Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, July 30, 1900, Page 9, Image 9

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fCooflnupd From Fifth ?)
latejd. apparently, to tb?tt of -the Rose
burp region, which was emptied In the
later part of the Eocene..
The deposit, bearins fossil plants on
Coal Creek, is chiefly sandstone, -with
some conglomerate and shale, disturbed
in places by the extrusion of Igneous
rocks like diabase. The pebbles of the
conglomerate are all of Igneous material,
largely of a fhyolltjc jcharacter. The
sandstone contains considerable feldspar,
but is composed chiefly of grains of ig
neous rocks. The sandstones strike north
5 degrees cast, and dip in some places
to the southwest and elsewhere to the
northeast. The thickness of the whole
mass may be as much as 1000 feet.
Jn a district of active volcanoes the
lava flows frequently interrupt local
drainage, and thus produce lakes. The
strata in which the fossil leaves are In
closed were deposited most likely in a
lake developed under such conditions. The
position of the beds at the bottom of a
deep ravine pi Coal Creek, beneath sev
eral thousand feet of volcanic material,
shows that a large part of the Cascade
Range has been emptied since the leaves
were burled. Among the fossils from this
locality F. H. Knowlton, of the United
State Geological Survey, recognized wUh
more or less doubt three species, only
one of which has been S2n elsewhere,
and then in the Miocene.
One mile north of Cpmstock. near the
western end of the Calapoolas, a section
of rocks about 50 feet In -thickness Is
exposed on the western side of the track.
Conglomerate above. It contains jjebbjes
of volcanic rocks and sandy layers be
low, -with white shaly beds between, and
numerous leaf impressions. Half a mlje
southwest of Comstock the sandstones
and shales pntaln characteristic eocene
fOEsIJs, These strata dip gently to the
west and northwest, and have a wide
distribution in the Coast Range. In
pome places the plant "beds apgear also
to dip jgently to the northwest, con
formally to Ihe eocene, but at jother
exposures the- position Is different and it
is possible that the plant beds are unconformable-
on the .eocene. .
Eocene nxrd SItocene Strata.
That the Upbuilding of the Cajapoola
Mountains . belongs &q the later eocene
or early roiocene. Is suggested y the dis
tribution of eocene and mjocene strata
about their base. At the southern base
of 'the Calapoola Mountains, about 12
miles northeast of Oakland, and also near
its western end, in "the neighborhood of
Comstock, characteristic eocene fossils
are found in the sandstones and shales,
while at the northern bass of the moun
tain the nearest fossils now known are
miocene, which occur a Jew miles south
east of Cottage Grove. ITrom their distri
bution it appears that the Cajapoola
Mountains were the southward extension
of the sea that deposited the xniocene so
srtdely in the Willamette Valley.
The rocks of the Bohemia region ore
known to the miners generally as. sye
nlte, but they are wholly volcanic, and
are generally lava flo-ws, although tuffs
ere quite common. Among the lavas
andesltes are b far the mpsf abundant.
A few of them are nJ'ore. or less con
spicuously porphyritic and contain phen
ocrysts of quartz, and are glossed op
daclte-porphyries. Basalts occur spar
ingly. One of the best examples f dacite
porphyry occurs on the ridge southeast
Of Bohemia Mountain, it is light gray
in color, trith many white spots, due to
Small premoerysts of feldspar, with a. tT
rounded grains of qtartz. The largo an
gles of symmetric extinction In the -thln
section show that the lime-soda feldspars
are about labrsdrite in composition. The
small irralns, which appear as a black
popper-like sprinkling, . re composed
chiefly pf chlorite or greenish "horn
blende "wiJh some pldte. and represent
-jrae fezromagnesign silicate, probably
jjyroxene, that has disappeared. The
ground mas, wfclph is not very sharply
distinguished from the phenocrysts, Is
Helena Is Our Favorite
As a dividend-earner, it pays about 20 percent
per annum on the
large increase in
reserve is increasing
now in reserve. v "
furhish:aii inf orrnatipn, napsreports, etcjoiof
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' - .
JReferences by Permission:
The g?cchang.e NatiQnal Bank; Gplpradp
. Ty$ Merchants National Bank, Pptlaiid,
- i
.conjposed chiefly of clear grains of
quartz, with clouded grains, pj feldspar.
