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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
THE MORNING OREGOOTjAN, FRIDAT, JAFUAKY 1, 1904.
THE BROAD COUNTIES OF SOUTHEASTERN OREGON
LAND WHERE CATTLE AND SHEEP THRIVE ON BUNCHGRASS AND WHERE IRRIGATION PRODUCES RICH MEADOWS OF-HAY -
LIVESTOCK Is almost the exclusive in
dustry of the tour counties which
stretch along- the eastern boundary o
Oregon from, the Cascade mountains to
the Idaho line. Broad, bunch-grass plains
and valleys are shut in by timbered
mTTtfntng in the eastern part of this sec
tion. The western half is more moun
tainous and is dotted with numerous
lakes, along whose banks are great tula
swamps These have been converted by
drainage Into luscious hay meadows.
In this section private enterprise has
earned out some of its largest irriga
tion, -enterprises. The -Government has
projected one of Its most extensive
schemes of this kind in the Harney Valley.
"When this is carried out and railroads
have penetrated this now almost inaces
Elble country, grain and fruit will be pro
duced from much of the land now given
over to livestock and thousands of farm
era will pour in. There is, a great, future
before Southeastern Oregon and it is not
EtfRIOHED BY IRRIGATION.
Klamath County's Success With AI
t falfa-Dralnlng Great Swamps.
WESTWARD the star' of irrigation
wends its way.
The early pioneer, as in every
thing else, profited very little by his work
In Klamath the early settler has sold
his sagebrush land, only' to. see It re
sold in a short time at a price fivefold
greater than he received. The first
ditch constructed here was by the Llnk
ville Water Ditch Company, and was
practically given away; some three years .
ago this sold at a valuation of $20,000,
And is now easily worth 540,000.
The development 'of Klamath County
has necessarily been very slow, caused
"by its remoteness from a railroad. In
the Spring of 1903 the Klamath Lake
Railroad extended its track some seven
miles into Klamath County to Poke
gama, distant 34 miles from Klamath
Falls, and has been doing a general
passenger and freight business with this
entire section. The prosjects are good for
Its extension to Klamath Falls during the
year 1904. Another industry established
during 1903 is that of the Klamath Lake
Navigation Company. This company has
already two gasoline launches on tfle
Klamath Lakes, and Intends to con
struct one or more good-sized steamers
during the coming season.
Important work In the Jlne of irriga
tion has been under way during the past
year, probably the most important being
the cutting of a canal from Lower
Klamath Lake to "White Lake, increasing
the supply of water to the Little Klam
ath Ditch, better known as the Adams
Ditch, thereby supplying the fertile lands
of lower Lost River and Tule Lake with
In the Bonanza section a complete
steam pumping plant has been installed
that wlH furnish water for a large num
ber ox acres of fine alfalfa land. Nu
merous wheels are being constructed
along Lost River. In some instances sin
gle wheels will raise sufficient water for
150 acres of land and cost nothing to
operate after being' Installed.
Another matter that Is at present at
tracting attention Is the draining of
overflowed lands by means of diking with
dredgers, the Klamath Lakes being bor
dered with thousands of acres of this
ass of land, which is very productive
Klamath County has made great strides
as a beef-feeding section, all the alfalfa
produced In 1903 being purchased by San
Francisco. Sacramento and Oakland par
ties for the purpose of feeding beef cat
tle until they are wanted at those cities.
The cold, dry climate and sandy feed
ing grounds are Ideal for the welfare of
The several towns of Klamath County
show a healthy growth during the year
Just past, although Improvements were
somewhat curtailed by lack of building
material, the mills being unable to sup
ply the demand for lumber.
The general prosperity of the county is
indicated by the better class of build
ings constructed and the contented ap
pearance of the people.
GEORGE F. BALDWIN.
Klamath Falls, December 15.
GREAT HARNEY VALLEY.
Land Which Feeds Vast Herds May
Soon Be Irrigate'd.
