Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, April 26, 1901, Page 6, Image 6

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Tacoma Postofllce.
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TODAY'S WEATHER. Fair, with slowly
rising temperature; northerly winds.
What Is to be the force and import
ance of the United States Supreme
Court's decision In the co-called Insular
cases, becomes daily more problemati
cal. Itls given out at "Washington that
preparations are under -way for inaugurating-
free trade wtlh Porto Rico, and
that at some stage of the President's
"Western trip a proclamation to that
-effect will issue. This In Itself -would
destroy any practical issue of the Porto
Rico cases, and if the Supreme Court
so desired, it could decide them in such
a way as to leave the Philippines prob
lem open to further adjudication. It is
doubtful, therefore, h'ow necessary it is
to pursue the points raised in Mr.
Charles A. Gardiner's brief in support of
the Government's position. Tet a de
cision of some sort is to be expected,
and it is hard to see how the court
can fall to take cognizance of his con
tention, which was not raised by the
Government Itself, but which is too ger
mane to be Ignored.
Mr. Gardiner has favored us with a
copy of his brief, and study of it shows
that the imperfect summing- up brought
by the dispatches affords small hint of
its attractive and suggestive contents.
The groundwork is laid, of course, in
the broad principle that the Govern
ment is a sovereign Nation, possessing
enumerated and unenumerated powers
of sovereignty not expressly denied a
fact which Marshall's familiar decisions
have made most clear. The idea was
long- obscured by the fiction of state
sovereignty and confederation, but
events have brought it out at last very
clearly. The next point is that terri
torial acquisition and treatment make
a political and not a judicial question,
not, therefore, subject to the Jurisdic
tion of the courts. Our recent acquisi
tions, delimitation of boundaries and
disposition and government of the
islands and their Inhabitants are mat
ters for Congress and the Executive.
Mr. Gardiner undertakes to say how
the various 'doctrines of the Constitu
tion become operative. In its entirety
it can only apply with statehood. The
clause giving Congress power to govern
territory takes effect immediately upon
annexation; the prohibition clauses ap
ply at once as restraint upon Congress,
but are Incapable of extension; the
treason clauses become operative "upon
establishment of the relationship of al
legiance; the Bill of Rights will apply
so soon as Congress makes the islanders
citizens or confers upon them the civil
rights of the Constitution, while other
clauses, such as the uniform tariff
clause, Interstate and foreign commerce
clauses, etc., ..become applicable upon
incorporatlMYyBfjj Porto Rico and the
Philippines as -integral parts of the
"Chlted States, and not upon mere an
nexation. These specifications incline to the ar
bitrary and may "be fanciful, but in Mr.
Gardiner's further contention that com
plete annexation is as yet non-existent
he makes up u case that will be hard
to overthrow. The treaty of Paris says
that "civil rights and political status
of the native inhabitants ... shall
be determined "by the Congress," which
means, if it means anything, that those
rights and status were not determined
by the mere act or law of acquisition.
The McEnery resolution, passed in con
nection with the approval of the treaty,
expressly repudiates an intention "to
permanently .annex said islands as an
integral part of the territory jaf the
United States." This view of the pro
visional stattts ;bf the dependencies and
of the entire auth6rity of Congress la
the matter-is 'supported by extended
quotations from Senate debates, execu
tive documents, petitions from Porto 1
Rico, and by the tariff act itself.
Much light is thrown upon the well
worn decisions relied on "by both sides
of this controversy, by Mr, Gardiner's
suggestive reasoning, and his view of
the expansion panorama is crisp and
The Florida, Louisiana and Mexican cessions
were annexed as Integral jiarts of the United
States under -treaty oovenants for ultimate
statehood, Alaska was annexed as -a. colony,
without anyk jriadge as. to Jts future political
or geographical status; the Guam Islands
were annexed temporarily; Cuba-was annexed
pro lslonally. the Falkland Islands were an
nexed and then abandoned; and Samoa was
formerlj held t byr us ,aa , tenant In common
with England and Germany. '
The questions involved In the insular
cases are puzzling, the precedents and
decisions convey conflicting- impres
sions. It is doubtful if there is a single
clear principle so satisfying in the di
rection of support of the Government,
as the basic contention of Mr. Gardiner
that the status of the dependencies is a
political question for the political de
partments and not a judicial question
for the courts. We have never had
serious doubt that the Supreme Court
will sustain, though perhaps by a di
vided vote, the actions of Congress and
the Executive in our insular procedure.
It is doubtful if the conviction that It
should and must do so can find a more
satisfactory explanation than his posi
tion affords.
When the disposition of the Philip
pines comes up for decision upon some
other basis than scuttling- out of them
under Tagal fire, a prime consideration
is going to be the desirability of their
possession as a fulcrum from which to
press our demand, as an Asiatic power,
for markets for our wares. We have
no rival so dangerous to our free en
trance in Asiatic ports as our good
friend, Russia, whose tariff policies are
if anything more exclusive than our
own. The-fate of Manchuria, therefore,
closely concerns us. The Manchurian
Imports from the United States, under
the heads of cotton textiles, flour and
kerosene oil, amounted In 1899 to 6,474,
895 haikwan taels, or 31 per cent of all
the foreign Imports. The only Russian
Import was kerosene, and that to the
value of only. 27,773 haikwan taels. All
of these Imports passed through Niu
Chwang-, and it is instructive to note
the sudden transformation effected in
our rapidly expanding- trade with that
port by the troubles of last Summer.
