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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
THE MORNING OREGQNIAST, THTJBSDAY, MARCH 29, 1900.
GOLDEN AGE OF ITALIAN LITERATURE
(Copyright, 1900, by Seymour Eaton.)
THE OREGONIAN'S HOMESTUDY CIRCLE: DIRECTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON
GOLDEN AGES OF LITERATURE
XII. DANTE AND HIS RELATION TO
BT C. TV. BENTON. PH. D.
I shall novr mention some of the principal
elements which combine In the "Divine
Comedy." The first Is the performance of
the classical tradition. Greece and Italy
have been historically, as they are geo
graphically, the arms of Europe, receiving
and handing down to the modern world
the heritage of antiquity. And when
Greece was no more. Italy extended that
Intellectual culture which had never been
wholly obliterated. Dante and Petrarch
are the first Italians who make the con
tinuity of classical civilization one of the
principal elements of the renaissance. The
Latin language had remained the lan
guage of the church. A speech In Latin
on the squares- of Florence was under
stood in the 13th century. Latin songs
were still sung. Poets were still crowned.
In the capitol for Latin verses. Lawyers
still pleaded their cases In Latin. Bo
logna "mater studlorum" was the center
of Roman jurisprudence, gathering at the
same time over 10.000 students. Here
probably Dante heard the. famous Gio
vanni Andrea on canon law. As tradi
tion has It. when absent, he had for a
substitute his learned daughter, who, as
the contemporary Christine de Pisan
states, that her beauty might not distract
her hearers from the close attention neces
sary for the study of the law, spoke from
bohlnd a curtain. The German poet
VIppo. according to Tlraboschl, writes
that all the youth of Italy go to. work
in the schools over letters and the sci
ence of the laws.
Rome preserved with care Its monu
ments, and even today on Its modern
buildings are the initial letters of S. P.
K, (Senatus Poputusque Romanus). The
vision of the Roman Empire was never
lost It was to Rome that the great king
of the Franks and after him the German
Emperors came to be crowned.
Dante shows us the widowed city in
tears, calling for Henry VII as the di
rect heir of the Caesars. Nor is this
admiration for classical antiquity the
"boon of cultivated minds alone. It Is a
popular passion. The broken statues of
the gods, the colunms of the Forum and
the Pantheon, the ptllar of Trajan and
the arch of Constantine still speak to the
Imagination of the people. Virgil's tomb
is revered as a place of pilgrimage. He Is
the patron saint of the City of Naples.
To the popular mind "he is a magician who
performs wonders in behalf of his favor
ite city Did he not make the Palladium
to protect the city from foreign invasion?
Together with the classical sibyls, he Is
carired among the prophets on the por
tals of the churches. Even Michael An
gelo places the sibyls among the Jewish
prophets in his great picture of the Sls
Virgil was the sea of all the wisdom of
the ancient world "11 mar dl tutto sen
no." The Ghlbelllnes exalted him be
cause he sung of the grandeur and the
destinies of the empire. All Christians
loved him because they thought they saw
in his verses of the third Eclogue a
prophecy of the coming of the Messiah.
Dante chose him as the symbol of human
reason and the guide to Introduce him
into the company of the poets and the
sages of the ancient world. The senti
ment of veneration for the great names of
antiquity Is everywhere presents in the
"Divine Comedy." Aristotle Is the master
of those who know. Virgil Is the foun
tain of eloquence, his author and his mas-
ter, who bequeathed upon him that style
which did him honor.
He did not condemn the great names of
the pagan world, as did the theology of
his day. In that limbo of the first circle
which encompasses the abyss, where only
sighs prevail without torment, he places
the sages of antiquity, because he recog
nizes in them the great teachers of hu
manity. Here are the shades of Home:
and Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, Caesar,
wjth his falcon eyes, Thales and Euclid.
Here he even places Saladln, who sits
apart. This state of mind Is characteristic
of Italy, and Is not found among the
scholastic doctors. It is the same relig
ious enthusiasm for antiquity shown by
the humanists of the renaissance.
But nobody wrote Italian in Italy be
fore the last part of the 13th century, not
until the example of writing in another
language than Latin was given In another
country to the north. The Latin lan
guage and literature were the strongest
in Italy, and for that reason Italy was the
last of the Romanic countries to throw
off the traditional fetters and found a
literature of her own. The reason why,
when the literature finally came, it was
the most perfect of all and gave a general
Inspiration throughout Europe Is because
there were more elements of strength
which combined here.
The earliest popular poetry that flour
ished In Italy to express the new senti
ments of feudal society came from South
ern France. The songs of the troubadours
were the first breath of modern poetry.
Here the terrible Germanic Invasions had
been hardly felt. The ancient colony of
Marseilles preserved the traditions of
Greek culture. Fine Roman monuments
at Nimes. Aries and Orange still show
the greatness of the Latin civilization.