-Some of the latter show cryitMlographlc
outlines, but ihe quarfe grains haye .&-"
regular outlines.
A similar daclte-porpbyry occurs In the
Mystery, qne of the Mustek's group of
claims. The feldspar phenoerysts -are
more numerous and fresh, with decided
zonal structure. Some of the feldspars
are surroupded by a granopjiyric berder.
The ground mass is holocrystaillne, often
granophyiic and mlcroporphyrltlc, with
much plagiodase. In -this rock there are
some patches of pyroxene, but It Is
much less abundant than the plageoclase.
Most of )t is monocllnlc, and looks like
auglte, but apportion of iCTnay be orth
o rhombic.
The most sharply defined outcrop of
declte-porphyry lies noar the eastern
border of the region, whero it occurs in
the form of a. dike, cutting through a
thick set of tuffs- near the Buckhorn
oponlng upon the western sJope pf He
matite Mountain. Therook, although not
distinctly porphyritic, contains ' some
quartz and feldspar phenocrysts In a
granophyrjp ground mass. The ferromag
neslan silicate has been replaced by
chlorite and carbonates.
The andeslte Is not often so Borphyritic
as to warrant Its being -called andeslte
perphyry, put 3p so in -ope case on the
; northern portion of the divide between
i Grizzly and Grouse Mountains. The
phenperysts of plagioclase have a symmet
ric esilnctloa .of nearly 25 degrees, and
; probably "belong to1 labradorite. They are
larger and much tnore abundant than
the irregular grajps of .auglte. The ground
mass is granular, chiefly feldspar. Each
grain contains numerous smaller ones of
different minerals, 'Which render It mlcro
polkilltlc, and. In some cases granophyrfc,
as in the dacIte-porphVxte, "but in this
case po quartz phenocrysts were discovered-
'With very few exceptions, all iof the
rocks of the Bohemia xeglon might be
Included under this heading, for the da-
cite-porpnyrjes are oniy porpnynuc
quartz-bearing andesltes. The tuJXs, too,
and most of. -the' basalts are aadesitie.
In several of the -andesltes hornblende is
present, tnit generally pyroxene s, the
only characterizing, ferromagneslan sili
cate. Although widely disputed, the
andesltes are much altered.
On the Champion trail, one-fourth mlje
southeast of 'the Mustek mine. Is a stav.
minutely porphyritic pyroxene-andeslte, ip
which, besides the crystals pf plagioclase,
there are dark spots of pyroxene or
chlorite derived from It. Most of the
pyroxene is certainly auglte, but some of
the altered forms suggest hypersthene.
The ground mass is chiefly plagioclase,
the minute lath-abaped crystals of which,
with the pyroxene, give a. somewhat ophl
tlc structure. A few darkrbordered spots
suggest th.Q former, presence of horp
blende, and. Irregular grains of magnetite
are scattered rather abundantly through
out the mass.
Below the trail the country rock about
the Galena Spur opening of the Wall
Street, claim Is closely sreiated to the an
deslte last noted, but contains scarcely
any plagocIse crystals visible to the un
aided eye. Pyroxene Is present, and also
j dark-bordered patches from which most
) of the -hornbiends has disappeared. The
zeldspar has a large angle of symmetric
extinction and is most likely labradorite.
This is the only distinctly hornblende
bearing pyroexene-andeslte seen in Bo
hernia district.
To the northward, in Elephant Moun
tain and Fairview, and Jn the ridge be
tween them, the dark-gray porphyritic
andaslie prevails, but is somewhat al
tered, containing considerable .eftrhaTiRte
j of lime, epjdote And chlorite.
And'eftlte oa TJoliejnla.
Ib the south base of 'Bohemia -Mountain.
j at the head of Petersburg Canyon, -tac an
deslte is arranged n layers, seven of
which -make up ihe uppox R feot of the
mountain. The lower layer has well-de
veloped columnar structure, and the dense
andeslte of rhlch -it Is composed contains
between the mlnuf plagioclase crystals,
besides numerou&gralns of auglte, a
great xieat of yeuowisn, partly devjtrifled
The top of Grizzly Peak Is composed ot
investment, with 9 change :f jj ,
price of stock, HELENA'S ore.
