Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, November 02, 1904, Page 6, Image 6

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    the Moremre oEEgoyiiUs-, v Wednesday, xoyember 2, 1904.
' : : ' " -
(Continued from First Page.)
of crnehlns out the infant American industries
that had been -developed br the protective tar
llf o 1812. No sooner had this reduction In
the tariff of 1812 been made by the act of 1S1C,
- than England took advantage o It by enter
ing upon a crusade of the most dastardly
character, for the purpose of crushing out and
ruining the infant American industries that
had been nursed Into life by the protective
tariff of 1812.
This condition resulted in the passage of
the protective tariff of 1824, -which gave an
average rate of duty on all Imports! of 37
per cent, and this was, by the act of 182S, in
creased to about 48 per cent. History tells- va
that during the existence of this act of 1S24.
as amended by the act of 1828, and both be
ing highly protectix-e, the country was again
prosperous In the extreme. But, following the
repeal of that act In 1833, came the groat
Industrial And financial crUis of 1837 and by
which our prosperity -sraa stricken -with a
deadly paralysis. This led to the passage of
the highly protective tariff of 1S42. which
passed August 30, 1842, and took effect Im
mediately. By that act the rates of duty were
Increased from CO to 75 per cent. It was a
thoroughly protective measure. For the next
four years a great wave of prosperity swept
over the land, factories were opened In every
direction, employment was given at good
wages to all who desired to work. Indeed, so
great was the prosperity of the country that
when the Presidential election of 1644 came
on, the campaign cry of the Democracy, espe
cially In the 2?orth. was "Polk, Dallas and
the Tariff of 'i2." In that campaign the Re
publican candidates for President and Vice
President were Henry Clay, of Kentucky, and
Theodore Frellnghuysen, of New Jersey, while
the Democratic candidates were James K.
Polk, of Tennessee, and 2Ir. Dallas, of New
Jersey. But for the assurances given by the
Democracy during the campaign, that If they
came Into power they would not disturb the
act of 1842, Henry Clay, the great Whig
American, would undoubtedly have been elect
ed President of the United States.
But the people were deceived then, as they
were deceived In 1802 by the cry that the 2c
Klnley tariff was. unconstitutional, a robbery
and a fraud. They believed that if Polk and
Dallas were elected they would, as they had
promised, stand by the tariff act of 1S42, and
so they were led into the support of Polk and
Dallas, and they were elected. But, how did
they keep their promises? Scarcely had the
Polk administration been installed in power
before it set about a way in which to repeal
the act of 1642. A Democratic House passed
the bill In 1840, and It came to the Senate.
Unfortunately for Mr. Dallas, who was then
the Vice-President and the presiding officer,
and had the casting vote In case of a tie,
when it came to a final vote it was a tie. and
It was up to Mr. Dallas to say whether he
would keep his promises or not whether by
his vote the act of 1S42 should stand or be
stricken down. He gave the casting voto that
passed the act of 1846, and which repealed
the act of 1842. The act of 1S4C was a tariff
for revenue tnly, a purely free-trade piece of
legislation, and for the next 14 years and
until 1SC1 we had a period of free trade,
tariff for revenue only, but strongly strength
ened as a revenue tariff, every principle of
protection being stricken out of it subse
quently in 1837 during the Buchanan adminis
tration. But In 1801 the Republican party came Into
power, and a protective tariff followed, and
has continued ever since, except when Inter
rupted by the "Wilson-Gorman act of"18!M.
During the 14 years the act of 1840 was in
operation, strengthened in Its free-trado fea
tures by the act of 1857, our country again
passed through a period of great depression and
business and financial adversity; factories
were closed, wage-workers were thrown out of
employment, and our country and our people
were involved in Industrial wreck and finan
cial ruin. '
But when the Republican party came Into
power in 1801, and the Morrill protective tariff
act was put into operation, although our
country was Involved In a great civil war, its
manufactures revived and, with the exception
of the period covered by Cleveland's adminis
tration, our country has been prosperous as
never before, and especially is this true during
the last two administrations, those of President
McKinley and of President Roosevelt.
The Marvelous Growth of the Pig-iron In
dustry Under a Protective Tariff.
Fifty-seven years ago Abraham Lincoln sug
gested that the protective principle should be
applied la the development of our Iron and
cotton industries. It was so applied, and what
was the result? When Lincoln made this sug
gestion the pig-iron product of the United
States amounted to only about SOO.000 tons.
In 1870, ten years after the Republican party
came into power, by the election Of Lincoln
the plg-lron production had increased to 1.C05,
000 tons; ten years later, in 18S0. it was over
4.000,000 tons; In 1800 over 8,000.000 tons; in
1900 over 13.000.000 tons, and In 1008, last
year, over 18,000,000 tons. And the price In
the meantime has fallen from S30.25 per ton.
as it was 57 years ago, to S15 per ton. as it is
now in 1904.
A ProtecUvo Tariff Breathes Life Into the
Cotton Industry.
The effect on the cotton industry has been
similar. In 1847 1.85S.000 bales only of do
mestic cotton were taken by the cotton mills
for manufacture, while over 4,000,000 bales
were taken last year, and the price of stand
ard cotton prints in the meantime has fallen
from 10c to 5c per yard, so today every jady
and every little girl in our land can have an
apron at a cost of 5 cents, and a full drees for
less than a half dollar.
But. referring again to the vast increase
ln the production of pig Iron in this coun
try under the protective tariff, I call your at
tention to the fact that in 1902, the total
?lS.ct r piK lroa ln the world was about
45,000.000 tons, of which about 40 per cent,
or 18.000,000 tons, was made ln the United
States. In 1889 the United States made
.603,642 tons of pig Iron, which at that
time was the largest amount ever made in
this country in any one year. Great Britain
In that year prouueed S.322.S24 tons and she
had in all preceding years produced more
than the United States each year. But,
under the protective tariff, the pig-iron pro
"c"n of the United States increased in
1890 to 9.202.703 tons, while the production
in Great Britain fell off to 7.904.214 tons, or
nearly 1.500.000 tons less than ln the United
States. And since 1890 the United States
has doubled Its production, while free-trade
Great Britain has scarcely held her own.