Consul Powler supplies the following
comparative table of Imports into Niu
Chwang, specified as American, for "the
quarter ending- September 30, 1900, and
the same period, of 1899:
" 1899. 1000. Decrease.
Pri"8 148.022 148.022 pieces
Sheetings 300.005 620 30G.04C pieces
Kerosene oil ..C58.000 25.000 033,000 gals.
In the words of Consul Fowler, this Is.
annihilation pure and simple, and yet
Niu Chwang saw less fighting than
Tien Tsin; and the only foreign power
that interfered there was Russia. That
government seized the port as early as
August 4, and on the 12th had control
of the custom-house.
What Russian ascendency and tariff
exclusion mean for us in Manchuria
may be gathered from the effect of sim
ilar policies by France In Madagascar.
The foreign trade of Madagascar was
nearly a third larger in 1900 than in
1S99, and the trade was so extremely
one-sided that the Imports from France
amounted to about two-thirds of the
whole import and export trade, and
were more than $2,000,000 greater than
In 1899. This is an Island with which
our commerce was a few years ago most
promising. Cotton cloths constitute the
chief wearing apparel of the people, and
our export of-that commodity has been
of growing importance for several
years. Tools and other metal goods, in
our exports of which we were almost
monthly breaking our own records, are
articles which Madagascar had no
means of providing Itself with, and
there was a fine trade In sight for us
in these lines. But upon the French ac
cession they proceeded to discriminate
against our trade, and the record of our
exports to the Island shows this result:
? $247,923
J?9 173.074
1698 C7517
19W 2S.480
Meanwhile, In 1900 the Imports from
France amounted to nearly $7,000,000,
an Increase of more than $2,000,000 over
the year before.
There is no sort of doubt that pre
cisely such a course as this our trade
with Manchuria will .follow, should
Russia become supreme there, and
should we have no effective means of
protest at hand. That is an argument
for retention of the Philippines, and It
is cogently stated by Captain Mahan,
who says: "We cannot count upon re
spect for the territory of China unless
we are ready to throw not only our
moral influence, but, if necessity arise,
our physical weight, into the conflict, to
resist an expropriation, the result of
which might be to exclude our com
merce and neutralize our Influence."
The notable address of Senator Mc
Laurin, of South Carolina, before the
Manufacturers' Club at Charlotte, N.
C, is regarded as the beginnlng'of an
other attempt to build up a white man's
party at the South. President Grant
tried to conciliate the Southern whites
by appointing General Longstreet and
other distinguished ex-Confederate Gen
erals to responsible public offices at
home and abroad. President Hayes ap
pointed an ex-Confederate, General
"Key, of Tennessee, Postmaster-General.
General Mahone, a brilliant Confeder
ate soldier, was taken up and supported
by the Republican Administration of
the day. All these attempts failed.
Grant failed naturally enough, because
It was absurd to expect to conciliate
the South by nominating gallant Con
federates to office so long as bayonet
rule was virtually maintained over the
ballot-box. The sending abroad of Orr,
of South Carolina, and the honors paid
to Longstreet, seemed like a very small
plaster for a big wound, and Its only
effect was to cover the ex-Confederates
who accepted office with obloquy as
renegade sons of the South who had be
come Republicans for the sake of a
mess of pottage. President Hayes
failed in his attempt to conciliate the
South, because it was Impossible for
that section immediately to forget the
bayonet rule which had so recently
been removed. President Hayes de
served to succeed, but the South was In
too sullen a mood to accept the olive
branch. Mahone was a gallant soldier,
but he was an unscrupulous political
adventurer. Had he been a man of as
high a'character and as clean political
methods as Longstreet, he might have
succeeded, but he failed and deserved
The question now Is whether the pres
ent effort to break into the solidarity of
the Southern whites will succeed under
McLaurin, supported by the Influence
of the Republican Administration.. Me
Laurln belongs to the conservative wing
of the old Democratic party, the blue
blood planter class, which under
Hampton and Butler so Idng ruled
South Carolina, and was routed and re
placed in power by the "poor white"
party under Tillman. It is true that
McLaurin says that he Is still a Demo
crat, hut his late speech shows that he
is Identified with the Republicans in all
leading National issues. He Is a pro
tectionist, ne favors the policy of ship
subsidies; he is In complete harmony
with the financial and monetary poli
cies of the Republican party; he is in
favor of territorial expansion and of the
Philippine policy of the Administration.