.daily,. nearly $400,000'
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Members Oregon Mining Stock Exchange
formerly Mcrnbcrs Colorado Springs Mining Stock Exchange
. ,. .
jjfings' jgpja . ';;. :"
QV.anajiy others. i:
a compact, dark-gray, nopporpbyritic -an.-dgsjte
of -.basaltic habit, bjut consisting
chiefly of plagfdclase in .small, squarish,
and a few pblong crystals tvlth consider
able magnetite and a trace of pyroxene.
Epjdote, chlorite and parboo.ates replace
most of the pyroxene! Another similar
rbek, but even flaerrgralned. occurs on
the Noonday mine, near' the boarding
house. Feldspars Jire abupdant la the
: ground mass, and the mlcrophenocrysts
are rich in crystals and grains of mag-
The basalts of the district are few and
audeatlc One of the best marked forms
the southern edge pf the summit of Bo
hemia Mountain.. Microphenpcrysts of
feldspar, pyroxene and serpentine are
abundant, nd. so decreased fl ze that
the distinction between jgroundmass and
phenocrysts Is pot sharply drawn. The
serpentine has the net structure charac
teristic of that derived from olivine. The
groundmaas Js composed chiefly of lath
ahaped plagJpcJOse. and granular axigite,
with considerable magnetite and a small
amount of secondary quartz. These rocks
are cut by yeins of quartz, and were evi
dently n place before tbp development
of the auriferous veins. At the north
eastern end pf Bohemia Mountain the
lava sheets jire cut by a. vein of bright
red chert. In a specimen collected by
the United States Geological Survey, this
Chert looked very much like that of
organic origin found at many poiats in
4 the Coast Range of Southern Oregon and
Tuffs are abundant, especially in the
eastern part of tho region. Thsy are
well exposed also at several points in
the central and western portions. As
tho region is approached by the Sharp
-Creels trail the stratified tuffs are first
seen under Judson Bock, vhere tho fine
grayrbanded tuff Is well exposed. Well
stratified tuffs also occur in the reservoir
on tho srestern slope of Elephant Moufir
ialn. A coarser variety pf larger dis
tribution Js visible on the White Ghost
claim .near the right-hand bank of -City
Creek. At this point the component Jnp
illl are a centimeter or so in diameter
and the fragmental pharacter )s visible
to thp eye. Here, too, It is associated
with the interesting tourmaline hornfels.
The rock Is in pjaccsgnelseoid in struc
ture and is composed chiefly of toUrma
iine, with much quartz and minute scaiea
of clear mica. This appears to be a
product of contact metatnorphlsni with
tuff pn one side, but on the Other sldo
Pf a 10-foot ledge of fcornfels ppthlns
was exposed.
In the tunnel to No, i Jsvel of the
Noonday mino tuff Js weU exposed in
sheets lnterstratlfied with lavas. Thty
arc all of fine material.' It is a matter
of surprise to find po coarse fragments!
material of volcanic origin la the region.
It furnishes evidence that the explosive
outbreaks were outside of the district,
possibly to tho eastward, lor in that di
rection the tuffs become coarser and
much more massive. On the trail from
the Noonday to" Riverside $ good .view
is obtained of the slope eastof Horsa
heaven Creek as far south as Hematite
Mountain. This slope Is made up chiefly
of ligkt-colorcd, well-stratified tuffs. .
1 -.Very few, if ny. o tho -rocks of tho
l region are entirely unaltered, althougn
the alteration is usually so small as not
to- affect the general appearance of the
j lavs& Near the veins, however, tho al
teration is greater, and it Is to be sup
posed that this alteration was effected
in connection with the development of
tha veins. While the general alteration
of the lavas consisted chiefly in the chloiv
itlzation and carbonatlzation of certain
J minerals, the changes which were
brought about closer to the veins are dif
ferent, Jn that serlcltleatlon and slilfi-
1 cation are the most Important processes.
and these are ;a.cconpniea 4r roiiowea
by the deposition of sulphides, especially
Within a few feet of one of the
branches of the Mustek vein, near the
eastern part of Bohemia. Mountain, the
original character of the andeslte has en
tirely disappeared. The .general appear
ance of the rock is not greatly changed,
but, Tinder the microscope, it is found to
have been completely altered and to be
composed pf serialte, carbonate of lime
and quartz, with & small amount of py-
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rite. The distance to which this process
extends from the veins has not been ac
curately determined, but there' are Indi
cations that at times It -extends 0 feet
or more. One specimen of such altered
material was found at the mouth of the
120-foot tunnel on the Wall Street vein.