HARNET County has Its distinct in
termountaln characteristics; its" phys
ical features are strongly marked. Lo
cated in the southeastern part of- the
state, it is a strip 150 miles In length
by an average of SO in width, with a
varying altitude of from 4100 to 5000 feet,'
yet capable of producing all kinds of
grasses, cereals and hardy fruits and
vegetables in every locality, and in fav-'
ored sections, coves and sheltered vales,
tropical fruits and plants.
As In all seml-arld countries, the stock
business is the predominant and most
profitable industry, and on our 10,000
tsquare miles are ranged during the sum
mer not less than 230.000 cattle and 500.000
sheep. Here are found the largest Indi
vidual stock ranches In the United
States. The products of the range gen
erally make their exit to market by way
of Ontario and Huntington: Huntington,
however, is the main distributing point
for merchandise Into the country.
Hay, being the prlficipal adjunct, next
to range possibilities for successful stock
operations, is the mainstay and pride of
Harney "Valley and County, the product
for recent years of natural meadow hay
aggregating 25,000 to 40,000 tons: and to
this must be added not less than 10.000 tons
of nutritious alfalfa. Until recent years
wheat has been deemed an experiment,
but It Is fast becoming a staple product
and enough now is grown "to nearly sup
ply the local market, and is manufactured
Into flour at a mill near Burns. Lumber
Is also one of the revenue features, four
mills supplying the local wants and pro
ducing about 1,000,000 feet a year.
It is estimated that the product of the
range of Harney County for each year is
One of the greatest needs at present is
greater dairying facilities. Local con
sumption Is not supplied In this respect,
and Harney County merchants draw their
supplies from Idaho and the Willamette
A spur of the Blue Mountains ex
tends across the northern portion c
the county, heavily setvith a belt of
sxcellent timber, yellow pine largely pre
lomlnatlng, although fir, tamarack, bull
pine, juniper and mountain mahogany
are much in evidence, the two latter
being principally used as firewood. The
average width of this timbered belt la
ibout 50 miles.
In the southeastern part of the county Is
the Stein Mountain range, extending from
the Nevada line In a northeasterly course
fully 63 miles, studded with pine parks
and Juniper groves. From these mountain
, fastnesses flow Silvies and Blitzen Elvers,
Crane, Poison. Prather. Silver and Sage
hen Creeks, which all trend in flow toward
the great Harney Valley.
No other valley In the state contains
so many unbroken leagues of land a
close estimate shows that there are 300,-
000 acres of tillable land susceptible of J
JJnder the recent Irrigation act Govern
ment engineers have been collecting data
during the past year with a view to a
suitable water storage in Silvies River at
the lower end of Silvies Valley, about 25
miles north of Burns, which will afford
sufficient water to reclaim 250,000 acres
of now arid lands. The plan' proposed
contemplates a breast of solid masonry
-60 feet high across a narrow gorge, which
will have a capacity of holding 180,000
acre-feet of water, covering a territory
Ll5 miles long and an. average of six miles
Stone of an excellent quality is found in
the Immediate vicinity. It is believed
that not more than two years will witness
the completion of this beneficial project;
and with this -vast reservoir an assured
fact, instead of 5000 people for Harney
County, we may confidently expect 50,000
people by the next census year, occupy
ing prosperous and happy homes, with all
fof the attendant endowments of .-educa
tional, religious and civic advancement.
A. W. GOWAN.
Burns, December 12.
Railroads and Irrigation Needed to
Develop Lake' County.
LAKE County is large enough to con
stitute an empire within itself. It
borders on the north boundary line of the
States of California and Nevada, extends
IN SUNNY SOUTHERN OREGON
SOUTHERN OREGON, which the Cal
apoola Mountains cut off from the
Willamette Valley, Is a region where
the mountains yield gold ore and the
valleys golden fruit and grain. It has been
pourinc forth the precious metals eVer
since its wealth was discovered by the
Forty-niners cn their way to and from
California, and the supply is by no means
PROGRESS OP DOUGLAS.
.Inrush of Immigrants Causes a Great
WHILE there has been a very marked
progress along all lines in Douglas
County during the year 1903, there has
been nothing of the boom nature. Times,
as a rule,- have been very good indeed.