The Tln-Plcte Industry in the United States
Furnishes a Conclusive Argument in Fa
vor or the Policy of Protection.
The production of tin plate In the United
Etates furnishes another striking example
of the beneficent effects of the protective
in 1890 there was no tin plate manufac
tured in the United States. The duty on tin
plate prior to that time was but 1 cent a
pound, a tariff for revenue only, and under
it no tin plate could be manufactured in the
V nited States, our supplies all being im
ported from Wales. The- Welch manufac
turers had a trust, and their prices were
exorbitant, the result of monopoly. The
McKinley tariff, passed in October, 1890.
went into effect July 1, 1891. and was passed
with the avowed purpose cf its friends, not
only of raising revenue, but of creating a.
tin-plate Industry in the United States. The
.McKinley tariff placed, a heavy duty on for
eign tin plate 2.2c--par pound and -what
has been the result? In 1900 tin-plate fac
tories had been established in the United
States which gave employment to 15.532
wage earners, at good wages, and for which
they received in that Tear In the aggregate
the sum of $11,100,078. And it Is made
apparent from official statistics that the
American workingmen in the tin-plate enter- '
prises If tho United States, since the enact
ment of tho McKinley tariff to the present
time, have received In wages more than '
$100,000,000. while our consumption of mate- '
rial for manufacturing the same has aggro- I
gated in value more than $200,000,000.
And what has beep tho result as to the !
cost to the consumer of tin plate? While
Xor a time, while our factories were getting 1
Into operation, there was a slight Increase j
In price, the prices soon went down. White
the average price paid for tin plate In the
New York market in 1890 was $5.15 per
case of 100 pounds, the price ln tho same
market ln April, 1904, ynras but $8.65. :
It must also be tome ln mind that the '
good effects on this Industry were greatly
Interrupted and Interfered with by the Wll-eon-Gorman
act. which went Into effoct Octo
ber J, 1894, and which fixed the duty on for
eign tin plate at 1.2c. This caused a wage ,
trouble through the country which kept all
the American tin-plate factories closed, until
January 1. 1895. Then, owing to the great
Impetus the industry had received under the
McKlnlay act, and the great reduction of
wages caused by the Wilson-Gorman act,
and from the further fact that the WiUon
Gorman act, was slightly protective, being
-2c- higher than the old tariff for revenue,
the industry was able to operate under the
Wlleon-Gorman act.
But mark further the effect of the establish
ment of the tin-plate Industry in this country
by Teason of the McKinley act. Prior to that '
act going into effect more than 600 tin mills
were kept In steady operation In Wales; since
then the number of mills In operation ln Wales
Is less than 300. One strike after another fol
lowed In quick sicceKlon, and the prices of
tin In Wales were brought down ta a lower
irel thn ever before known. The Welsh
Tin Plate Trust was completely destroyed, and
they found a steady and powerful competitor
in the tin plate products of America.
And as another convincing evidence of what
I say. I call your attention to the fact that,
according to official statistics, while the Bri
tish exports. of tin plate for the fire yeara
prior to the going Into operation of the Mc
Kinley act averaged not less than 400.000 tons,
the average yearly export for the four years
after the act went Into effect did not exceed
300.000. and ln 1903, last year, was but 23J,
147 tons.
Again, while prior to the going Into opera
tion of the McKinley act, the average yearly
Imports of tin plate into the United States
was nearly 400.000 tons, the Inmorts for 1902
were but 00.115 tons, and for last year but,
Our production of tin plate, moreover, ln
the United States has steadily increased from
552 tons in 1891 to 309,221 tons In 1902.
The Steel Kail Industry Its Marvelous In
crease in Production and in Reduction in
Price Under the Protective Tariff.
The history of the steel-rait Industry of the
United States furnishes an object lesson as to
the beneficial effocts of the protective tariff.
Prior to 1870, when there was no protection
given by a duty, there being only an ad
valorem duty of 45 per cent on foreign steel
rails, the annual production of steel rails In
the United States was only a fraction over
8000 tons. In that year, December 20. 1S70,
a tariff of $23 per ton was placed on foreign
steel rails. It was then confidently predicted
by the Democracy, both ln Congress and out
of Congress, that this would so increase the
cost "of foreign steel rails that our railroads
could not afford to Import them, and It would
rc-fsult ln the cessation of railroad building ln
the United States.
Now, what was the result? Listen! When
the tariff of 1870 was imposed, the price of
foreign Bessemer steel rails ln this country
was $106.75 a ton In currency. In five years
from that .time, ln 1875. the price of foreign
steel rails, eo far from having Increased, was
reduced to 3G8.75 per ton. In 15 years more.
In 1691). it was reduced to- 531-75. and in 1003
the average price was $2S per ton, which is
the price-today. Now, why was this? It was
because of the great increase in tho produc
tion of steel rails ln the United States, which
was the result of the protective tariff.
In 1869. the year preceding the imposition
of the tariff of $28 per ton. the annual pro
duction of steel rails m this country was less
than S0CO tons, and following the imposition,
in 1872, our product had more than quadrupled,
and was 34.152 tons; In 1890 it was 2.000.000;
In 1902 It was 2.947,009 tons, although the
tariff ln the meantime had been reduced to
$7.84 per ton by the Wilson-Gorman act. and
the same was continued by the Dingley act.
It was this protective tariff, therefore, that
Instead of Increasing the price, as predicted
by the Democracy caused a reduction In the
price of steel rails from J 100. 75 ln 1870 to $23
per ton now. And It must be remembered
that not one of lhe tariff schedules is so bit
terly assailed as that of the present tariff of
$7.84 per ton on steel rails; and yet It must
not be forgotten that that is tho very tariff
placed on steel rails by the Democrats them
selves. It wan put there by the Wilson-Gorman
act in 1894, and retained by the Dingley
act in 1900.