He says that the Civil War settled the
question of Federal over state suprem
acy; that the Spanish War settled the
question of expansion. He is in com
plete harmony with the . Republican
party, and believes that there Is no rea
son why the South should continue to
place itself in the path of Us own prog
ress. MeLaurln is in the prime of life;
has a strong personal following, and his
j friends . are sanguine that men who
could not accept the doctrines of Bryan
and free silver and likewise could not
become. identified with the Republican
party because of the negro feature will
gladly seek the new McLaurin party
as soon as It is formally organized.
The chance of McLaurin's success
would be flattering In any Northern
state under kindred circumstances, but
his danger of defeat lies in the fact that
the people of South Carolina who sup
port Tillman belong to the small farmer
class, who turned down the conserva
tive wing of the Democracy for reasons
of class hate, which are not removed
by the extinction of the "race question,"
or even by the question of free silver
ceasing to be a burning issue. The men
who follow Tillman are Populists; they
always hated the old blue-blood planter
class, and all their works, before the
Civil War and after it. They hate the
Republican party most cordially as an
anti-Populist party, and they hate It
with a sectional hate that Is not re
moved by the extinction of the negro
question, for the majority of the Till
manites never were slaveholders. But
these small Southern farmers formed
the rank and file of the Confederate
army, and they and their sons make up
the rank and file of Tillman's party.
McLaurin's appeals to economic Issues
and his picture of industrial prosperity
that awaits the South if she could only
turn her back on the dead past and
her face to the morning is apt to fall
fiat upon these folk, however much it
may charm the capitalistic or educated
class. The small Southern farmers care
little for money or industrial prosper
ity where their prejudices and sectional
pride are involved. In Tennessee and
South Carolina the small farmer always
says that he has no use for the Re
publican, party. He doesn't want to see
its money invested In the South; he has
no use for Republicans from the North;
still less for renegade Democrats be
come Republicans at the South. Till
man will appeal to this stubborn preju
dice and sectional pride, and probably
beat McLaurin In his effort to upset
him with a new party In South Caro
Portland's magnificent trans-Pacific
steamer line starts in at a critical time.
However permanent its service is in
contemplation, It Is an experiment in
fact, as all such ventures must be, de
pendent upon the business it gains.
Circumstances combine to make the
outlook for business unusually dark.
Three adverse conditions are the diffi
culties in China, Japan's financial
straits and the Australian crops. It will
soon be a year since the Chinese out
breaks occurred, and the dilatory action
of the powers, together with the native
disaffection aroused by punitive meas
ures already Inflicted, Is slowly squeez
ing the life out of our export trade.
Complaint on this score is general, not
only here, but throughout cotton circles
in the Soufh and the Eastern States,
where falling off In the Asiatic demand
for manufactures is keenly felt. The
protests that are going up from Euro
pean and American traders ougtft to
And some sort of response from the
powers before long. To quarrel over
indemnities while traders being done'
to death with delay is bad business.
Australia's wheat crop is very heavy,
and its efficiency inre'duclng our mar
ket in Asia Is materially enhanced by
cheap tonnage. An Indirect effect of the
California oil discoveries Is that ships
expecting to bring coal profitably to
California are without'a cargo and glad
to make low rates on wheat to Asia,
Japan's purchasing power is suspended
while her finances "are unsettled, and
now the sanitary quarantines against
Hong Kong and the coast ports add to
the blackness of the picture.
In this situation It becomes more es
sential than ever that the exporters
and importers of Portland and of Ore
gon generally should rally to the sup
port of the home line. San Francisco
and Puget Sound shippers:ontribute as
little as possible to the support of Port
land's lines, and we should be- equally
loyal. Hitherto there may have been
excuse at times of Inadequate facili
ties, but this will no longer suffice. It
will eventually be money in the pockets
of Portland merchants to make this
home line permanent by loyal support
now. In standing by It we are only
serving our own Interests.
In the report of Lieutenant Joseph
S. Herron, U. S, A., who recently ex
plored a portion of Central Alaska, is
noted the discovery of a great mountain
20,000 feet in height. The remarkable
fact about this is that this high peak
was never before seen by white men,
and indicates something of the vast
area of Alaska, Within the past five
years thousands of persons have gone
thither, but with few exceptions they
have merely visited the more accessi
ble regions and have not even cared to
penetrate to the vas't interior. Th .
ploratlon and development of the whole
country, however, is now only a ques
tion of time. That this development
will give to the world mineral wealth
compared with which the gold taken
out of the Klondike and Nome is of
small consequence cannot be doubted.
The Idea of bare-handed mining, how
ever, as indicated hy the great rush to
Alaska In 1896 and again in 1900, has
been pretty thoroughly worked out. The
fact that nature here, as nowhere else
on the American continent, opposes ob
stacles to mining in the ordinary w"ay
has been well proven. Ingenuity will
find a way to develop the vast gold de
posits of Alaska, but common prudence
warns men who have neither experience
nor capital to hold aloof from these icy
gold fields, and seek In the more acces
sible walks of Industry and enterprise
opportunity (always to be found for the
seeking) to do their part in the world's
In the Independent, Representative
Newlands, of Nevada, has an article on
the "future" of his state. That future
he thinks depends on Irrigation. He
proposes reservoirs for storage of the
waters that flow oufof the mountains
and run away to the bitter lakes In
the arid interior. The General Govern
ment, he thinks, ought to construct
these reservoirs. Possibly it may at
some future time, but not until the
lands of the country yet available shall
have been more fully ocqupied and cul
tivated. Mr. Newlands certainly deals
In exaggeration when he says that Ne
vada can be and sometime will be
brought Into a state of cultivation that
will enable it to support as great a pop
ulation as that of Spain. We think the
General Government some time will
take up this- question of Irrigation of
the arid regions, but It Is yet far off.