Notwithstanding the shortage of labor of
all kinds, everv class of Industry has made
material advancement. There Is a decided
Increase In the value of Improved real
estate; while many settlers have gone
upon the public domain and taken up
homesteads; these have erected perma
nent improvements and established bona
fide homes. A number of these settlers
made entry of their claims as late as June
of the year 19C5, and since that time have
erected comfortable cabins, grown crops
of vegetables and hay, which are har
vested and garnered for the Winter. These
people are extravagant in their praises of
The population has been increased on
the whole, in a very marked degree. The
new population on the whole, Is of a sub
stantial class, generally from the Middle
West. They have caused a pronounced
activity in real estate, both improved and
otherwise. Hundreds of buildings have
been constructed and permanent homes
Mines Increase Output.
The mines are turning out more metal
than during the days of the early settle
ment of the country. This Is due to sever
al causes, chief among which is' the im
proved methods of working both placer
and quartz. Ground which was considered
almost worthless 25 years ago is now good
paying property; while new discoveries
are belntr constantly made. The large
bodies of low-grade ore, so abundant in
Douglas County, are sought after.
The lumber business has received a
strong Impetus. Large tracts of as fine
timbei as can be found on the Coast are
within Douglas County and have been
practically all located within the last two
years. One company has in progress the
opening of the North Umpqua River for
floating logs for a distance of more than
40 miles. Similar developments are being
undertaken along- the South Umpqua and
its chief tributaries. When these rivers
are once placed In condition to float -logs
the lumber industry of Douglas County
will assume enormous proportions.
Fruit Brings High Prices.
The fruit industry has grown in impor
tance until the- year 1903 witnessed the
highest prices as well as the best quality
of fruit ever had in the county. Horti
culture has enjoyed a steady, healthy
growth, both as regards increased acreage
and the perfection of fruit. The sales ag
gregate many thousands of dollars a year.
Two prunepacklng houses, of sufficient
capacity to handle the entire prune crop
of the county, have been erected in Rose
burg and insure a market at the best
price right at home. The present dispo
sition of tne grower is toward a better
class ot fruit. Spraying, cultivation, ferti
lization and selection of the best varie
ties are now employed, and the result is ft)
per cent more merchantable fruft than
was received two years ago.
The climatic conditions, natural food
elem'entsv together with a happy market
north about 12) miles with an average J
wiau oi is mues, &na is aocaiea near we
central part. of the state from east to
The altitude of Its valleys ranges from
2500 to 5000 feet, and these .valleys are sur
rounded, by bills and mountains, rising
usually quite precipitously to heights
varying from a few hundred to 2000 feet
above the level of, the adjacent valleys.
The western -portion of the county is
quite mountainous, while the eastern and
northern portions are less so, and form
part of the Oregon 'desert.
The mountainous portions are covered,
to a sreat extent, ' with heavy forests,
principally 'of yeliow pine, and the val
leys and desert region are covered with
sagebrush and kindred growths, except
those parts adjacent to its numerous
lakes, and hordering its streams, where
flourishes an abundant and luxuriant
growth of i stive .meadow grasses pf ex
Throughout the sagebrush region Is
found" the native "bunch trass" the most
nutritious of all grasses, and In the moun
tainous portions the stockmen find a va
riety of rich grasses and browse for their
herds in Summer.
This has been appropriately named
"Lake" County, for within Its borders are
to be found five of, the largest lakes within
the state, besides numerous smaller- ones.
The largest is Goose Lake, which Is about
40 miles long and from six to 13 miles
Would Boom With Irrigation.
Lake County's soli, with irrigation, is
unsurpassed In, fertility, -and seems never
to abate In Its productiveness from repeti
location, make this the poultryman's
paradise. The sales of turkeys alone for
Thanksgivirg 1903, netted the growers
about $40,000. This was not to exceed one
third of the turkey crop, in weight, the
balance being reserved for the holidays.
This makes the sales for the year approx
imately $120,000. There are also anually
raised and sold from this county thou
sands of chickens, ducks and geese, to
gether with carloads of eggs, of which
no record Is . made
increase of Livestock.