Answer to the Foolish and Persistent Claim
of the Democracy That Our Manufactur
ers Are Selling Their Product Abroad at
Lower Prices Than to Our Customers at
"Oh." but say our Democratic friends, "you
are selling your products, especially steel
rails, to foreigners at lpwer rates than to youf
home-people." ana steel rails are always re
ferred to In this connection. And the late
President Cleveland, in his recent speech ln
New York, makes this one of the great bur
dens of his criticism against tho Republican
party. Among other things, the ex-President,
in that speech, said:
"A protective tariff policy, in addi
tion to its other sins, contributes to a situation
that permits a combination or monopoly to sell
abroad articles of our manufacture at lower
prices than are exacted from our own cit
izens at home."
Now, my answer to this Is. supposing It to
be true that at times a fraction of our prod
ucts is sold to foreigners at prices less than
to our home consumers, who is Injured, and
who has any right to complain, provided the
home prices to the home consumer are not ex
horbltant or monopolistic? I submit no one.
And It Is very evident that the present home
price of $28 per ton for steel rails Is not ex
orbitant nor monopolistic, otherwise there
would be a revolution upon the part of the
consumers of steel rails In thta country, the
railroad companies, and they would be forced
to organize and establish their own plants,
which they are amply able to do, and manu
facture their own rails. Nothing of this kind
is done, which Is a very conclusive argument
that they do not regard the present price of
steel rails as exorbitant, and. therefore, no
harm is done to any one the Democratic crit
icism to the contrary notwithstanding.
Now it is conceded by me that not only
the manufacturers of steel rails, but certain
other manufactures In this country do each
year sell to foreigners a mere fraction only,
however, of their products at cut rates, but I
deny most positively that the tariff has any
thing whatever to do with that. It occurs ln
all countries and under all conditions ln free
trade countries as ln protective tariff coun
tries. It is one of the phenomenons of trade,
and is the result of conditions wholly other
than the imposition of tariff duties.
What are the reasons, then, for the sale at
times of certain manufactured products abroad
cheaper than at home? Suppose a manufac
turer of steel rails, or any other product, has
at times a surplus on hands the home de
mand has been met. The manufacturer must,
therefore, do one of two things; either close
his factories giving them over to rust and de
cay, and turn hundreds and thousands of
wage-workers out of employment, to the great
Injury of themselves and families, or he must
for the time being find a temporary market
abroad. Or, he may wish, indeed. In time
to find a permanent market abroad for his sur
plus products, not needed at home. So he
deems it wise, rath or than to close bis mills
and turn all of his employes out of doors, to
continue to run and sell his surplus products
for a time Jo foreigners at a price less than
his regular rates to his home customers. So
he turns his attention doubtless, first to the
adjacent countries Mexico on the south and
Canada on the north. In Mexico he must
compete with the rails manufactured by the
cheap labor of Europe, whose steel rails can
be manufactured much cheaper than in this
Their Tails can also be laid down in Mexico,
by reason of having all water transportation,
much cheaper than can rails from the United
States, as our transportation Is part by land
and part by water, and therefore more costly.
Therefore, It becomes absolutely necessary for
the American manufacturer to rate the price
of his raits below that which he is getting from
the home consumer.
But, again, suppose under like conditions he
turns his attention to Canada and attempts
to open up a trade there; he is met with still
another obstacle to contend with, if he enters
into competition in that market, and that is
that Canada is today paying a bounty to Its
own people manufacturing steel rails In that
country; and these same reasons apply ln all
cases in which the manufacturer of any ar
ticle sells simply a portion of his product
each year to foreigners at a less price than
to the home consumer.
But it must be borne in mind ln this con
nection that the amount of the American prod
ucts that are thus sold abroad each year to
foreigners at prices less than the same are
sold to the home consumers, is so small as to
be almost lnfinlteelmable. and when taken in
connection with the whole trade can have
no possible effect' except It Is a good effect.
In preventing the temporary- closing of our
factories and the turning out of employment
of hundreds and thousands of our wage-workers.
The Democratic Policy of Tariff for-Revenue
Only Is Ruinous.
Our Democratic Friends denounce the
policy of a protective tariff, and insisting it is
a robbery and oppressive of the people, pro
claim ln favor of tariff for revenue only, which
is really free trade.
Now. let us for a moment compare the re
cults under our protective system with those
under the policy of tariff for revenue only in
free-trade England, in tee past OS years,
since 1816. England has collected her duties
on imports, under the policy advocated today
and for years past by the Democratic party
in this country, that of tariff for revenue
only. While In 3S. at least, of these 5S years.
the Republican party nas jeviea ltsoutics on
Imports under the policy of protection. And
taking the results In the two countries for the
last year, what do we nan? England's total
revenue last year from customs duties was ln
round numbers $172,000,000; from excises,
$160,000,000: from estates. $68,000,000: from
stamp taxes. $41,000,000; from land and income
taxes, jOi.wu.wj: ma King ner total annual
revenue from taxes, $048,000,000.
In pther words, the total annual revenues
of England from taxes amounted last year
la round numbers to $C4S.OOO,00"0, or about $16
per capita. While in the United States they
amounted to $2S4,470,000 from customs duties.
$292,530,000 from excises, and about $3,000,000
from all other sources; making a total of
about $580,000,000. or less than $6.50 per capi
ta. In other words, our taxation for National
purposes last year, with a population double
that of England, was over $130,000,000 less
than that of England, and was $9.50 less per
capita than that of free-trade England.
A further examination and comparison de
velops the fact that the customs duties in
Great iintain, inciuaing tne special cuty on
coal, amounts to $4.30 per capita, while In
t.ils country the total of the customs duties
amounts to but $3.50 per capita.