There is a vast region, in many states,
which may thus be reclaimed, includ
ing .one-fourth of the area of Oregon.
Occupation and exhaustion of soils else
where will put a pressure upon develop
ment of our food supply, and by the
time our present population shall have
been doubled there will be a demand
for reclamation of arid lands as almost
a necessity. But since It will be costly
business, it will not be undertaken on
any great scale till the need shall be
more generally felt than now.
In 1880 there were only 148 Japanese
in this country; in 1890 they had in
creased to 2029, and it Is known that the
increase in the ten years just closed has
been very great. Through the labor
agitators, who brought about the orig
inal Chinese exclusion acts, the Japan
ese question is likely to come up at the
next session of Congress, when the re
enactment of the present Chinese exclu
sion laws will be in order. The pres
ent laws expire by limitation on May
o, 1902, ten years from the date of their
re-enactment. Since 1892 a new treaty
with China has been concluded, which
Is Interpreted as authorizing us to ex
clude the Chinese, even if there were no
further legislation, for a further period
of ten years from December, 1894, and,
unless one of the contracting parties
gives notice of a desire for its termina
tion, for still anpther ten years after
that. China agrees in this treaty to all
the conditions sought to be carried out
by our exclusion laws, besides stipulat
ing the "excepted classes." It Is prob
able, however, that the present laws
will be re-enacted, even though that
action be of doubtful necessity.
The body of Abraham Lincoln, or
what remains of his corporeal frame
after thirty-six years' consignment to
the tomb, has Anally been borne to Its
last resting-place. His wife, three sons
and grandson share with him a granite
tomb surmounted by the Imposing mon
ument in the City of Springfield, which
he left forty years ago to become 'Chief
Magistrate of the Nation. Time and
change have seldQm been more marked
than in the display of the first commit
ment of Lincoln's body to the tomb In
1865 and the lack pf ceremony in its
final commitment a few days ago. Gen
eral publicity was purposely avoided
upon the latter occasion. The long
sealed casket was not opened, according
to expectation, for the purpose of Iden
tification, but with solemn simplicity
was borne from the temporary vault
where it has rested since March of last
year and deposited in the new sar
cophagus and left to eternal silence.
This is well. Abraham Lincoln lives in
history. The body necessary to his
achievement in life, of use no longer,
may well return to silence and to dust.
Queen Wilhelmlna is already con
fronted by the necessity of paying her
Prince Consort's debts. Being of thrifty
Dutch stock and Imbued with the idea
that a man should live within his
means, the young Queen promptly re
ferred all claimants for money to her
husband, Insisting that he must meet
his obligations out of his allowance.
Brokers holding the royal paper, how
eve proceeded to negotiate It on the
Amsterdam Bourse, thus bringing the
royal and Imperious wife to terms. Her
Majesty's education was evidently neg
lected at one point, otherwise she would
have understood from the start that a
Prince Consort is a luxury for which
Queens must pay, even as American
papas pay for the distinction of having
Duke Consorts added to their families.
Wilhelmlna, it is sajd, was very angry
when the bills were presented. She
should learn of Papa Zimmerman to
take a situation of this kind philosoph
ically, and even cheerfully.
There are now In the United States
fifty-two states and territories, not
counting Porto Rico or the Philippines.
In population New York ranks first,
Pennsylvania second, Illinois third,
Ohio fourth, Missouri fifth, Texas sixth
and Massachusetts seventh. Virginia
held the first place in 1790, Pennsyl
vania standing second, North Carolina
third and Massachusetts fourth. Till
1820 Virginia' held the first place, when
she lost It to New York, which has
maintained it ever since. Virginia now
holds the seventeenth place. In 1830
Pennsylvania took the second place,
and has since held It. North Carolina
lost the third place in 1800. She now
ranks as fifteenth. Ohio took the third
place in 1840 and held It till 1890, when
she yielded it to Illinois, and now
stands fourth on the list. It is certain,
however, that within a few decades at
furthest Ohio will fall below Missouri
and Texas, which now are fifth and
sixth, respectively.
We are told now that the five thou
sand dollars voted for the 'kindergarten
schools positively will not be turned
over to the private parties who de
mand the money, but that, If expended,
it will be expended as other school
moneys are, by authority of the Board
of Directors, and under their supervis
ion. This Is well. No precedent should
be set for handing over portions of the
school money to private persons. Be
sides, such action would be as unlawful
In itself as it would be dangerous as
a precedent.
The British lawgiver's in Parliament
are again wrestling with the deceased
wife's sister bill. And still the wonder
grows ias to why the men so anxious
for the law to sanction such marriages
the women of England, It Is said, be
ing violently opposed to the measure
did not marry the greatly admired and
much-desired "sister" in the first place.