Its distance from the nearest vein ap
poars to be oyer 50 feet, but this is not
certain; for there may be others con
cealed near by, .Several hundred Xeet
farther up the slope is the comparatively
fresh hornblende-bearinj; andeslte of the
Galena Spur.
The Broadway and Champion are ad
Joining properties upon thp same vein.
In the Broadway the wall rock upon
the north side, a few feat away from the
vein, although fresh looking, is much
altered. It Is composed very largely ot
fine granular quartz, with many (11ms of
sericite and considerable .pyrlte. The
original ferromagneslan silicates have
beh entirely removed. The only trace
pf original structure Js marked by an oc
casional patch of serjplto scales result
ing Jfrom. the larger crystals pf feldspar.
TJpop the south slje, at the samp dis
tance from the vein, much of the feld
spar, Jp both large and 6mail crystals, ?s
still preserved, although much is altered,
and grapujar .quartz Is" abundant. There
Is much chlorite and some epldpte and
sericlte, representing the pyroxene and
feldspar, which have disappeared. Py
rlte Is not present.
On the north side of tho -Champion, 12
feet from the vein, as In the Broadway,
there Is much stllflcitlon. Pyrlte is com
mon, and the carbonates Tare present quite
as obundpflUy as tho sericlte, The oy
rito appears to "And its place -most com
monly in the porphyritic feldspars'. On
the south side of the Champion, five feot
from the vein, the rock js highly slUcl
fled, with the development of granophyric
structure. Traces of chlorite remain, and
the oxides of iron pro present, Instead
of the splphldes. As this Jles near the
surface, 'thfl sulphides have been oxidized.
jn tha Noonday, at the west end pf
Jovel No. 2. where the vein.pjnches out,
the south -wall retains nearly all Its
feldspars, and there has bep but little
slliclfication. Chlorite, carbonates and, a
llttlo emdote represf.nt the minerals that
haye. dlapparcd. Unpn the north slda,
jikat by. there has heen much slllclflca
llon and scricitl.zatjpn, accompanied by
the development of considerable pyrjte.
Tjocally, one process prevails over the
pther. .and when this Is tho case slllciflea--tlon
is usually the most prominent, ibe
north wall rock of the Ilttle MaudMs
hltrhlv aliclfid. but in the south ,wall
sUIcficatlon has produced' scarcely as
important chonpy?n ,pa. those due to car
bonatlzation and sericitlsation.
"VieXna We'll Desned.
The yeins of Bohemia district ore un
usually well defined. The veins are Irregu
lar and vary from a mere film to sheets
12 feet thick. A vein may be simple, as
in the case of the Champion, where there
is but one ore body, or It may be com
posed of several parallel veins only a few.
feet apart, p.b locajjy In the Mustek.
When simple the veins- attain a thickness
at times of four feet, hut when com
pound they arc as much as 12 feet thick.
None ot the veins has been followed to a
greater depth than SO feet beneath the
surface, and they have been traced on the
surface for comparatively - short dis
tances. There 'isa "wide range in tho course of
the veins from north 45 degrees west, to
1 south 70 degrees west although for short
distances the local trend 'may fall out
side of these limits, as, for example, the
Ophlr, on which the strike Is north 13
degrees west. The average course of 31
observations made for the United 8tates
Geological Survey is north 72 degrees
west, approximately the general course
of the Calapoola Mountains, and ltseems
probable that the formation of the -yelps
may have been connected with 'the axial
uplift of 4hat Crest. The dip Qt the vghns
is always at a high angle, and generally
to the southwest, although In a number
of places It js to the northwest. The same
vein, as, lot example, the . Noonday, is
inclined in. different directions in differ
ent portions of the mine.