A further fact should be noticed, and that
is that the articles are very few which, on
entering Great Britain, can be taxed under
the policy of tariff for revenue only, that Is.
articles the like cf which are not produced
In Great Britain, and roost of them are the
necessaries of life, euch as tea, coffee, sugar,
currants, raisins, etc So it will be seen the
policy of tariff for revenue only presses dawn
hard on the heads of the common people who
earn their bread. by the sweat of their face
and such also would be the rsult of such a
policy in this country.
Chamberlain's Reasons for AtoidoaUg Free
Trade la Great Britain.
Mr. Chaobtrlain havinsr been asked recently
upon what data he based his demand for tho
abandonment of free trade ln Great Britain
and establishment of tho protective policy, re
piled by saying that "60 years ago the
United Kingdom was self-feeding, while today
more than one-half of Its meats, and more
than two-thirds of its grains are of foreign
origin: that in 1840 It -purchased from abroad
only 23,000.000 hundredweight Of food of all
kinds, while now It purchases 304,000.000 hun
dredweight; that in 00 years the population
has increased about 58 per cent, while the
food bill has in the same time Increased 1180
per cent. In the last 30 years the area plant
ed in wheat was decreased by 26 per cent, and
that in vegetables by 14 per cent; that the
farm products of Great Britain, which were
47.000.000 ln value before free trade, have
been reduced from that to less than 15,000,
000." These are some of the reasons why Mr.
Chamberlain, England's greatest living states
man, has resigned his post of Secretary of
State for the colonies in the British Cabinet
to lead the people of Great Britain away from
the tarlff-for-revenue-only policy to that of
the protective policy. These are some of the
reasons which have prompted Premier Bal
four to write and speak urging the people and
government of Great Britain to abandon tho
policy of free trade.
It has been clearly shown by Mr. Chamber
lain. Mr. Balfour and others. In the great
contest now going on ln England for the aban
donment of free trade, that the free trade
policy has been ruining the manufacturing
Industries of that country and casting a with
ering blight upon Its export trade. An official
statement recently issued by the British gov
ernment shows that the exports from Great
Britain increased but S per cent from 1SS2 to
1002, a period of 20 years, while those from
protective Germany ln the same 'time In
creased 64 per cent, and those from this coun
try ln the same time under the policy of pro
tection increased over 290 per cent.
A Comparison of Conditions Under Harrison
and Cleveland's Administration.
Now, I propose to compare the condition of
this country and Its people under the two ad
ministrations of Presidents .Harrison and
The Administration of President Harrison,
as you are aware, extended from March 4,
1S89. to March 4. 1892. and that of Cleveland
from March 4, 1893. to March 4. 1897.
I assume there is no better test as to which
policy. Republican or Democratic, is best for
our country, than by comparing the conditions
of the country, as I have heretofore stated,
under the administrations of each of these
In the first It must be remembered from
March 4. 1889, when President Harrison was
inaugurated, until March 4. 1S93, when he
went out, this Government was ln its two
great departments, executive and legislative,
under the absolute control of the Republican
party, while from March 4, 1893. to March 4,
1S95. a period of two years, these departments
were under the absolute control of the Demo
cratic party, while the executive department
continued under the control of the Democratic
party until March A, 1897.
I assume, further, that It will not be denied
by any responsible authority, that, when the
Republican party went out of power on March
4. 1893, this country was running at high tide
of industrial and commercial prosperity. His
tory records the fact that the year ending
December. 1802. was one ln which this coun
try succeeded to a higher degree of general
prosperity than ever before In the history of
the Republic. There was in that year scarce
ly an idle mill or factory: alt were running
to their full capacity, and the demand tor
employment was unheard of throughout the
The McKinley tariff act was passed ln Oc
tober, 1890, but It was the year 1892 before
the country began to feel its full benefit. But
Its magnificent effects ln that year were in
dicated in Innumerable ways; first, by In
creased productions, by advance in wages, by
the swelling volume of our exports, and di
minished value of our Imports", and In many
other ways.
The output of pig iron in 1892 was more than
1.0(10.000 tons more than that of the crecedlng
years, and more than 2.000.000 tons more than
the total output ot Great Britain the same
year. We produced 200.000 tons more of steel
rails in 1BZ than in 1S3I. Our foreign com
merce amounted to within a. fraction ot $2.-
009.000.000. a sum far In excess of that ever
reacnea betore; wmie our domestic commerce
reached the enormous aggregate of 25 times
that amount, or more than 550.000, 000, 000.
Our exports to foreign countries In the year
1892 exceeded our Imports by more than $202.
OOQ.000. Our National receipts were many
millions ln excess of our National expendi
tures, while our National debt ln that and ln
the three preceding years of Harrison's Ad
ministration was reduced to the amount of
$259,200,000. and our annual interest charges
were reduced more than $10,500,000. But still
more, we expended during the Harrison Ad
ministration over $100,000,000 ln the construc
tion of a new Navy; and ln view of subs-.
quent history, will any patriotic American
insist that this was money not wisely expend
ed? If there is any such American, let the
answer to him be the deafening thunders oV
that Navy At the gates ot Manila, when, -under
the direction of Dewey, the Spanish fleet was
sent to the bottom ot the sea; let the. further
answer be that historic dispatch, said to have
been penned by the then Assistant Secretary
of the Navy. Theodore Roosevelt, our distin
guished candidate for President of the United
States, and signed by President McKinley. di-rt-cted
to Commodore Dewey, and which In
substance and effect said to him, "Find the
Spanish fleet and either capture or destroy
It." Let the still further answer be the de
struction of the balance of the Spanish -fleet
in the harbor of Santiago.
But I am digressing;- We expended in that
year, 1802, ln the improvement ot oar rivers
and harbervi nearly ISLnnOMU. anif nM
during Harrison's Administration to the bravs
veterans or tne war or the Rebellion" in the-
way of pensions more than $900,000,000.
But not only so. Br the provisions of the
XcKlnUr tart act of 180, we reduced the
tariff duties more than J.'A 000.000. $50,000,000
of which came off of sugar alone, and which
was paid mostly by tho consumer.