(It Is Interesting to note that, notwith
standing the opposition of women, the
bill has passed to its second reading in
the Commons by a vote of 279 to 122.
The wishes of the people of Portland
will govern Superintendent Ormsby, of
the forest reserve rangers, In the mat
ter of cutting trails through the Bull
Run reserve. This Is as It should be,
since they alone are Interested in the
protection of the source of their mag
nificent water supply. Nature has
guarded It very satisfactorily In the
past, and will no doubt continue to do
so if man does 'not Interfere to disar
range her system.
There is nothing more discreditable
than, participation in- a "shlvaree"
party. It Is astonishing that anybody
should attempt to excuse the riotous
vulgarity of such proceedings as that
at Mount Tabor the other night. Per
sons of decent instincts and good breed
ing do not participate In the "shlvaree,"
Kansas City Star
The wealth of the United States I? ac
cumulating rapidly at the present time.
One of the evidences of this Is the
growth of deposits In the banks. There
was a gain of $272,000,000, or about 11 per
cent In the aggregate Individual deposits
in the National banks of the country, in
the past 12 months, according to the
statement which the Controller of the
Currency at "Washington made public on
Saturday. The total now amounts to
2,754,000,000, which is by far the largest
figure ever attained.
The greater part of this increase repre
sents actual surplus profits of trade and
Industry. Of course, as prices of prop
erty advance and credits expand, there
is a corresponding growth in deposits,
which does not always represent in
creased wealth, but is sometimes merely
an unhealthy marking up of values. But
there Is so little speculation In the
United States outside of Wall street,
that the growth of bank deposits may
be fairly considered as due to the large
aggregate profits which merchants and
producers are obtaining from their in
dustry, and the element of unhealthful
growth is small.
There never was an era In which
wealth made a more substantial growth
than during the past two or three years.
It has been a period of great prosperity,
but 'through it all a spirit of conserv
atism has run; a desire not to overdo
the expansion of trade and production.
Though the good times have generated
some exaggerated Ideas of the values
on the New York stock exchange, they
have not led to any excesses of financing
or trade among the people generally, or
in any line of Industry, or investment
outside of the stock exchange.
The good prices that have been obtained
for farm products and the full employ
ment of labor everywhere In the country
haye resulted in an aggregate consump
tion of goods far beyond anything ever
before experienced and the entire busi
ness of the country Is in that healthy
condition of evenly balanced supply and
demand which insures good profits to the
merchant, the manufacturer and the
producer of raw material, without excess
sive speculative returns on the-one hand,
or undue risks of loss on the other.
Conditions in Other Citlen Resemble
Those in Portlimd.
San Francisco Bulletin.
Assessor Dodge sounded a popular note
a few days ago when ne announced that
the assessed value of real estate would
not be Increased 5 per cent during the
coming years. The mere fact, he argues,
that a spasmodic advance in the sale
price of realty in certain sections of the
city has been enjoyed by a few is no rea
son why the assessed value of real estate
as a whole should pay additional tribute.
Rather than add to the burden already
imposed upon real estate, the assessor
will direct his energies toward lessening It.
It is a strange circumstance that during
the 17 years from 1SS0 to 1898 inclusive,
the increase in the assessed valuation
of real estate has been about 125 per
cent, whereas during the same period the
increase in the assessed valuation of per
sonal property has not exceeded 8 per
cent. This In view of the well-known
fact that personal property Increases at
a faster ratio than real estate. Probably
no State in the Union has suffered more
than California in this respect. The stock
and bond owner, the possessors of fran
chises and the-holders of large amounts
of money have evaded by suave argument
and specious plea the share which each
should and eventually will be compelled
to contribute to the State revenues. In
1SS0 personal property constituted 26 per
cent of the entire assessed value of prop
erty in California, while In 1896 it was
less than 15 per cent. For many years
real estate In San Francisco has been as
sessed on a higher basis of valuation
than any other city property in the State,
and fully as high as chat of country
realty. And yet we have In this city the
bulk of the bonds, stocks, franchises and
other effects known as personal property
owned 4n the State.
The assessor's eyes have been opened
to these facts, hence his determination
to relieve the real estate so far as possible
of the burden it has borne for so many
years. The taxing of franchises last year
which had previously escaped the Impo
sition of a tax was but the beginning of
a campaign, if it might oe so termed,
against personal property In favor of
real estate. Other states are endeavoring
to master the same problem, and if it
has In some Instances resulted In the loss
of a corporation or two, eventually, when
the system becomes universal, the cor
porations will be compelled to "pay the
piper" and thus contribute their just
share of revenue to city and State.
Taxation for Privnte Pnrpone.
Chicago Tribune.
The United States Court of Appeals
at St. Louis has handed down a decision
showing once more that the Federal courts
will not countenance any attempt of a
Legislature to use its power of taxation
for the benefit of private Individuals.