The Saracens had also left fruitful germs.
In the great school at Montpellier were
Maslc of Dante's face.
practiced the Arabian sciences of medi
cine, botany and mathematics.
The merchants of Languedoc brought
fcplces, silk brocades and precious stones
from the Orient. Independent municipal
governments were established according
to the plan of the free Italian cities with
which Marseilles, Bordeaux and Toulouse
did a lively commerce.
The spirit of the Crusaders completed
the awakening of the Provencal genius.
The country was filled with singers. "Will
lam, Count of Poitiers and Aqultalne, who
set out on the great enterprise at the
head of an army of 100,000 men, was the
first of the troubadours.
Until then literature had been in the
hands of the clergy, and was Latin. Now
It suddenly became popular. It was prac
ticed by princes. Richard Coeur de Lion,
the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of
Germany, the Italian Marquis of Mont
serrat. King Frederick III of Sicily, all
wrote Provencal verses. The troubadours
of Provence flocked to the courts of Italy
and Sicily, especially after that the Pope
Innocent III attempted to extinguish the
Albigensian heresy and with it this new
liberty of speech.
This new vulgar tongue became the com
mon voice of the leaders of the Crusader
to celebrate the sentiments of chivalry
and love. Even nob!e ladles, such as
Beatrice de Die. wrote songs in the new
language. In fact, it was largely through
lr influence, as Dante himself sars. in
w " ftr A
mj fit V
his treatise on "Vulgar Eloquence," that
much of It was written in their praise I
and would not have been understood If
written In Latin.
Even simple artisans like Bernard de
Ventadour, the sons of merchants like
Rudel, take the sounding Instrument from
the hands of their chiefs and sometimes
write as well, for here was a greatness
accessible to alt.
Military courage, generosity of soul and
disinterested love were not the gifts only ' as Marco Polo, the account of his extens
of wealth and station, but might abide ive travels In the Orient, but particularly
In any young and noble soul. Here, then, l Brunetto Latin!, the teacher of Dante,
was a literature vibrating with a fervor gives the reason for writing In French
as national and as general as was the his "Tresor," the encyclopedia of knowl
enthusiasm of the Crusades. Filled with edfe of the century "parceque e'est la
the new emotions which animated all parleure la plus delltable et la plus com
hearts, a high lyric ardor bordering on mune a touts cens."
religious devotion, reflecting also some- ' But there was another reason which
GIOTTO'S TOWER, FLORENCE.
(Built by Dantc'a friend.)
thing of the clear sky and brilliant colors J
of the south, together with a play of the
delicate rhyme and fervent imagination
of the neighboring poetry' of the Arabs of
Spain, this poetry, written to persuade and
to please, reached at once a. perfection of
form which was a reminder of what Dante
was to become. When It Is said that
Dante created out of nothing Italian llt-
erature, it is forgotten that he had had !
hls example and training among the i
The harp of Provence swayed to all tho I
human passions love, revenge, mili'ary
ardor, the new sentiments of Christian
In many cases the fierce spirit of martial
animosity dominated Christian feeling, as
in the odes of Bertran de Born, who sang
of the sweetness of war, and whom Dante
finds carrying, as a penalty, his own head
as a lantern over the desolate plains.
The admiration of the post Is evident,
however, for Sordello, the great trouba
dour, who, although an Italian, wrote In
Provencal, and whom he finds sitting liko
a lion In repose on one of the hillsides ol
purgatory. This Is the nard whoso fa
mous ode summons the cowardly prlncea
of Europe, whom he calls by name, to feed
their courage by eating the divided heart
of the heroic and lamented Bl'acas. Again,
with Virgil, be meets another troubadour.
Arnaud Daniel, who when urged to she
the traveler a specimen of his art, does
so In strains which prove how familiar
was Dante himself with the language of
Provence. The literature of Northern
France had also crossed the Italian bor
der. The romances of the Round Table
had renovated the ancient Celtic tradi
tions, mingling with them the noblest pas
sions of the Middle Ages, such as the mys
tic worship of woman, the spirit of adven
ture, tinged with religious fervor, the lofty
and spotless character of the Christian
knight, whose first qualities should be
truth and honor; the view of human life
as a pilgrimage to the eternal world,
which was to be won by some deed' of
valor, such as the recovers of the holy
To these was added a new sense of the
beauty of nature in the depth of the druid
lcal forest, near whose otreams lived the
fairies and. animals gifted with the power
Tristan, Perclval, Launcelot, were the
perfect knights to perform deeds of jus
tice In that age of feudal violence. Tho
magic sword of King Arthur, whose hid
ing place was even located in Sicily, was
to return some day and flash deliverance
to an oppressed people. Reflecting, above
all, the new refinements of courtesy,
these poems of the Round Table were soon
translated Into many languages and
adopted, as has been the "Chansons de
Geste." which sang of the paladins of
Charlemagne. Dante finds most of these
heroes in paradise, among the champions
of the Christian faith. There are two
principal reasons why the literature of
France in the Middle Ages penetrated Into
Italy. It sprang largely from the confl'ct
of the crusades, which carried Christian
Europe against the Saracens. In that
movement France had the most active
share. Charles Martel, Charlemagne,
William of Orange, were the first cham
pions who checked the Mohammedan ln
vaslous. The crusades were declared by Gerbtrt
of Lorraine, when he became Sylvester II;
they were preached by Peter the Hermit
and St. Bernard, headed by Godfrey of
Bouillon and the King, St. Louis. The
symbol of the cross was adopted at tho
council of Clermont, In Southern France.