The veins follow, sets of joint planes,
of which there are two one lying be
. .. - -V.V- . .. ', . ;-v. . :wv5 , ' - - ' . 'i'"' ". 'v.t5 5'"' ' T "'
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ju:-?1 Br"lffll m ;. '-', 3?" ' '..' 'v-i:;sv-:.;
Is. on the same vein an$ has as good, or betleX values at tfic
same stage of development as Helena. HEMNA No. 2 fs onK
120P feet from lielena, on the same vein. Work is being pushed
pn both properties, and we predict dividends tern Helena,-?
' ' No'.vZ before twelvfc months. ;
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.; .- I. .s:
Booms 318 and
tween north. SO degrees west and porth
TO degrees west, and the other pearly at
right angles to this, a little -west of
south. The joints of the first set are
most abundant and occur geperallyin the
neighborhood of the veins. Those of the
second set are not common. The best
examples are seen about Grouse Moun
tain. It is evident from the relations of the
joints and yeins that the joints deter
mined the, position of the veins, and
aided in affording an opportunity for the
circulation of the mineral-bearing solu
tions by whioh the ores and gangue were
deposited. Tho development of the veins,
however, cannot be ascribed to the pres
ence of simple joints alone, but to a
crushed and porous belt of rock, in "which
there, may be many Itregular joints. The
crushed condition pf the rock Js well djs
played In the faces of some of the drifts.
Occasionally the walls or inclosed 'frag
ments show welj marked polish or striae
of sllckensldes due to faulting. These
appear more abundant about the Noonday
mine than anywhere else In the district.
The .existence of faults, of at least small
extent eapnot bo doubted. It Is possible
that the evidence of faulting was once
more general, and that It has been to
some extent obscured or obliterated by
subsequent deposition of vein matter. The
country rocks are whojly volcanic and
much alike, so that it was not possible
for Mr. BiJIer in a preliminary survey to
determine the amount of displacement.
Quarts the Principal Causae.
The principal gangue mineral Is quartz,
which Is more or less abundant through
out the veins, and Is in many of the small
veins tho solo constituent. Such veins are
ot milky quartz, fresh, bright and solid,
but the larger veins contain quartz that
is more or less porous and cavernous, and
the larger openings are lined with quartz
crystals. While the crystal-lined cavities
which occur more or less abundantly In
all the large veins are positive evidence
that the deposition took place in a cav
ity, yet, the absence of banding Indi
cates entire Jrregularity in the shape and
J order of deposition Jn the cavltjes. By
tnff oxidation of the ipc.osed Jron pyripes
near the surface the porous quartz Is
deeply stained red, yellowish or black, the
color depending upon the degree of oxi
dation and hydration of the Jron.
.Next to quartz, the most Important
gangue material in the vein Is a white,
clayey substance resembling kaolin.
When treated with nitrate of cpbalt solu
tion and Ignited, it becomes blue, like
kaolin similarly treated, but between
crossed nlcols its Interference colors are
In part high instead of low. as are those
of kaolin, and Jt has a finely foliated
structure with parallel extinction, like
sericlte. George Stcger determined that
It contains & per cent of water. Kaolin
contains 31 per cent or more of water,
while sericlte contains less than per
cent. It is evident, therefore, that the
-white argillaceous matter contains onjy a
small portion of kaplln, end Is made up
chiefly of sericlte. The material Is re
ferred to as Icaolin, partly because some
of it Js kaolin and partly because the
-miners will more readily recognfze it by
that name. Mr, ,injsren showed the
Importance of sericjtp In tho veins of the
mining districts of Idaho Basin, and at
the same time called attention to the
scarcity of kaolin under such conditions.
One of the vein minerals of rather local
distribution and of little importance is
epldote. In some places, as, for example,
the southern end of the Mystery, It forms
considerable masses and contains large
scales of red hematite.
Another mineral which should be con
sidered with the gangue minerals Is car
bonate of lime. It is rare and of but lit
tle Importance. There was found at the
mouth of the Helena a large fragment of
yellowish, and pale green, somewhat ta-jac-Jlic
mineral, which, upon Investiga
tion, proved to be allophane. It Is said
to have come from the tunnel on the vein.
Although allophane was seen at oniy one
place In the mining district, it Is not of
raro occurrence elsewhere In mines .con
taining copper ores.
jn the deeper portions of the veins the
ores .are pyrlte, spolerite, galenlte, chal
copyrite, oxids of iron and cerusfte. Ex
,...., 7
the past fevy weeks, &jaife
; - ..