Some years ago the Kansas Legislature
passed an act authorizing township gov
ernments to issue bonds for the erection
of sorghum sugar mills. Every company
receiving the benefit of these bonds was
required to set aside 10 cents from the
purchase price of each ton of cane and
pay it over to the treasurer of the town
ship, to be applied upon the payment of
the bonds. The act declared that all such
mills were public institutions, but Its
declaration did not make them such. A
holder of some of these bonds sued for
his Interest. He has lost his case and
has been Informed by the Court of Ap
peals that the bonds are void. The pro
motion of manufacturing enterprises is
a private and not a public purpose, and
hence no state, county or township has
a right to support such undertakings by
levying public taxes. Th's dccis'on Is sim
ilar to that rendered by the Supreme
Court years ago in the Topeka case. The
Federal courts have acted uniformly upon
the principle thus laid down. If the levy
ing of taxes for any private purpose
should be sustained by a state court as
not In violation of the State Constitution,
the Federal courts will declare such levy
ing to be illegal. A Legislature cannot
make a private purpose a public one by
declaring it such. The principle which
has been reiterated in this last case Is a
valuable safeguard to protect taxpayers
from being levied upon In behalf of pro
moters of special schemes for private
profit at the public expense. Courts en
forcing this principle wll hold void all
state laws to pay bounties to beet-sugar
Give Him a Clinnce to Rest.
San Francisco Call.
Our Northern neighbors in the ambi
tious states of Oregon, Washington and
Montana seem to realize this more fully
than we have, and they put less stress
on formalities and functions, less on the
proud display of leading citizens, and
more upon making an Impression by
giving a chance to their natural scenery
and resources. They will have an easier
time, for there Is neither vanity nor vex
ation of spirit In nature. She has no un
certain code of etiquette and no disputes
as to precedence and place, neither does
she want an office, nor seek to Influence
leglsclation. Therefore nature is such a
restful person to meet on a trip like this.
He Slionld Surrender.
Chicago Journal.
Of course It Is too late now to talk of a
graceful surrender by the Boer leaders.
That might have been done when Pretoria
was occupied and the beginning of the
end was In eight. But gracefully or un
gracefully, General Dewet should lay
down his arms. He has long ceased to
be a hero. He will soon be placed In the
category of brigands. The Boer war
should be ended.
If the EmDress Josephine was the
woman Blanche Walsh pictures her. It
might easily have required mpre strength
even than that of the great Napoleon to
put her away. Miss Walsh was seen at
the Marquam last night in her sumptuous
scenle production of "More Than Queen."
and much as she has made of the Sardou
roles she has played here before, her
portrayal of the willful, passionate Em
press showed her to be a greater actress
than her most ardent admirers believed
her. There Is an earnestness, a fire about
her acting that compels one to forget
the player and admire the woman, to
glory in her triumphs and lament 'when
they fade. The pathetic story of the
woman who Is more than queen a living,
breathing and loving woman, who would
willingly fling aside her crown for her
husband, although told at times haltingly
and at others verbosely by the playwright.
Is still one of burning Interest, for It is
Josephine one sees, and the Josephine of
Blanche Walsh Is greater than the Jose
phine of history.
To few women on the stage is given the
queenly presence and striking beauty Miss Walsh causes to serve her so
well In this, her greatest creation, and
still fewer have the gift of making such
rare attributes merely aids to her art. For,
although with them she is better able to
make the center of the stage that part of
it on which she chooses to stand, without
them she would still be the greatest Em
press Josephine, for her acting Is that
of the woman who has become for the
time being the character she represents
and vho means what she Is saying. The
charm of Josephine cast Its spell when
she nrst appeared in the garden of the
Palais Royal, and the spell was not broken
when the last curtain drew a kindly veil
over the misery of the discarded Empress.
Her pleading at the door behind which
the wrathful Napoleon had concealed hlm
seit on his home-coming from Egypt, her
passionate counsel not to accept the
crown which was already in his grasp,
her calm draining of the cup they told
her was poisoned, and her superb scene
In the last act, when she seized the pen
to sign the decree of divorce, are all
things not to be forgotten. And the in
numerable craces with which she clothed
minor scenes, her fondling of the effigy
of her1 lamented poodle, and her retorts
to the sneers of Napoleon's sisters, for
example, served only to make stronger by
contrast the dramatic heights to which
she so often rose.
The support was adequate. The Napo
leon of William Humphrey, although dis
appointing in the early acts, improved
with the progress of the play, and his
work In the scene when for the first time
he discusses the divorce with Josephine
was excellent. Robert Lowe, as Lucien
Bonaparte, made much of what small op
portunities were accorded him. Ogden
Stevens was a finished Talleyrand. Frank
Sheridan was admirable as Roustan, and
Henry L. Hall sufficient as Junot. Eliza
beth Mahew and Helen Singer, as the sis
ters of Napoleon, were excellent foils to
Josephine, and the remainder of the cast,
which Is unusually large, fulfilled Its des
tiny, that of completing the details of the
gorgeous stage pictures which follow one
another In rapid succession.