All Europe engaged in the struggle, and
the "Chansons de Geste." which celebrated
the valor and victories of the Christian
knights, although written in French, ex
pressed a type of feeling and thought
springing from feudal society, which was
common to all the nations of Europe, and
so they were translated Into German,
English, Italian, Hungarian and the Scan
dinavian languages. It Is for this reason
that the study of the early epic literature
of France is important In any question of
the original European literature.
There Is another reason why It became
especially popular In Italy. Charlemagne
was not considered a stranger there; but
as the legitimate heir of the Roman Em
pire, and so himself and paladins were in
a sense representatives of the Italian
name. Roland and Olivier were carved
in stone at the entrance of the Cathedral
of Verona, nnd their deeds of valor sung
on the public sauare of the Italian cities.
We are told that when Italian princes
were on a Journey they listened to some
trovatore who beguiled the way by re
counting the exploits of Orlando; just as
Talllefcr, the minstrel, according to the
account of Waco, chanted the same stra'ns
at tho head of Willinm's army at Hast
ings. Muratorl says in his I alUn anHful
tlrs that one of the traveling troubadours
announced on a public square In the City
of Milan that on the following day he
would give an account of the death o:
j his hero, when one of the "bystanders,
transported with sympathy for the bravo
knight, offered the troubadour money not
to kill him eo soon, and thus for several
days, as long as tho payment continued,
the life of the favorite champion was pro
longed. These- French narratives of the
Middle Ages did not lose their sower In
Italy for several centuries, until they were
finally encased in the more classic forma
"" 'J" ' the J"
ardo" and "Pulci" and the celebrated "Or-
lando Furloso," of Arlozto and Tasso.
In the library of Saint Mark's, at Venice,
are preserved the manuscripts of some of
these earlier poems, written In neither
French nor Italian, but a mingled form
of both. The prevalence of the language
of Northern France in Italy Is shown by
the fact that Martlno da Canal e writes
his history of Venice In French, as well
brought In the 14th century many dlstln
gulshed men to Paris, such as Albertui
Magnus, of Germany, Roger Bacon and
Chaucer, from England, Anselm, Bona
Ventura and Thomas Aquinas, from Italy.
The University of Paris was the center
ofrcholastlc philosophy. "There the doc
tors were discussing the great questions
of theology and the doctrine of being.
Abelard was preparing the way for Des-
cartes and Emanuel Kant,
In the early part of the century two for-
elgners with intelligent and curious saza
might have been seen walking through
the tortuous streets of the Latin quarter
of Paris. They went up the vico dc.:ll
Straml, as the poet calls It, which Is iden
tified by commentators ns the Rue du
Fouarre. where Sigier compressed truth
into syllogisms. They examined w:th
e.aro the saints and the prophets In the
Dortais of the churches and the hobgob
lins and demens In torment. They enter
the cathedral and admire that splendid
specimen of gothlc art which had not yet
penetrated into their country. One of
them, from the rose of stained glass In
the nave, may have received the first idea
of the splendid simile which he later used
In his poem when he compared to an in
finite rose the ranks which in paradise
surround the eternal throne. Perhars
they enter the library of some monastery
or of the university, where one of them Is
Intently interested reading "Vole du Par
adls" ("The Road to Paradise"), by the
French trouvere Rutebeuf. or "Lo Songe
d'Enfer. "The Dream of Hell," by Raoul
de Houdan, or possibly that passage In the
second half of the Roman de la Rose by
Jean de Meung, where he describes the
torments reserved In hell for Popes, Kings,
Dukes, hypocrites and angers.
These two strangers were Dante and
Giotto, the founders of Italian literature
and Italian art.
It was during his stay here that, after
the manner of the medieval tournamen
Dante maintained with success a thesis
quo libet against 14 champions who pre
sented themselves. It Is the echo of these
discussions, softened and exalted Into the
region of the loftiest poetry, that we hear
In the sublime arguments of the third part
of the "Divine Comedy."