And, ln addition to all this, we turned over
to Mr. Cleveland and the Democratic party,
when they came into power on March 4, 1S93,
not only an absolutely solvent Treasury, but
a Treasury with a surplus over and above the
$100,000,000 of gold In- the sinking fund, of
more than $100,000,000 in gold.
But what followed? Unfortunately, the
Presidential election of 1892 came on before
the people generally had come to a, full re
alization of the great benefits of the operation
of the McKinley act, and hundreds of thous
and wage-earners and farmers, deceived by
the false cry that went up from every Dem
ocratic stump In the land, to the effect that
tho McKinley act was unconstitutional. un
American, a robbery and a fraud, and. as a
result, they were deluded and misled and In
duced to vote for the reinstatement of the
Democratic party, and, as a result of all this.
Grover Cleveland was re-elected and the De
mocracy restored to power. And what were
the consequences that followed? Ask the
wage-workers, the farmers, the wool-growers,
the lumber producers, the fruit-raisers and the
manufacturers ot this country.
Soon after the result of the election of 1892
was known our Industrial and financial ekles
became darkened by ominous clouds. Scarce
ly had Mr. Cleveland and his Administration
been Installed ln power until, with the force
of a deadly cyclone, storms of financial and
Industrial desolation swept across and over
this country. leaving wreckage and waste and
pitiable want In their gloomy wake. And
history attests the tact that never since tfie
treaty of peace with Great Britain, which se
cured our Independence, except, perhaps, dur
ing the Continental period, between the date
of the adoption of. the articles of confedera
tion, and their displacement by the adoption
of the Federal Constitution, have the people
of this country suffered from financial and
business depression as they did during the
second Administration of President Cleveland.
Three days after the Inauguration of Mr.
Cleveland money on call in New York de
manded and commanded as high as 30 per
cent. Soon the -financial storm bore down in
all Its deadly fury on National and state
banks, and Inside of six months 560 state and
private banks and 155 National banks were
Involved in the fearful wreck and driven to
the wall.
Commercial failures followed ln quick suc
cession, and before January J, 1894. there were
Jn this country, so happy, so prosperous un
der the Administration of Benjamin Harrison,
15,750 commercial failures, with an aggregate
of liabilities of more than $470,000,000.
But not only so. Before Cleveland's Admin
istration had been ln power nine months,
more than one-half of the factories of this
country were cither closed absolutely, or were
running on short time. Labor ln this country
between November 8, 1692, the date when
Cleveland was elected, and November. 1896,
near the close of bis Administration, decreased
61 per cent, and the price ot labor 63 per
But. added to all these calamities, history
records the fact that during the year 1893 more
than 3.000.000 wage-earners la this .country
were thrown out of employment. The two
cities of New York and Brooklyn alone con
tributed ln cash, each day, during the entire
year, .over $100,000 in the way of charities
with which to feed and clothe the 300,000 un
employed and; their -families In those two
cities, who were unable to get work at any
In -the first year of Cleveland's second term
our foreign commerce. fe;i off over 5CS.OC0.000.
while our domestic commerce was reduced
more than 25 times that amount, or more than
$1,700,000,000. Our National wealth. Instead
ot advancing as it had during the .Adminis
tration of Harrison, decreased In a single
year more than $10,000,000,000. while cur Na
tional expenditures the first year of his Ad
ministration, ending March 4. 1894, exceeded
our receipts by more than $78,000,000.
The bank clearings of this country for the
last 17 months of the Harrison Administration
reached the enormous sum of $82,000,000,000,
while for the first 17 months ot Cleveland's
Administration they were, in round numbers,
but $73,000,000,000. or a falling off ln this
short space of time of more than JO.OOO.r
In 1892 we exported flour of Ufa value of
over $24,000,000 more than we did ln 1891.
In 1892 we sold in foreign markets, cattle ot
the value of more than $35,000,000. while ln
1895 our sales of cattle were less than $30,000.
COO. In 1802. under Republican Administra
tion, we exported and sold to the world butter
and cheese -of the- value of over $10,000,000,
while ln 1895. under free-trade Democratic
Administration, our sales of butter and cheese
amounted to less than $6,000,000. In 1892 we
exported fruits of the value of over $12,000,000,
while in 1895 our export sales were less than
$9,000,000. In 1832 the value ot our hogs ln
this country was more than $241,000,000. while
ln 1896 their value was less than $ I 3.000. 000.
or a loss of over $55,000,000 In four years.
In IE92 we had In this country horses of- the
value ot $107,000,000. white ln 1866, although
there had been no material decrease in the
number of horses, the aggregate value was but
$50,000,000. or a falling off of over half their
former valtie.
In 1652 we had 45,000.000 head of sheep,
worth on the average $2.85 per head, "or of
a total of 512S.OW.000, while In 186, under
the free-trade, WllsonGorman act, we bad
but a fraction over SS. 000,000 head, worth cn
the average not more than $1.25 per head, or a
totol value of about $47,090,000.
But. consider for a moment the tremendous
consequences to "our' forebca trade by the re
peal of the McKinley tariff act and the .enact
ment of the Wllson-Gormait act.
Daring- the -last 'year of the operation of the
McKinley act our exports to foreign countries
amounted In raise to- a fraction over SMt,
000.000. while for the first -year of the Wilsoa--Gonaaa.
free-trade act tier were bat a frac
tion over $824,000,006. or a decrease In this
ose year In te "value- of our exports tit tor
eien countries -of. $S,O0O.OGa. '
But, farther.- wWfe am -tmperU unmr Use
lMt-;Mr oC the XoKiater act. wer f tka
value ot but $55,000,000. our Imports under
the operation of the first year of the Wilson
Gorman act were of the value of over $S02.
000,000. or an increase of $147,000,000. By
this Increase in lxnportand decrsaso ln ex
ports it foots up an aggregate loss In our
trade with the world of about $214,000,000.