Scenically, the production surpasses
anything which has been seen on the Mar
quam stage. The scenery and furnishings
are handsome In the extreme, no cost
having been spared In any particular,
while the costumes are calculated to take
the breath of the feminine portion of the
audience. Not only are the gowns of Jo
sephine dazzling and brilliant, but those
of every woman In the cast are on a like
lavish scale, and the costumes of the men
are In keeping. Such mounting adds much
to the beauty of the play, and heightens
the Impression of the splendor of the life
poor Josephine Is forced to give up.
The audience, which was one of the
largest and most brilliant of the season,
was very appreciative. Curtain calls fol
lowed every act, and more than once the
star was compelled to wait till the ap
plause had run Its course before continu
ing an interrupted speech.
"More Than Queen" will be the bill for
the rest of the week, with a matinee Sat
urday. Owing to the length of the play.
Manager Hellig announces that the cur
tain will rise at S o'clock every evening.
HIIss Roberts' Repertoire.
A great repertoire of plays will be given
during the forthcoming engagement of
that talented young actress. Miss Florence
Roberts, and Belasco & Thrall's Alcazar
Company, beginning next Sunday, April
28, at Cordray's Theater, for a two weeks'
season. The plays to be presented are
"Sapho." "Carmen," "Camille," "A Suit
of Sable," a brilliant comedy by Charlotte
Thompson, the well-known theatrical
journalist, and "The Adventures of Nell
Gwynne," a version new here, and played
only by Miss Roberts, with the greatest
success. All the plays will be staged with
special scenery, richly costumed, and all
attention to detail. "Sapho" will be, the
opening play Sunday night, and will be
given for five nights. "The Adventures of
Nell Gwynne" will bB presented Friday
and Saturday nights.
Snle of Seats for "The Evil Eye."
The sale of seats for "The Evil Eye,"
which Is the attraction at the Marquam
Grand, Tuesday and Wednesday nights,
April 30 and May 1, with a special mat
inee Wednesday at 2:15, opens tomorrow
(Saturday) morning at 10 o'clock.
Charles H. Yale has this year given his
entire attention to the reproduction of his
greatest spectacle, "The Evil Eye." It
Is two years since the spectacular ex
travaganza was produced on this conti
nent, and In that time It has become rec
ognized as the greatest attraction of Its
kind which has even been produced here.
This year Mr. Yale has put forth special
efforts to provide special features for
"The Evil Eye," and all of these will
be seen here when I the spectacle is pre
sented. Among these special features are
the electric ballet, the Phasey troupe of
dancers, the sabot dance, the revolving
windmill and the English chorus. "The
Evil Eye" will be the only attraction of
Its kind here this year.
PIf?eon Slnnshtcr.
New York Times.
It is a mistake to suppose that any le
gitimate Interest of sport Is served In
the slaughter of birds at traps. Those
who have 'tried It know that there are
many much more difficult feats with a
gun than killing or maiming a pigeon In
the moment of confusion when the trap
falls away and It 13 dazed by the light
and uncertain which way to fly for safe
ty. It Is In killing birds thus taken at
a hopeless disadvantage that the great
trap-shooting records are made. Many
of the so-called "crack shots" of the
trap-shooting clubs would make very
poor showings as hunters of grouse or
partridge In their native haunts. As test3
of skill, clay pigeons are much more use
ful than the live birds now employed,
since they move more quickly and are
more erratic In their flight. Probably
this Is the reason they are not favored
by the amateur sportsmen with records
In trap shooting. It Is nothing to be
proud of to kill a pigeon on the sround
before It has gained headway In flight,
and when It is deprived of all assistance
in escaping which It finds, and takes
clever advantage or. In Its native cover.
A Statement Without Foundation.
PORTLAND, April 25. (To the Editor.)
The following Is from the St. Helens
Mist, and has been copied by numerous
Oregon Journals:
Hon. H. W. Corbett, who was a candidate
for the United State Senate, declares that on
the first day of next January he will start In
and make a fight for the election at the next
session of the Legislature. He will see that
clubs are organized In every county In the
state, and he proposes to make a hard light
and commence early.
I wish to say that I have made no
declaration, of the kind, nor anything ap
proaching It, directly or Indirectly.
Cincinnati seems to be In need of tho
services of a Noah.
It Is now up to some Ingenious person
to Invent a nickname for the 1U05 fain.
The latest curiosity is a man who wast
tried for the murder of Goebel and found
not guilty.
The Empress Dowager of China may
be depended upon to come home In time
to clean house.
San Francisco is tasting the joys- of an
ticipation almost to satiety. She Is going
to have a visit from the President and
a prizefight.
A man died recently while seated in a
barber's chair. Some men are lucky
enough to meet death when It la most
The gentleman who Is the prisoner of
state In Manila Is something of a hero
after all. He has not yet written any
magazine articles.
The poolsellers of New York have been
obliged to shut up shop. The authorities
are determined to limit gambling to such
harmless forms as faro and stud poker.
Forty votes were sufficient to re-elect
President Steyn. of the Orange Free State,
How Steyn must be envied by the Demo
cratic party!