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. -pj3bIEHf:
- -
319 Chamber of Commerce
cel ting the Jast, they usually occur Irreg
ularly intermingled. When found to
gether, they are in general of approxi
mately equal quantities, although there
Is much variation. Pyrlte Is the only one
which occurs alone, and Is much more
widely distributed than the others, ex
tendfng far Into the adjacent country
rock. The Iron oxide intermingled with
the sulphides Is red hematite, and Its
presence Is generally considered an indi
cation that the ore is rich in gold. The
dark-brown to black oxide "of iron is
sometimes associated with a partially
weathered form of good sulphide ore. The
sphalerite (zinc sulphide), galenlte (lead
sulphide) and chalcopyrite (copper and
iron sulphide) are almost absent from the
rock in the zone of oxidation, where yel
low to black oxide of iron derived from
tho pyrlte Is most abundant and lead car
bonate (cerusite) derived from the galen
lte occtirs In a few places. The metal
sought Is gojd, which npar the surface i?
native, finely filamentous, and distributed
through iron -stained quartz; but at
greater depths, about 200 feet, beyond the
reach of surface Influences, the gold Is
largely contained In the sulphides.
Old-Pasliloncd Cntvorro.
GRBBNIjBAP. Or.. July 29. The worms
which have been so destructive to vege
tation on'Deadwood have appeared about
The superiority of Salot Louis A, . C. Bohemian Beer is recognized
by sspcrt8 in ite absolute parity, its rich, creamy foam, its paid
gojdea colori its JlifejaitJ sperkj&g brilliancy
Order from
TOUNG MEN troubled with nleht
S 30$
fulness, avpruton to society, which deprive you of your manhood, UN5TT 'XOtl
MIDDL.E-AU2D MSN who from excesses end strains have lost their MANLY
BLOOD AND SKIN DISEASES. Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, painful, bloody urine,
Gleet, Stricture, enlarged prostate. 8exuai Debility, Varicocele. Hydrocele. IQdney
DRUGS. Catarrh and Rheumatism CURED.
Dr. Walker's methods are regular and scientific. He use no patent nostrums
or roAdy-made. preparations, but cures the disease by thorough medical treatment.
His New Pamphlet on PrirAtv Diseases sent Free to all men who describe their
troubles. PATIENTS cured at home. Teress -reasonable. All letters answered la
plain envelope. Consultation free and sacredly confidential, Call on or address
Doctor tValker, 183 First St Cerncr Alder, Portland, Oa.
-5 -:i
good for,
the head of Lake Creek. In places
they have eaten cveythlng green. Some
say they are the old-fashioned cutworm.
Postoillcc to Be Discontinued.
WASHINGTON,. July 29. On August
15 the Postfiloce at Homevalley. Ska
mania County. Washington, will be dis
continued, and mall for that point will
be sent to Stevenson.
No word's of ours can foretell the benefit
you would deil.e from Hood's Sarsapa
Or Your Hair Will Fall Oat Till Yon
Become Dnld.
Modern science has discovered that dan
druff Is caused by a germ that digs up
the scalp In stales, as it burrows down
to the roots of the hair, where It destroys
the hair's vitality, caualng falling har,
and, ultimately, baldness. After Pro
fessor Unna, of Hamburg, Germany. dW
oovered the dandruff germ, all efforts to
find a remedy failed until the great labor
atory dlrcovory wjs made which resulted
In Newbro'.s Herplclde. It alone of an
other hair prepaxatlone kills the dandruff
germ. Without dandruff hair grows lux
uriantly. "Destroy the cause, you remove
tho effect."
Is an epitomized summing up of
he universal praise cf coxmois
zeurs in characterizing ihe relative
merits cf
In the treatment of chronic diseases, such as liver,
kidney and stomach disorders, constipation, diarrhoea,
dropsical swellings, Briffht's disease, etc ,
Complaints, painful, difficult, too frequent, milky r
bloody urine, unnatural discharges, speedily cured.
Such as ptlfc?. fistula, fissure, ulceration, mucous and
bloody discharges, cured without the knife, palp or
Blood poison, gleet, stricture, unnatural losses, la
potency, thoroughly cured. No failures, Cures guaranteed.
emissions, dreams, exhaustlnr drains, bash.