And yet. notwithstanding all these histor
ical facts, none of which can be successfully
denied, we find the democratic candidate tor
President, in his recent speech at his home
in New York, insisting that the Administra
tion of Mr. Cleveland was. when compared
with the administrations of Harrison. McKin
ley and Roosevelt, more economical, wiser and
in all respects better for the people of the
country. Facts,- however, are stubborn things,
and it will be. I imagine, quite difficult to
make the people of this country see it iri that
light. The masses of the people in this coun
try are not Ignorant; they read, and under
stand, and are not very often misled by mis
representation. The Democratic Campaign of Misrepre
sentation. Unfortunately, and it la a most regrettable
fact, the campaign upon the part of the Dem
ocratic candidate for President In the East,
seems to have drifted Into one of ralsrepre-'
eentatlon. I am unable, however, to bring
myself to believe that It is a case of willful
misrepresentation, but rather one based on
misinformation and lack of knowledge ot the
subjects on which he speaks. on the part of
Mr. Parker, although there would scarcely
seem to be any excuse for saying publicly we
have lost 200,000 men in the Philippines, while
the fact Is our entire loss does not exceed
5000; or for saying publicly that the Philip
pines have cost us $050,000,000, when, as a
matter of fact, the total cost of the Philip
pines, Including the 520.000.000 paid Spain,
amounted up to June 30, 1904. to only $194.
180.000, and the present but $204,000,000.
Assuming, however, that these and other like
misrepresentations are the result of misin
formation and lack of knowledge on the part
of Mr. Parker, It would seem more ln accord
ance with honorable campaigning to publicly
correct the mistake, rather than to persist
In lt after his attention bad been, as it has
been, frequently called to tho errors.
Wo Are, Under the Protective System, Rap
Idly Becoming tho Factory-House of the
We are today, under the creative and up
building policies of the Republican party,
rapidly becoming the factory house of the
world. Under tho Wilson-Gorman frectrade
tariff act our people were large Importers of
the necessaries of life, while today, under the
beneficent operation of the Dingley act, we
are not only supplying our own wants, but
we are sending annually to other nations many
millions wprth of manufactured articles ar
ticles manufactured by American labor in
American shops.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, we
exported manufactured products of the value
of $300,000,000, and In the past fiscal year of
the value of more than $450,000,000. That
the wage-earners of this country are prosper
ous is clearly indicated by the fact that there
are on deposit today ln the savings banks of
this country the enormous amount of over
$2,900,000,000; this fa. in the main, the prop
erty of the laborers of this country, while the
suralus canltal of the business men Is repre
sented by a still greater amount of deposits ln
the vaults of our National and private banks.
ln 1690 we Imported 230.000,000 pounds of
foreign wool, the result clearly of the Wilson
Gorman free-trade tariff act, while ln 1899.
under the Dingley act we Imported but 76.000,
000 pounds. The result of this change Is found
in the Increased value of wool and sheep over
values under the Wilson-Gorman act In 1890.
The average price of sheep In Oregon Janu
ary 1 last, under the Dingley act, according
to statistics of the Department of Agriculture,
was $2.90 per head, as compared with $1.20
at- the close of Cleveland's Administration.
The price of cattle has largely advanced. Cot
ton brougnt 4 cents per pound under the Cleve
land Administration, while under the McKinley
and Roosevelt administrations It is bringing
10 and 12 cents per pound- Wages have In
creased from 15 to 100 per cent in nearly
every protective industry. Eight hundred and
seventy million more dollars were paid to the
laborers of this country last year than were
paid ln 1896.
A Speaking Comparison in the Public Debt.
But compare the last Democratic adminis
tration this country bad. that of Cleveland's
second term, with the Republican administra
tion that preceded It, in connection with tho
public debt.
During both of thee administrations we
were at peace with the world, we were not In
volved ln any war, either at home or abroad,
and. therefore, our Treasury was not sub
jected to the drain which war always Im
poses. During the four years of Harrison's ad
ministration the principal of the public debt
was reduced at the rate ot $1S0.000 each day
of the whole four years $5,400,000 each month;
$64,800,000 each year making an aggregate In
reduction of the principal of the National
debt during Harrison's administration ot
But how was It during the four years of
Cleveland's administration that followed?
The principal ot the public debt during that
adml Istratlon, Instead of being reduced, was
Increased on an average at the rate of $208,186
every day. $6,244,604 each month. $74,935,000
each year, making an aggregate of the In
crease of tne principal ot tne puduc ceoz in
the four years of Cleveland's last term the
enormous sum of $262,351,400: and with this
Increase of principal came, ot course, an an
nual Increase ot Interest, saddled on the
country, of about $11,500,000. In other words.
the last Democratic administration in power
In this country increased the interest-bearing
debt to a sum which, to meet principal and
interest at maturity bad It not been reduced
ln a great measure by tho present administra
tion, "by refunding at 2 per cent woujd have
required a fund of more than $500,000,000.
Is this the kind or character of administration
the people of this country, studying their beet
Interests, should wish to return to?
In comparing the results of Democratic ad
ministrations with Republican administrations.
It is Interesting to note the fact that from
the year 1663 to 1603, a period of 28 years,
every one of which was under Republican
control, the receipts ot the Government ex
ceeded the expenditures by many millions of
dollars, with the single exception of the year
1874. when there was a slight deficit of $1,297.
709. The average excess of receipts annually over
expenditures of these 28 years was more than
$50,000,000. whereas for the next four years,
which covered the whole of Cleveland's sec
ond administration, there was not a single year
there was not a deficit of from S18.O0O.O0O to
over $39,000,000. the average annual deficit ln
those yeara being $36,715,046.
But still further: Since the repeal ot the
Wilson-Gorman act to and Including the fiscal
year ending "June 30. 1003, there has been an
excess of receipts over expenditures ranging
from $52,000,000 to $91,000,000. the average
annual excess ln these four years being $75.