The raising of stock Is very generally
engaged In and has much increased and
thousands of cattle, hogs and sheep aro
annually shipped to the markets . both
North and South. The oak-covered foot
hills a'flord a most desirable Summer and
Winter range for hogs. Taken from this
range of heavy mast, they require very
little grain to finish them for market. The
hog sales for 1903 run well Into the thous
ands of do'lars. The herds of Angora
goats have Increased very rapidly, both
in size and number and the sales of mo
hair have demonstrated that the quality
is the most excellent grown In the United'
States. The raising of Angora goats Is be
coming a very popular industry In the
foot-hills. The value of the goat Is. as
great in clearing the land as for the mo
The resources of Douglas are beginning
to be recognized and a true estimate given
to their value. It is a safe prediction
that during the next ten years the popu
lation of the county will have doubled,
while in commercial importance- she will
stand well toward the head of the list of
Oregon counties. W. W. CARD WELL.
Roseburg. December IS.
HOST SOUTHERN COUNTY.
Lumber arid Mining Make Great Ad
vances in Josephine.
IN REVIEWING the industrial prog
ress made by our county during the
past year. Grant's Pass, the county seat,
is naturally the pivotal point to which all
Since the first of January last many sub
stantial Improvements have been made lh
this Jhriving town and county, but for
the present let us confine ourselves to the
material growth of Grant's Pass. Notably
first comes the growth of our population.
As no census has been taken since 1900,
there are no positive data to reckon from
except the school census, which, when,
taken last Spring, showed that there were
over 1000 children of school age in the
city limits', thus giving a population of
S500 to 4000, a growth since last census
of over GO per cent. The county has also
made material growth.
Since last January there have been
erected in the city 13 brick buildings, in
cluding a substantial six-room school
house of two floors and basement, a
three-story Masonic block of 75-foot front
age and a three-story addition to the Hotel
Josephine. No less than 70 dwellings have
been erected, varying In cost from $400 to.
'$3000. and still the town has not enough
buildings to meet the demand. There have
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tion of crops. It yields bountifully in
wheat, oats, barley, rye and meadow and
hay grasses, while all the fruits and ber
ries grown in the other portions of the'
state thrive here. Its apples are superior
to those .grown in any other portion of
The chief industry is stocktaking, there
being-In the .county about 250.000. head of
sheep, ''E.OG' head, of cattle aid 20.000 -head
of horses and mules, from which lsdo
rived an annual Income of about 5730,000.
This sum is distributed among a popula
tion of less than 4000 people.
The United States Land Ofilce for the
Lakeview district Is located at Lakevlew,
the county seat, which has a population
of about 1200.
The resources of this county are com
paratively undeveloped. There are vast
areas of the most fertile lands yet un
occupied, which need only to be irrigat
ed to become 'valuable and productive for
agricultural purposes, while there are yet
untaken numerous valuable locations' for
reservoir sites for storing and waste
waters, whereby much of these now bar
ren lands may be reclaimed. In the ad
joining County of Modoc. California, large
tracts are now successfully and profitably
been started this December excavations
for two more two-story bricks. Some ex
tensions have been made to the sewers
and the city has just voted to bond the
city for an additional main sewer.
Some new business houses have started
and those already in business have great
ly Increased their stock.
Output of Sawmills.
Tne Wlllams Bros.' Sash & Door Com
pany started Its new plant last Spring,
as well as the Sugar Pine Door & Lumber
Company, each having extensive plants
and doing a large business. The latter re
ceived from tho sawmills of this and
irrigated by means of water secured fom
numerous artesian wells. .
The proposed extension of the Columbia
Southern Railroad will greatly enhance
the value of the lands and timber, hasten
settlement and aid in general development
Freight and passenger transportation is
all carried on by team. Termo, CaL, and
Fokegama, Or., are the nearest railroad
points on the south, the, former being S5
miles, and the. latter; 135. miles distant from
Lakeviepv Shaniko, Or., 13 the nearest
point accessible on the north, being 153
miles from Silver Lake. . " ,
There has been little progress within
Jackson Counties 150.000 to 200,000 feet of
lumber per day. Curtlss Bros. & Co., of
Clinton, la., also cut and ship from this
city a carload or two of finished lumber
a day. The Applegate Boom & Lumber
Company, which started last year the
building of a flume on Applegate River,
has erected and put In operation a large
sawmill and klm.