Note. This study will be concluded on
"Won't Get There.
I wonder whether now,
Toung man of loftr brow,
Tou think, by any how.
You'll get there.
Tou undeceived should be,'
Tour mind relieved should be,
CCo President for thee;
"Won't get there.
Toung statesman of the Platto,
Exploiting, through your hat.
Ideas mn laugh at,
Tou tret there?
Shallow as In the past.
Shallow from first to last. -
Shallowness and bombast
"Won't get there. -
Say, does it flatter you.
That crowds your path pursue?
Do sycophants tell you
Tou 11 get there?
Twill do for Summer time.
But Autumn's hillsides' climb
"Will decimate your line,
"Won't get there. ,..
Be happy while you can.
The dying embers fan.
But you are not the man
Tq get there.
Summer Expansion's ghost,
'Twon't rcare us on the Coast,
A unit here almost.
Won't get there.
Forlorn the hope you lead,
The Jetfersonlan creed
Which you and Altgeld read.
Won't get there.
Is thin, and "will not wash,"
We better know "bo goh,
t Won't get there.
We hall the rising sun.
We sing of victories won.
An empire westward run
Tou get there?
Pleare don't obstruct the play,
Tou're only In the way.
Good times have come to stay.
Tou get there?
Portland. March 2S. O. N. Q.
A Yankee Conncllman.
New York Commercial.
American capital Is very much In evi
dence In Mexico, and has been for some
years, but not until a few weeks ago has
any American ever had a voice In the
government of the City of Mexico, where
a large part of the American capital Is
centered. The last elected to the City
Council is George Branlff. son of Thomas
Branlff, reputed to bi the wealthiest
American In the Republic of Mexico. The
Yankee Councilman is but 25 years of age,
and is. a large dealer in machinery.
FRIARS OF PHILIPPINES
TVHY THE NATIVES ARE OPPOSED
TO THEIR OPERATIONS.
Otis Publishes a Statement That
Gives Filipino More Enlightened
Ideas of Freedom,
WASHINGTON, March 23. Judging
from reports that have recently reached
Washington from Manila, and especially
the reports In the Manila newspapers, no
tably the Manila Freedom, It would seem
as though the friars In the Philippines are
going to have a difficult and embarrassing
situation to face. There seems to be a
great deal of discontent with the methods
that have been pursued by the friars in the
past, and there Is a strong desire to cur
tall their authority and hold on tho na
tives. In commenting upon this subject
tho Manila Freedom says:
"Churches have rights. They are dis
tinct under organic law. Orders of
churches also have rights, antS they are
equally distinct The Manila Freedom
wars not upon the Catholic Church, but It
does war upon orders that live at the ex
pense of human rights. To accept money
or property upon representation of abllltj
to perform an impossibility Is worse than
theft, for It carries the act with It as
well as deception. The time has ccme
for distinct understanding as to the status
of "churches or rellclous orders under the
Federal Constitution. There Is absolute
divorcement between church and state.
While the right to worship God according
to the dictates of conscience is accorded
to one and all, it does not carry with it
the right to levy tax upon the bones of
the dead or ?rofess the ability to take a
soul out of purgatory by prayer or in any
other way, and, upon that professed abili
ty, accept property In deed or trust as a
consideration. In doing that, any order
of the church abuses and Interferes with
tho rights of the living, and thus violates
the constitutional law of the land.
"Such work Is not religion. It is not
worship, and It will not be tolerated by the
United States of America. The fr'ars
have lived by plunder for decades in th
Philippines, and the court records of the
islands afford the proof. We shall go af
tor it In due time. Filipinos made war upon
this order because of this. Under Span
ish dominance church and state were one.
and whatever war or Insurrection was
waged here prior to American occupation
was necessarily waged upon the friars,
and this Is why so many friars were rls
oners of war In Insurgent hands. These
same friars knew that the United States
was hostile to their methods of usurpa
tion, and therefore they were hostile ta
American occupation, and urged the fight
that commenced on February 4, 1SE9. These
same hellish friars deceived Aguinaldo
and his following, and ltd them to believe
that America would be even a greater
opprersor than Spain. Their religion Is
their God, their life, and so they were
easily led Into a conflict that wi'l sadden
the islands for long years. Amer ca Is
the friend of the Filipino also of the
friar, but he must live upon a plane that
will not trespass upon the rights of hi
"We make no charges that we are un
able to prove. Gobs of property, the best
of the islands, gathered In the name of
the church, filched for absolution from .1
people willing to give up soul nnd tody
for final salvation, as they understand
It, Is proof sufficient The heart of the
Catholic Church doesn't care to doml-a'e
In this way, and pure-hearted, slng'e
mlnded Catholic clergy deplore the meth
ods of the friars as exemplified in Luzon
for over 200 years.