286.953. The Increase of Our National Wealth Under
Protective Policy Is Marvelous Compered
With That in Froc-Trade Co ua tries.
A comparison of the increase ln National
wealth for the past 33 years of the three coun
tries, free-trade Great Britain, protective
Germany and the United States, ought to con
vince every one as to which policy, free trade
or protection. Is the better one for the coun
try and for the people.
The National wealth of free-trade Great
Britain In 1870 was $36,000,000,000; ln 1903 It
was $60,000,000,000. or an increase of but 68.7
per cent.
While the national wealth of protective Ger
many in 1870 was $21,000,000,000, ln 1003 it
was $41,000,000,000. or an Increase ot 95.2
per cent.
While the National wealth of the United
States ln 1870 was $30,000,000,000. and ln 1903
$100,000,000,00, or an Increase of 233.3 per
The same increase Is apparent in the amount
and Increase of savings deposits, which Illus
trates the prosperity of the working people:
The Increase in free-trade Great Britain was
from $263,000,000 in 1870 to $050,000,000 in 1903,
being an Increase in the last 30 years of but
$684,000,000. While In the United States the
Increase of savings deposits was from $550,
000.000 in 1870 to $2,935,000,000 ln 1CC3. being
anttnerease ot $2,385,000,000; or an Increase In
the past 30 years of more than three times as
much in the United States as ln Great Britain.
Marvelous Reduction of the Public Debt Ua
der Republican Administration.
The achievements of the last two adminis
trations, ln the matter of the reduction of the
public debt, and the interest thereon, are
worhy ot all commendation.
When McKinley was inaugurated the aver
age rate of Interest paid by the Government
on its Interest-bearing debt was 4.058 per
cent, while at tho close of the last fiscal year.
June 30. 1904. the average rate ot interest on
the public debt was but 2.7 per cent.
The total Interest-bearing debt cf this coun
try at the close of the Spanish War was a
fraction over $1,046,000,000. Since then there
has been a reduction In this debt of nearly
Since the enactment of the gold standard act
of March 14. 1900. the amount of bonds re
funded ha ben S342.809.85ft and bv whlrti
"The pale complexion
of true love" assumes
a warmer tint "by the
use. of Fears' Soap.
the bonds bearing 4 or 5 per cent interest
have been replaced by those bearing only 2
per cent.
The Democratic, party proclaims loudly for
reciprocity. Now, theer are two kinds ot rec
iprocity Republican reciprocity and Demo
cratic reciprocity. The Republican recipro
city Is the kind Of recinroclt v sucirestnl nitil
advocated by those great statesmen. James G.
xiiaine ana wuiuun McKinley, and which
have, to a lanre extent, been nut lntn nitra
tion by President Roosevelt. While Democratic
reciprocity is tne kind advocated by the Dem
ocratic party In the treaty, by the Pierce ad
ministration ln 1855. with Canada,
And. furthermore. Republican reciprocity
13 such as to protect, strengthen and promote
our home Industries, while the principles ot
Democratic reciprocity tend to imperil and
destroy our home protection to home indus
tries. Now. let me tell vou the dlfferpnea between
these two kinds of reclDrocltv. Democratic
reciprocity is an exchange of articles free of
amy mat is. or all those articles the like -of
which are produced in both countries. While
Republican reciprocity provides for the ad
mission Into this country, free of duty, such
foreign products as we can use without harm
to our Industries and labor at home, and which
we do not produce In this country, and. In
return, jslve them such ot our surplus prod
ucts ae we can spare ana cesire tq sell, ana
which the countries with whom we treat re
quire for their own use.
Let me call your attention to our Democratic
treaty with Canada, made under the Fierce
administration In 1S54:
The Democratic Reciprocity Treaty of 1854
With Canada.
This treaty provided for reciprocity with
Canada: and it provided for the introduc
tion into each country from the other, frea
of duty, of a great number of articles that
were produced in both countries, such as
grain, flour, animals of all kinds, meats,
seeds, vegetables, fruits, fish, poultry, eggs,
hides, furs, stone, slate, butter, cheese, tal
low, lard. ores. coal, pitch, turpentine, tim
ber, lumber, flax, hemp, tobacco, rags and
cotton; the latter article, cotton, being the
only article on the entire list not produced ln
both countries. That treaty was ln existence
from March 16, 1835, until March 17, 18C6.
11 years.
In that time our exports to Canada fell
from $27.41.S0S ln 1S55. to $23,439,115 ln
1860. being a reduction of $4,000,000. Whllo
the Imports Into this country from Canada
In that time Increased from $15,118,289 ln
1855 to $48,133,593 in 1SC0. an increase of
over $33,000,000.
This m Democratic reciprocity; a reciproci
ty which simply provides for an Interchange
of articles of common production, and which
affords no protection at all to the products
of our own country, and which resulted In
ruining our trade with Canada, decreasing
our exports to ianaaa. ana increasing our
Imports from Canada.
In the 11 years that treaty was In opera
tion our Imports from all other countries, ex
cept Canada, increased only 60 per cent.
while those from Canada Increased 220 per
cent: and during this time while our ex
ports to all other countries Increased about
0 per cent, those to Canada under this
Democratic reciprocity decrease 15 per cent.
Republican reciprocity Is. upon the other
hand, that eo clearly defined by our martyred
President, McKinley, ln his last great speech
at Buffalo:
"A sensible trade arrangement which will
not Interrupt our home production, and by
which we shall extend the outlets for our
Increasing surplus."
"We should take from our customers,"
said President McKinley, "such of their
products as wo can use without harm to our
industries and labor."
A Comparison of Our Nation With That of
the' Entire World Shows the Wonderful
Progress It Is Malting Under Existing;
But take a wider view, a broader view, a
National and an international view of the
progress of our protective country, and com
pare It with the balance of the world, and
we find an object-lesson that will ln and
of itself forever put to flight all arguments
that have ever been advanced, or which ever
can be advanced ln opposition to the Repub
lican policy of protection to American Indus
tries and American labor.
