disasters. The Austrians beat '
Frederick at Hochklrchen. At Kunersdorf
they administered to him the most crush
ing defeat of his life. The King hlrosqlf
led -three charges. His coat was riddled
with bullets. Of EO.OOO men whom he led
upon the field he led but 3,000 away. He
bethought himself of the corrosive
sublimate which he always carried In his
pocket as a certain defense against cap
ture, but he never thought of quitting the
struggle. Fortune soon favored him
again. In 1750 he was. victorious at Liegn
itz and Torgau. Two years later the new
Russian Czar, Peter, deserted the allies
and took the part of Prussia. In October.
1752, Frederick won, at Freiburg, his last
victory over the Austrians. Peace was
signed at Hubertsburg the next year. All
Europe had not succeeded in wresting
Silesia from the Iron grasp ot the great
Frederick devoted his remaining ener
gies with signal success to the work ot
Improving the internal condition of his
country. A sixth of Prussia's males capa
ble of bearing arms had perished in bat
tle. Under Frederick's vigorous and ca
pable administration she put on a happy
and prosperous aspect In 1772 he partici
pated in the partition of Poland. On his
death, which took place at Potsdam Au
gust 17, 17S6, he left his successor a treas
ury containing 70,000,000 thalers and a per
fectly disciplined army of 200,000 men.
In religion Frederick was an atheist He
allowed no consideration of morality to
stand in the way of the achievement of
his ambitious projects. In some respects
he was a stateman, but in many he was
not His genius for war, however, has
not been questioned. , "
"That battle" (Leuthen), declared Na-'
poleon, "was a masterpiece. Of itself ; it
is sufficient to entitle Frederick to a. place
in the first rank among generals."
S. O. D.
expect a broader view in this case. A por
tion of Salem's subscription to the purses
oc soiem day for 1903 and 1903 is still un
paid. There is already talk enough of
giving some other part of Oregon a turn
at holding the state fair. Quite a num
ber of elements enter into the present
situation, and it is not unreasonable to
expect Salem to be decent in the present
contention, lest a worse thing befall her.
Hot Shot for Hitchcock.
It is said that Roosevelt's Cabinet,
with tho exception of Hitchcock, will
remain as it is today. It will be a re
lief to the West when the news of the
Secretary s sequestration gets into the
dispatches. The man has insulted Ore
gon, and. indeed, the entire Northwest
by his base suspicions, and his suc
cessor will certainly find a disgraced
office upon taking up his work. Mr.
Hitchcock having earned his full
measure of opprobrium while in ofr
flee, will further earn the everlasting
gratitude of the public by forever act
ing in the capacity of a private citi
zen. Law's Dignity at Condon.
The quietude and dignity of this law
abiding burg received a sudden shock last
Saturday from the result of a couple of
scraps that occurred on Main street As
a sequel of the same Judge Goodwin com
mitted a couple of would-be John L. Sul
Hvans to the city bastile for three and five
days, respectively. Monday they were put
to work on the city streets and because ot
diligent work" and good behavior their
term of imprisonment was reduced, as
they took French leave Tuesday, for with
out being honorably discharged they "felt
the grit" and the last seen ot them, they
were "hiking it out" towards Fossil at a
No "Booze" for Benton.
Under the recent prohibition vote it is
decreed that Benton County, and Corvallls
especially, shall be on the dry list for
the next two years. It is freely talked by
considerable numbers of people that under
the dry system drugstores and -Other
places devised for the purpose will sell
liquors for Intoxicating purposes and not
the saloons. It is safe to say that the
people maintaining the present drugstores
In Corvallls are law-abiding citizens and"
they will not sell intoxicating beverages
except strictly according to law. The law
applies as strictly to drugstores as it
does to saloons. A drugstore has no
special privilege under the law to sell in
OUT OF THE GINGER JAR.
1 thought" began Mrs. Chatte'rson, "Oh,
no. you didn't" eald her husband. becaus
you -were talking all the time." Cleveland
"My daughter," aald the wealthy dame,
"waa born with a silver pooa la her mouth.'"
"Ah." responded the visitor, "a souvenir."
George What can be more sickening than to
see another fellow making love to a girl 7
Barry To see another fellow making leva to
your girt Town Topics.
Mrs. 'Homer Do have some more of the Ice
cream. Miss Gueatlyl Miss GueaUy "Well, Jsi3t
a little, as you Intist; bat only & moutatal.
mind. Mrs. Homer Jaae, nil Mice Quily's
plate up again. Chicago News.
"Why don't you try to make yepalf one ot
the Intellectual" celebrities o year tlwteV
"What's the user aaewered th-e bright, but
indolent young man. "The ara wfeeee jjateat
food I nave been eattnc would esse alosg and
want all the credit." Washlagtsa Star.
"No," said Riser, "I fcavea't amr toe
people who never read peltry.'' "I d't e
why you should fel that war; rspttecl Critic.
"Way, the feell 1" aatwl tmwt. 't it?"
"Xo. Why afeoeld yo earn, w VxC a tfcjsy
r4 yor Kr'-l