President McKlnley Is thinking of visit
ing Massachusetts after his Western
tour. He probably delays his visits be
cause It takes some time to build an
armored train.
Governor Chandler says the proper place
for the negro is the field. A good many
of them certainly have distinguished
themselves In the field, notably during
the Cuban campaign.
"Now, boys," said the Sunday school
teacher, "surely some one of you can
tell me who carried oft the gates of
Gaza. Speak up, William."
"I never touched 'em!" said the In
dignant William, with a suspicion of
tears In his youthful voice. "I don't
see why folks always think when things
get carried off that I've had something
to do with It!"
The late Sir Frederick Gore-Ousley, pro
fessor of music at Oxford, was go
ing to call on a friend In London, and
asked a fellow-musician the number la
which he lived in a certain street. "I
don't know his number." answered the
other, "but the note of his dooracraper
Is C sharp." Sir Frederick went off, con
tentedly kicking the doorscrapers all
down the street until he came to the right
one. when he rang the bell and went In.
"Among the numerous manuals.' says
the Buffalo Commercial, "constantly ap
pearing as If In answer to a long-felt
want of easy lessons In 'How to Get
There Without Work,' is one entitled.
How to Write a Novel; a Practical' Guide
to the Art of Fiction.' This Is clearly a
work of supererogation. No one needs
instruction In this art. Any one can
write a novel. The trick Is to get people
to read it. A more practical maaual
would be, 'How to Boom a Novel Wben
Written. "
Business women In Greater New York
have started an organization for mutual
benefit and assistance, likewise planning
a club in the downtown section which
will rival many of the resort3 maintained
by their big brothers north of Madison
Square. Over 200 stenographers, type
writers, bookkeepers, cashiers and clerics
have contributed to the fund, with which,
a six-room suite In the top of a big Fur-ton-street
office building has been leased!
for club purposes. No man shall ever
cross the threshold. It Is to be operated
by women and for women. There Is a
big dining-room, where dainty luncheons
for busy women will be served from. 11
until 3; a "green room" with great eaay
chalrs and divans, and note particularly
two small blue rooms with blue denlm
covered cushions and blue shades on tho
windows, where the girls who suffer from
nervous headaches can spend a restful
hour. Nor 13 this a charitable Institution,
but a club, pure and simple, operated on
business principles.
Not Necessarily. Mr. Boresome Out? It's
rather annoying. "We had an appointment with
her. Tho Maid Yes, ma'am; but that may
not be why she went out. Puck.
Took Him at Hla Word. Mother My deal,
how could you refuse him? He may never
propose again. Daughter Dut. mamma, ha
said he v ould. Detroit Free Press.
A Bad Mistake. Editor Thla story of youra
won't do. Author Why not? Editor You
don't have the heroine dressed In a gown oC
some soft clinging stuff. Harper's Baiar.
Bobby He made facer at mot teacher. Wil
lie I only tried to show him how he might
Improve his own face, teacher; I Just gave
him a few samples; that wa3 all. Boston
"No. I won't give you a piece of my apple,"
snapped his sister. "And who was It," the
boy inquired reproachfully, "that spoiled the
piano so you didn't have to practice for a,
week?" Philadelphia Times.
Charged. "Dear." said Mrs. Spendlotz. by
way of preliminary, "would you consider an
opal unlucky?" "I would If I got a bill fr
one and had to pay It," replied her husband
sharply. "AM I'm so glad I ordered a dia
mond ring Instead." Philadelphia Press.
Stubb I hear that Falcon Is going to stop
writlnp poetry. Penn Yes; the position la
which the paper brought out his sonnet dis
couraged him. Stubb-DId they run It on tho
"children's page"? Penn Worie than that.
It appeared In the puzzle department. Phllo-
delphta Record.
Professional Courtesy.-Flrst M. D.-I see you
occasionally take a patient out for a drive.
Second M. D.-Yes. I think It does them a
great deal of good. First M. D.-But It Isn t
professional. I never do It. Second M. Di
I know you don"t. When any of your pa
tients go for a ride the undertaker accom
panies them. Chicago News.
Ml Violet.
Samuel Mlnturn Peck In Boston Transcript
Mlsw Violet displays no hood.
Nor garbs herself as violets should
She sports a witching hat;
Nor Is she found In dim retreat.
But often on the crowded street
Her boots go ptt-a-pat.
The merry eyes that should be blue
Are laughlnff brown, and bright aa dev
The gallants to beguile;
And 'twlxt her dimpled cheeks of rose
There tilts a fascinating nose
Which haunts me all the-while.
She drives a pony In the park.
She keeps a pair of pugs that bark
I hate those dog3, I do;
Whene'er I breathe a compliment.
Such desolating yawps they vent
Perhaps she taught them to!
She counts her lovers by the score;
They meet with frowns as they adore-
Oh would that I were he.
The lucky swain to win the fair!
By turns I hope, by turns despair
I wonder who 'twill bo?
Ah! It some fairy in a trice
Would make my hand a chocolate Ice,
My heart a caramel.
Perchance she'd take me then; but, ah,
I have no fairy godmamma,
To work the happy spell.