"Th's crafty, cunning order, centuries
behind Catholic advance, seeing the di
lemma they were In, sought to fortify
themrevlc3 nnd they established a piper,
called the Tribune, to mold public oplrlcr.
and defend them against the onslaughts
of a people they have grievously wrcnged
a people, too, who worshiped at the same
shrine and same altar. Archbishop Chap
ellc Is a man of mind and fine parts. His
Investigations and wisdom may be d--pended
upon to restore church equilibrium
and give the churches opposing the
haughty friar spiritual guides who will bz
wholly satisfactory to them."
Effect of Otis' Stntenicnt.
The following, on the same subject,
appeared In the same paper:
"Two petitions have been presented to
Archbishop Chapellc, protesting against
the retention of tho friars In the parishes.
One was from Cavlte and another from
Srn Roque. They are couched in tho
same language as that presented by the
residents of Santa Cruz and Indicate the
strong antegontsm that prevails against
the friars in the districts heard from.
"No more emphatic demonstrations by a
Catholic people against religious corpora
tions could be made than those that are
dally pouring In from the different sections
of the country. In the cities the feeling
Is very stror.:r against them, but lr 13 no;
a marker to the unanimous dislike for thi
organizations throughout the provinces.
The wholesale expression of sentiment Li
just what is wanted, and the Filipino peo
ple are commencing to realize that thora
Is a freedom of thought and expression
even under the strict military regulation
that are enforced on account of the peciv
liar conditions existing, than they ever
"The expression of Governor Otis, pub
lished In Freedom of yesterday, was re
ceived, by the Filipino people with a feel
ing of much satisfaction, and has removed
from them all fear that their rights as
citizens will be interfered with by any ec
clesiastical domineering. They hardly ap
preciate a condition or fbrm of govern
ment where church and state is entirely
separate and the government Is "of, fot
and by the people." The expression ot
the Military Governor has set many think
ing and they are becoming more and more
appreciative of American Institutions a
they realize what the rights given a citi
zen by the Constitution of the United
" 'The Government of the United States
makes no promises that It cannot carry
out. and I can assure the people of the
Philippines that the individual liberty
guaranteed will never force upon them
any ecclesiastical domination contrary to
their wishes.' Those are the words that
have cleared the atmosphere of whatever
fear the people had that .they would be
forced to accept conditions to which they
were opposed. The Catholic religion Is
very dear to the Filipino people, but they
desire that they shall not be domineered
over by an organization that they despise
because of former experiences.
"A number of prominent Filipinos in
Santa Cruz district expressed themselves
more than gratified that the expression
had been made. While they, themselves,
had previously the greatest faith In the
United States Government adjusting mat
ters satisfactorily, they stated that many
of their people had not been convinced.
No expression had formerly been made to
set them right, and with the suspicion that
the average Filipino has of all constituted
authority, they were always expressing
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Pimple. Copper-Colored spots. Ulcers on any
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COOK REMEDY CO.
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cures. Capital, J).ooo. We solicit the most ob
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1& to 35 days. 100-pace Book Fre.
tho fear that conditions would be the
same as during Spanlshrule.
"The statement made by the Military
Governor was eagerly seized by those
who had tried to quell tho disposition to
doubt the good faith of the Government,
and much good has been done. The in
habitants of Manila were very much In
terested in the matter, and the expression
of the Governor was so eagerly sought
after by all. that In Manila today there
Is not a home that has not discussed the
statement and been relieved from a myth
ical fancy of possible wrong."
Will Now ValHe Real Newspapers.
It Is well that the failure of Mr. Sheldon
as an editor is so signal and, conclusive.
That money was made out of the project
In the peculiar way in which It was sen
sationalized does not In tho least affect
the quality of the work which he did. Mr.
Sheldon experimented long enough to show
his Insuperable limitations. So uninter
esting was his paper, even to his own dis
ciples, that they became weary of It This
experiment should teach the American
people how to put a proper estimate upon
the value of the dally press as now con
ducted. Too long has It been tho prac
tice of a certain clique to depreciate and
decry It Why should anybody take the
exceptional "yellow journal" as the repre
sentative of the daily paper? Such Judg
ment Is as unjust as it is unintelligent In
moral standards. In ability, comprehens
iveness and enterprise, the American press
Is unrivaled. The' dally paper enlight
ens, absorbs, and largely directs the life
of our people. Sheldon's fiat failure should
teach a new lesson of appreciation of the
average dally paper.
say, Dr. Pierce's med
icines did me more
good than all I had
ever taken before."
These are the words of Mr. O. S.