Property In 1902 was assessed at $1.3S4.000
and In 1903 at $1,800,000, an Increase of
about 33 per cent. The largest gain comes
from timber lands taken up. This has
been an unprecedented .year in the taking
up of timber-lands and homesteads. The
the last year, partially owing to the slump
in the stock market, and partially on
account of the withdrawal by the Interior
j Department of a. large portion of its lands
I from disposal. This withdrawal came just
at .the time when its lands had begun to
j be sought ' by foreign capital, but ulti
; mately these lands, in a large measure,
: will, no doubt, be subject to disposal
With our undeveloped resources, the pro
posed extension of the Columbia Southern
and the influx of immigration we confl
i dently -expect from the Lewis and Clark
LAND OF PIONEER MINES STILL
ADDED FRUIT AND CATTLE
acreage of tillable land has been Increased
considerably by Irrigation and more
ground has been planted with fruits, hops,
grain and alfalfa.
Muc.i Mining Development.
Mining and lumbering, however, are two
of the chief Industries of Josephine Coun
ty. Much new capital has come In for
the development of the mines, notably the
Amerlcanj Gold Fields Company, which
bought the Granite Hill quartz and placer
mines on Louse Creek. This company em
ploys about 60 men, and Is developing a
fine mine. It has equipped It with -valuable
machinery and before Spring will Increase
the mill by ten stamps. The Alameda
Copper Company on Galtoe CreeTc Is afeain
at work. The Gallce Consolidated is spend
ing much money In ditches, flumes and
pipe In equipping Its property. The Con
solidated Milling and Smelting Company,
five miles from Grant's Pass, recently
"bought a prospecjt. and has a full crew at
work. On the Illinois several large com
panies have bought In this Spring- and
Summer and are developing some good
properties. Josephine County, without
question, is one of the richest mineral sec
tions on the Pacific Coast;
I There Is -great wealth in the mountains
of copper in the south end of the county.
The Waldo Mining & Smelting Company,
which has already spent several hundred
thousands in development, says a road
will be built over to the Coast next year
Centennial, Exposition, Lake County's
future is surely bright. L. F. CONN,
Lakeview, Dec. a.
IN MALHEUR COUNTY.
Livestock and Irrigation Divider At
tention of People.
MALHEUR County, which is a long,
narrow strip of territory divided on
the east from Idaho by the Snake River,
has .made great progress along all lines
during 1903, as Is easily, observed by ona
who has been away from ner boundary
for several months. An area of 876 acres
has been reclaimed under the Owyhee
ditch alone and 170 under the Nevada
ditch. Practically all of this new land
Is in alfalfa, providing feed for many
thousand more sheep and cattle.
Two million pounds of wool have been
sold at Ontario, an increase of 500,005
pounds. One hundred thousand head of
sheep were sold in California markets,
and the shipment of horses and cattle has
been immense. .
Formerly a great deal of the supplies
for the interior country to a distance of
200 miles has been unloaded at points out
side of Malheur, but this year conditions
have changed greatly, so that business
houses in Ontario are practically whole
sale houses as well as retail.
Lawsuits are often omens of evil, but
Malheur County has had one case which
affects all Irrigated sections in the state,
the suit between Dr. G. A. Pogue and the
Ontario Townsite & Irrigation company,
in which W. R. King, of Ontario, secured
for his client J1S0O damages for failure to
furnish water for irrigating.
The Owyhee Ditch Company has been
making great Improvements on its. ditch.
Weirs or ' lock boxes have been put in
at all laterals and each man gets the
water he pays for and no more. A loan
of $70,000 has been secured, $30,000 to pay
off bonds and the remainder to pay for
Improvements put In last Fall, which
are to prevent breaks early In the Spring.