The entire wealth of the world Is today
estimated at about $400,000,000,000. Of this
$100,000,000,000. or 23 per cent, belongs to
the United States.
The banking power of the world is $27,-
"We can offer no better evidence
of the superiority of our "Watches
over all American "Watches than
the fact: The Watch trust will
not allow a San Francisco jobber
to sell them in competition with
Watches manufactured by the
Therefore, for the convenience
of the retail trade, we have estab
lished an office in Booms 302-303
CALL BLDG., and display the
largest stock of complete DXJE-BER-HAMPDEN
ever seen on the Coast.
We make complete watches.
MovetBeats as well as cases.
Th Master Specialist
of I'artland. who cares
mea earj who sees
patiests personally.
Krtahlfafcea 1879.
wnere. we mil Demonstrate to your entire satisf actios , why
we can cure you permanently. Our consultation is free and our charge for a
perfect cure wiU he reasonable and not more than you will be willing to pay.-
Is what you want. "We give you a legal guarantee to cure you or refund year
money What we have done for others we can do for you. .One personal -visit 1st
.preferred, but if it is Impossible for you to call, write pa a description of yeer
case &s you. understand It. stating: your symptoms, your occupation; etc.. asd yon.
will receive in plain envelope a scientific and honest opinion, of your cauw fraa of
bir heme treatment is successful and strictly private.
St. Louis sSand Dispensary
Cwtper Secrad ami YjmbMB Streets. PartJastf, Ortft
045,000.000. and ot this the United States
has $14,000,000,000. or 52 per cent.
The savings bank deposits of the world are
$9,000,000,000. and of this the United States
has $2,935,000,000. or 30 per cent.
The money of the world In circulation is
but $9.47 per capita, white that of the United
states is $30.33 per capita.
The annual government revenues of the
world are $6,924,000,000. while those "of the
United States are a fraction over ?5S4,000,
000. or 9.8 per cent.
The world's stock of gold Is $5,607,000,000,
while that of the t'nlted States is $1,315,000.
000. or 23.4 per cent--
The railroad mileage of the world is 490,
000, while that of the United States Is 190,
000 miles, or 39.5 per cent.
The number of passengers annually car
ried ln tho world Is estimated at '3,748,000.
000. while the number carried ln the United
States last year was 5S4.0O0.00O. or 15.5 per
The total railway receipts of the world
last year were $3,S40.000.000. while those ot
the United States last year were $1,483,000,
000, or 3S.7 per cent.
The coal production of the world last year
was 787.000,000 tons, while that of the
United States was nearly 400.000.000. tons,
or 54 per cent of the whole amount.
The copper production 'of the world last
year amounted to 525,337 tons, while that
of tho United States was 272,625 tons, or
51 per cent.
The Small Per Capita of Our Public Debt
Compared With That of Other Natioas.
But take unother international view ln
connection with the public debt of the dif
ferent nations. Of all the nations of the
earth, the United States has the least per
capita public debt. Its per capita debt today
is but $11. while that of the United King
dom ot Great Britain is $92; of the German
Empire $60; Russia. $24; Austria-Hungary.
$25; Italy, $81; Belgium. $31; the Nether
lands. $86; Argentina. $100; Spain. $110; and
France the enormous sum of $150 for each
man, woman and child ln the republic
The public debt of the United States, a pro
tective tariff country, today is but $925,000.
000.000; while that of free trade Great
Britain, with only a fraction over one-half
of our National wealth is $3.835,00C,000. or
more than four times that of ours. While
France, with an aggregate wealth of but a
fraction ovex one-third that of the United
States, has today a public debt of $3,836,000.
M00. or a debt of more than 6V4 times that
jul uura. ur k per cttiiiw licit ijr itubu
greater than ours.
A Protective Tariff Helps the Consumer as
Well as the Producer.
"But." say our Democratic friends, "you
Republicans by your protective tariff on
wool and cotton, white you benefit the
.producer by increasing the price of wool
and cotton, are Increasing the cost of
clothing to the masses ot the people." This
at first glance seems a plausible assumption,
but ln reality, when considered in connec
tion with tho increase In wages, it is a
false assumption, as can be clearly shown,
and I propose. If you will give me your at
tention, to prove that this is so-
The official statistics of the country from
1S9G to 1903. seven years past, show con
clusively three things: First, that the ad
vance In prices of most articles of consump
tion on the .free list has been considerably
greater than has been the advance in prices
of articles on which there has been a pro
tective duty; second, that there has been a
larger per cent In the Increase of tho price
of farm products than In those of farm con-s-imptlon;
and. third, that ln this period the
per cent in increase of wages has been much
greater than the per cent Increase of the
cost of living.
As an example, showing that the increase
in prices has been much greater on articles
of production than on those cf consumption,
it is shown by a recent official bulletin of the
United States Bureau of Labor (I quote
from the bulletin) that while,, since 1896.
there has been an advance In, the price o
beef cattle of 19.82 per cent, the advance In
beef during the same time has been
but 12.33 per cent. While since 1896 the
price of live hogs to the producers has been
Increased 75:22 per cent, the Increase- ln
price of hams to the consumer has been
but 34.90 per cent. While ln that time the
price of sheep to the producer has ad
vanced 25.3 per cent, the price of mutton
to the consumer has advanced but 19.6 per
cent'. While In that time corn has advanced
ln price for tho benefit of the producer TS.61
per cent, corn meal for the benefit of the
consumer has advanced hut .61.11 per cent.
Made at the Great
Watchworks at
Varicocele, Hydrocele
. Gleet and Stricture
"We want every man afflicted with Varicocele, Stricture, Con
tagious Blood Poison, Nervous Debility, Hydrocele, or allied
troubles to come to our office, where we wjll explain to him
our method of curing theso diseases. "We invite in .articu
lar all men who have become dissatisfied with, treatment-e!se-