Copenhaver, of Mount Union, Hunting
den Co., Pa. He says farther :
"About twelve years ago I was suddenly
taken with a pain in the pit of the stomach
Tfhich was so violent I
could not walk straight
I consulted a physician
and he told me I had a
form of dyspepsia, and
treated me six months
with but little benefit. I
then tried another phy
sician and he told me my
liver was out of order and
that I had indigestion, but
he didn't cure me. I then
tried another one who said
ulceration of the lining of
the stomach, torpid liver
and kidney affection. He
treated me for more than
a year. I then took several
widely advertised patent
medicines, but received no
more than temporary re
lief while using. I "then
tried Doctor Pierce's medi
cines, usintj his -Golden
Medical Dioovery,' and
the ricasant Pellets.' and
in two months' time I was
feeling better than I had
for vcars before."
The "Golden Medical Discovery" is the
most effective blood purifier and germicide
that modern medical science has produced.
It at once neutralizes the poisonous, fer
mented matter in the stomach, liver and
bowels, and as soon as this is removed by
the action of the "Pellets" it soothes the
inflatnmed membranes of these organs,
putting them into healthy condition to
absorb the nutritive elements of the food.
It aids and stimulates the action of the
digestive fluids of the body and is absorbed
into the blood alone: with the food. It en
riches the blood, filling it with vitalizrisr,
strcneth - jnvintr properties. It produces
sound, healthy flesh muscle you can work
with. It is a .safe medicine. It contains
no whisky, alcohol, sujrar or syrup. It docs
not create a cravinir for liquor.
"A gentleman who recently
made a trip over the Burlington
to Chicago writes that In his
opinion there Is not a better
managed railway In America.
He further says that from the
time you enter the car till you
reach Chicago, even' employe of
the road is on the alert to add
to your, comfort." Hotel Bulle
tin. Omaha, Chicago, Kansas City,
St. Louis ALL points East
100 3rd St., cor. Stark, ParUni, Oreju.
R. W. FOSTER.
GEO. S. TATLOR.
City Passenger Agent.
Yukon River Points
Steamer OHIO (35C0 tons) has been re
leased by the United States Government
after nearly two years' service as a trans
port to the Philippines, and will sail for
CAPE NOME on or about MAY 24, 1900.
For passage and freight rates, apply to
any railroad ajrent or sub-agent of tho
International Navigation Co., or direct to
EMPIRE TRANSPORTATION CO.,
607 First avenue, Seattle, Wash.
Pacific Coast Steamship Co,
THE COMPANT'S elegant
steamers. Cottage City. City
of Topoka and Al - Kl leave
TACOMA 11 A. M., SEATTLE
0 P. M.. Mar. 11. 10. 21. 28.
31. Apr. B. 10. 15. 20. 23. 30.
May 5, and every fifth day
thereafter. For further Infor
mation obtain company's folder.
The company reserves the right to change
cteamers. sailing dates and hours of sailing,
without previous notice.
AGENTS N. POSTON, 29 "Washington s.L.
Portland. Or.: F. W. CARLETON. N. P. R. R.
dock. Tacoma: J. F. TROWBRIDGE. Pugst
Sound Supt., Ocean dock. Seattle.
GOODALL. PERKINS & CO.. Gen. Agts.. S. 9.
WASHINGTON & ALASKA
Steamship CITT OF SEATTLE" Trill leave
Seattle at 8 P. M. on Tuesday, April 3, and
every 10 days thereafter, tor Vancouver, Ketch
ikan. Juneau and Skagway, making trip from
Seattle to Skagtvay In T2 hours.
For freight and passage lmjulre of
1 DODWELL A CO LIMITED, AGENTS,
I III f If !
UbIob Depot, Sixth and J Streets.
TWO TRAINS DAILY
FOR ALL POINTS EAST
"FAST MAIIi AND PORTLAICD - CHI
CAGO SPECIAL ROUTE."
Leavea for the East via Spokane dally at 3.43
P. M. Arrives at 8:00 A. M.
Leaves for the East, via Pendleton and Hunt
ington, daily at 8.-C0 P. M. Arrives, via Hunt
ington and Penalton. at 6:45 P. M.
THROUGH PULLMAN AND TOURIST
Water llres schedule, subject to change with
OCEAX AND RIVER SCHEDULE.
OCEAN DIVISION Steamships salt frrm
Alr.aworh dock at 8:00 P. M. Leave Portlnnd
Columbia sails Saturday, March 3; Tuesday,
March 13; Friday. March 23; Monday. April 2;
Thursday, April 12. State ot California salla
Thursday. March 8: Sunday. March 18; Wed
newlay. March 2S; Saturday. April 7.
From San Francisco State ot California salts
Saturday. March 4; Wednesday. March 14; Sat
urday. March 24: Tuesday. April 3; Friday,
April 13. Columbia calla Friday. March 0; Mon
day. March 10; Thureday. March 13: Sunday.
COLUMBIA RIVER DIVISION.
PORTLAND AND ASTORIA.