The bank is being strengthened near the
mouth and flumes are to be built where
gulches Intersect the ditch, so .that the
water and rubbish may pass over without
The Government nas made extensive
surveys about 45 miles above Ontario,
which may bring abundance of water for
From June. 1902, to June, 1903, there was
an Increase of population In Ontario of 300,
but since June there has been rapid but
steady growth, so that she can now claim,
between HOO and 1200 easily, and possibly
more. During the year the following busi
ness houses have been completed: Two
one-story bricks, two two-story, bricks,
two livery barns, one three-story brick
hotel, one large lumberyard oflice and
warehouse and one blacksmith shop. One
Baptist Church, is being erected. Dozens
of pretty cottages and stately residences
have been built, while the general ap-
pearance of the town has been Improved
Dy graveling tne streets.
Malheur can boast of the largest salmon
hatchery in the world. Thl3 -Winter 20,
500,000 eggs are being cared for In the large
hatchhouse, built last Summer, on the left
bank of Snake River, two miles above On
tario. Over the entire county the progress has
been marked and a happy, contented feel
ing prevails. THOMAS SPIGHT, JR.
Ontario, Dec 15.
YIELDS GOLD BUT HAS
TO ITS PRODUCTS
and a smelter put in. Th Golden Drift
Mining Company, which Is putting a large
dam across Rogue River, three miles
above town and will cut three ditches
which will mean great things for the land
adjacent to Grant's Pass.
Dec 16, 1903.
LAND OP VARIED "WEALTH.
Jackson County Produces Fruit,
Grain and Gold in Plenty.
PERHAPS the most marked step of
the year 1903" in Jackson County
looking to development and increased
prosperity is to be noted in the impetus
received by the apple growing industry
through the planting of probably
1000 acres in. the Rogue River
Valley. This is a conservative esti
mate of the new apple acreage.
The past few years have not only demon
strated that the climate and soli of tho
Rogue River 'Valley is particularly
adapted to the production of the best
apples In the world, but that the pro
duction is exceedingly profitable. It does
not require a roseate imagination to pic
ture this entire valley a few years henco
as one biff orchard and garden yieldlng
wealth to a population fivefold as great
as at present, and supplying fruits and
berries by the trainload for export.
The export of apples for the present
year will amount to approximately 160
carloads or 100,000 boxes. The prices re
ceived will average $1.25 per box, so it la
easy to figure a return of $123,000 for the
export crop of 1903, besides that portion of
the crop used for the manufacture of ci
der, etc, and for home consumption.
Seventy-five carloads of pears which
have been exported from the valley this
year have brought In a return of $1.19
per box on an average, or nearly $40,000.
These have been largely of the BartJett
variety, and most of them were marketed
in the East. The Ashland district is
famous for Its production of peaches and
better and finer ones are not grown any
where. There are occasional off years In
this fruit and 1903 was one of them.
The cereal crop of Jackson County,
while It has never known a failure, was
shorter thi3 year than In the memory of
the oldest Inhabitant, due to the unusually
dry season and decreased acreage. How
ever the fruit Industry is coming to
overshadow cereal-growing in the valley
in a marked degree and hundreds of
acres formerly devoted to grain grow
ing are also being turned into the more
profitable channel of alfalfa growing,
yielding three and four crops a year
at a handsome profit.
Probably no county In Oregon has
such varied resources as Jackson. With
in her 60 square miles of territory are to
be found not only the best soils for ap
ples, pears,' peaches, berries and small
fruits, as well as grain and hay produc
tion, but her gold mines and mineral
wealth, which are referred to in a sep
arate article, have been evidenced by
handsome yearly yields or half a cen
tury, and are one of her permanent and
richest resources With an all-the-year
round climate, acknowledged to be un
surpassed on the coast, and attractions
of natural scenery that command the
highest admiration, there is found here
a combination of wealth, health and pleas
ure that makes the Rogue River Valley
Ite well satisfied with his lot and is
bringing In a. substantial class of new
citizens who ore joining In the develop
ment of the rich resources awaiting them.
Jackson County's progress the past
year in every way has been the mo3t
.marked in her history. The prospects
are still brighter. There is no question
of its steady development as one of the
most prosperous and inviting sections ot
tne prosperous Paciflc Coast.
F. D. WAGNER.
Ashland, December 17.