Steamer Hassalo leaves Portland dally, rxcept
Sunday, at 8:00 P. M.; on Saturday at 10:CO P.
M. Returning-, leavea Astoria dally, except Sun
day, at 7:00 A. M.
"WILLAMETTE RIVER DIVISION.
PORTLAND AND CORVALLI5. OR.
Steamer Ruth, for Salem. Albany. Corvallle
and way points, leaves Portland Tuesdays.
Thursdays and Saturdays at 8:00 A. M. Return
ing, leaves Corvallls Mondays. Wednesciajs an.1
Frlda at 6:00 A M.
Steamer Modoc, for Salem. Independence and
way points, leaveo Portland Mondays. Wednts
days and Fridays at 0.00 A. M. Returning,
leaves Independence Tuesdays. Thursdays and
Saturdays at .1.20 A. M.
YAMHILL RIVER ROUTE.
PORTLAND AND DAYTON, OR.
Steamer Elmore, for Dayton and way points.
lees Portland Tuesdays. Thursdays and Sat
urday! at 7 A. M. Returning, leaves Dayton for
Tortland and way points Mondays. Wednesdayj
t.nd.Frldas at C A. M.
SNAKE RIVER ROUTE.
RIPARIA. WASH.. AND LEWISTON. IDAHO.
Steamer Spokane or steamer Lewlston leaves
Riparla daily at 1:20 A. M.. arriving at Lewlston
a.t 12 o'clock noon. Returning, the Spokane r
Lewlston leaves Lewlston dally at S:30 A. M..
arriving at Riparla same evening.
W. H. HURLEURT.
General Passenger Agent.
V. A. SCHILLING. City Ticket Agent.
Telephone Main 712.
CHINA AND JAPAN. FROM PORTLAND.
In connection with THE OREGON RAILROAD
& NAVIGATION CO. Schedule. 1U00 (subject to
Steamer. Due to Leave Portland.
ABERGELDIE" March 23
"MONMOUTHSHIRE" April 11
"RRAEMAR" May 2
For rates, accommodations, etc.. apply to
DODWELL & COMPANY. Limited,
General Agents. Portland. Or.
To principal points In Japan and China.
THE FASTEST AND MOST
The Direct Line to Denver, Omaha.
Kcns35 City and St. Louis.
Only 3 Days to Chicago, ' ,
Only 44 Days to New York and
other Principal Eastern cltlei
ThroucU rulltimu I'nluce Sleepers
Dlnlnp: Cars tmcnls a la carte), nnd
Free Reclining: Chair Curs
Operateil Dally on Fnst Mall Trains
Through tlekets. baggage checks and sleeping.
car accommodations can be arranged at
CITY TICKET OFFICE
135 Third Streei Portland, Oregon
J. H. LOTHROP.
City Pass. St Tkt. Agt.
FOR CAPE NOME
The Magnificent Trans-Pacific Passenger
Registered tonnage, 2S11 tons; capacity,
4000 tons; passenger accommodations, 100
first class, 900 second class. This steam
ship has Just been released from the gov
ernment service as a troopship, and has
every modern comfort and convenience and
Is the largest steamship in tho Cape Nome
Will sail from Tacoma and Seattle on or
about the 23th of May.
For rates and full Information apply to
DODWELL & CO., LTD.
Telephone, Main, 9G. 232 Oak Street.
Astoria & Columbia
River Railroad Co.
For Maygers. Rainier.
Clifton. Astoria. War
renton. Flavel. Ham
mond. Fort Stevens,
Gearhart Park. Seaside.
Astoria and Seashorn
T:00 P. M.
0:40 P. M.
Ticket cHlce. 256 Morrison st. aal Union depot.
J. C MATO. Gen. Vfiss. Agt.. Astoria. Or.
WHITE COLLAR LINE
COLUMBIA RIVER & PUGET SOUND NAVI.
PORTLAND AND ASTORIA.
BAILET GATZERT (Alder-etreet dock)
Leaves Portland dally every morning at 7
o'clock, except Sunday. Returning. leaves As
toria every night at 7 o'clock, except Sunday.
Oregon 'phone Main 351. Columbia 'phone 351.
U. B- SCOTT. Presldenu
CAPE NOME VIA DAWSON
NEXT SAILING. THE DIRIGO. MARCH 28.
The only company having through tramc ar
rangements to Atlln and the Klondike. Weekly
nalllngs from Tacoma. For full information ap
ply to J. L. HARTMAN. Agent, Portland. Or.,
3 Chamber of Commerce.
1JI tiiverr n
I w llAlKJlC30rLHhat41
fn routes yrii
JSv f '. Si
Depot Fifth and I Streets J Arrive!
for Salem. Rose
burg. Ashland. Sac
ramento. Q g e n.
San Francisco. Mo
Jave. Los Angeles.
El Paso, New Or
leans and the Enst
(daily except Sun
day), mornlnc train
connects tilth train
for Mt. Angel. 311
v e r t on. Browns
and Natron, and
evening train for
Mt. Angel and Sli
verton. Corvallls passenger
7:00 P. M.
-.-co p. as
t7:30 A. M.
J4:50 P. M.
tsizo p. :
JS:25 A. :
Daily. tDally except Sunday.
Rebate tickets on sale between Portland. Sac
ramento and San Francisco. Net rates $17 flrsl
class and 11 second class, including sleeoer. 1
Rates and tlcketa to Eastern points and Eul
rope. Also JAPAN. CHINA. HONOLULU anJ
AUSTRALIA. Can be obtained from J. Bl
.KIKKLAND. Ticket Agent. 140 Third St.
Passenger Depot, foot of Jefferson Street.
Leave for Oswego dally at 7:20, 0:40 A. M.I
12:30. 1:55. 3:25. 5:15. 0.23. S:05. 11:30 P. M.
ana u:ou a. m. wi Sundays only. Arrive
Portland dally at C:35. 8:30. -10:50 A. M
1:35. 3.15. 4.30. 0:20. 7:40. 10.00 P. M.: 12:4(1
A. M. dally, except Monday. 8:30 and 10:05 A
n. on bunaays only.
Leave for Dallas dally, except Sunday, a
4:30 P. M. Arrive at Portland at 9:30 A. M.
Passenger train leaves Dallas for Alrlie Mon4
dais. Wednesdays and Fridays at 2:45 P. M
Returns Tueswlajn. Thursdays and Saturdays.
C H. MARKHAM.
Gen. Frt. & Pass. Agt.
THE DINING CAR ROUTE FROM-PORI
TO THE EAST.
THE ONLT DIRECT LINE TO THE YELLOW
Union Depot, FKU sill Sts
Kast mall for Taco
nrn, Seattle. Olympla.
Gray's Harbor and
South Bend points.
Spokane. Rossland. B.
C. Pullman. Moscow.
Hump mining country.
St. Paul. Omaha, Kan
sas City, St. Louis.
Chicago and all points
east and southeast.
Puget Sound Express
for Tacoma and Seattle
and Intermediate points
5:30 F. M.
11:30 P. M.
7:CO A. M.
Pullman flrst-class and tourist sleepers to Mln-I
neapolls. SL Paul and Missouri river points with-1
out change. I
VestlbulPd trains. Union depot connections la I
all principal cities.
Barrage checked to destination of tickets.
For handsomely Illustrated desc-rlstlve matter.
tickets, sleeplag-car reservations ate. call oa oil
A. D. CHARLTON
Assistant General Pnenger Agent,
235 Morrison St.. Cor. Tlilrd.
GO EAST VIA
ON THE FAMOUS
Chicago - Portland Special
And Travel in Luxurious Comfort
Dining; Cars. Service n la Cnrte.
Librnry-llufl"et Smoklnj; Cars.
Palace nnd Ordinary Sleeping: Cars.
Free Reclining; Chnir Cars.
The only train running through nolid franl
Portland to Chicago. No change of cars. Every
car illuminated with nntscn gaa.
Leavea 8 P. M.. Portland. Arrives 0:45 P. M-
CITY TICKET OFFICE
1 24 Third St. Phone Main 569
W. E. COMAN.
J. R. NAGEL.
City Ticket Agt.
SOO PACIFIC LINE
Otters the LOWEST RATES and BEST SERV-
Ice to and from all Eastern points and Europe.
Through tourist cars from coast to St. Paul. ,
Toronto. Montreal as Boston "5VTTHOUX I
Direct Route to
Kootenay Mining District
Canadian Pacific xr7! null ilcsmJirlp lines U
Japar anl Australia.
For rales and information, apply to
H. H. ABBOTT. Agent.
E. J. COTLE. 16 Third street, city.
A. G. P. A.. Vancouver. B. C
TIclcet Office: 122 Third St. 'Phone CSO
2:45 P. M.
The Flyer, dally to and
from St. Paul. Minne
apolis. Duluth. Chicago
and all points East.
8:00 A M,
Through Palace and Tourist Sleepers, Dlnlufl
and Buffet Smoklng-Llbrary Cars.
JAPAN - AMERICAN LINE
STEAMSHIP IDZUMI MARU
For Japan. China and all Asiatic points wUJ
About March 28th.
VANCOUVER TRANSPORTATION CO.
Steamer Undine, Captain Charles T. Kamm,
leavea Vancouver at 8:30 A. M. and 1 P. M.
Leaves Portland at 10:30 A. M. and 4:30 P. M.
Sundays excepted. For freight or passage ap
ply on board, foot of Taylor street. Round trift
x- -" s..AspIL..