Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, March 07, 1900, Page 10, Image 10

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    JO
THIS MOKNING OREGONIAN, WEDNESDAY, MARCS ?, 1000.
GOLDEN AGES
(Copyright. 1800. by
THE OREGONIAN'S HOME STUDY CIRCLE:
HOI riFN AnF OF TITFRATURF
UUL,UEl AUEO Ur lUEaiUIE
I
ott.t-. ,r. ,., rt nnsI. i
VI. THE LITERATURE OP PERSIA.
BT PROF. PAUL ELMER MORE.
I.
In studying1 Persian literature It Is nec
essary first of all to have some under
standing of important historical changes ,
throush which the people of Iran passed. .
Three strongly marked periods may be '
nKun'ut- t tVio -infient- TT thp middle. '
and III. "the new. In the first period we. I
-hn.A rn.nr. n-r Hictinf tVinncb rfnao. i
ly related languages The Avestan, which
will be the particular subject of this paper, I
and the old Persian contained In cunel- I
form inscriptions on stone extending from I
i r ..p. ia. .,. wai.-.ma tirntiml.
uant in Asia Minor, until the Sassanian
j ... -u v.nnA in tVi tVitr1
uyiiusi umuc iu mi; iiuuue, ... pc ...... v. ,
century after Christ, there ls a complete ,
blank In Persian records. With the Sas-
sanlan kings the old Magian priests re- '
rained their influence and the Zoroastrian I
religion became all powerful In the state.
The sacred books In the ancient Avestan
language became the Bible of the land.
But In the meanwhile the language of the
country had suffered great changes, and
tho religious commentaries, corresponding
ito the Patristic literature of the Chris
tians, were now composed In the Pahlavl.
a tongue which ls related to old Persian
much as Italian ls related to Latin. This
body of Pahlavl commentaries forms the
middle period. But Persian was doomed
to undergo another and more far-reaching
revolution. In the seventh century the
country was subdued by the Arabs and
henceforth Mohammedanism became the
religion of the land. A number of the
Penslans escaped as colonists and settled
in India, where their descendants, the
Parsls, still live and maintain the ancient
Zoroastrian faith. Among them are pre
served sacred Avesta and the later Pahlavl
books, although their spoken language has
altered considerably since the days of the
Sassanlds.
Meanwhile with the Arab conquest Per
sia Itself entered upon a new era. The
language developed Into modern Persian
and was modified by a large infusion of
Arabic words. The modern Persian litera
ture may be said to have begun about the
year 1000 A. D., with the Shah Nameh.
the great epic of FIrdusI. Intrinsically
and considered as pure literature, modern
Persian, Including such names as Firdusl,
Saadl, Omar Khayyam, Haflz and others,
ranks easily first among Oriental litera
tures. The Persian Inscriptions and the
Pahlavl books we must, for lack of space,
pass over unnoticed. Today let us turn
for a moment to the Avesta, which con
tains the ancient religion of Zoroaster.
Of the two kindred people united under
Cyrus Into one great empire the "Medts
are the oldest In civilization, and It was
among them that the strange and little
understood religion of the Maglans devel
oped. The Magian? themselves were ap
parently a tribe of priestly Inheritance,
very much like the Levites among the
Jews. They were the learned men of the
East, familiar to us from the Bible, and.
If for a time, under the sway of Persian
and Greek rulers, their authority was
somewhat diminished, they at last came to
their own under the Sassanian dynasty. It
ls not easy to determine what was the
original form of the Maglan religion, be
cause in the form In which It has come
down to us it was profoundly modified
by the Influence of one dominant re
former. In general, however, it must have
been largely akin to the polytheistic faith
of the Hindu "Vodas, for. In fact, the Hindu
and Iranian religions were sister.1? derived
from a common mother.
But In the seventh century B. C. there
arose In Media a man of profound relig
ious Instinct, a great prophet, who
wrought a revolution In the popular faith.
From that day to this the religion of the
Maglans ls called Zoroastrlanlsm. after
his name. A few years ago, it was com
mon to speak of Zoroaster as a mere
myth; Just as Buddha and Christ were
myths to a certain school of skeptics.
But reflection and investigation have
modified this view, and today Zoroaster
is recognized as a distinct historic per
sonality. We even know something of
his life. We know how, like other reform
ers, he became dissatisfied with the gross
ness of the national faith and for years
lived apart in search of the truth. We
know that he began his mission of preach
ing at the age of SO. and we know the
name of the prince (Vishtaspa) who Anally
accepted his doctrine and became for Iran
what Constantine was for Christendom.
We even know that the prophet was
thrice married (strange as this may seem)
and that he left children.
The doctrine of Zoroaster is contained In
the so-called Avesta, the only relic of
tho Avestan language, which, as we have
seen, was closely akin td ancient Per
sian. The Avesta ls a collection of relig
ious laws, myths, litanies and hymns now
easily accessible in translation, and, not
withstanding an occasional note of true
spirituality, "must be regarded on the
whole as one of the dreariest and least
Interesting of the world's Bibles. It re
quires an extraordinary effort of Imagi
nation to understand how so much child
ish folly and a true religious spirit could
be combined. Essentially the faith of
Zoroaster ls a pronounced dualism. On
the one side stood Ormazd and the angels
of light; on the other side are ranged
Ahriman and tho princes of darkness. Into
this ceaseless struggle man Is thrown'and
must bear his part in the conflict. His
duty ls to preserve his purity Intact; un
cleanness is the great sin. So it was that
death was looked upon as uncleanness,
and the most characteristic rite was then
and Is still among the Parsls. the custom
of exposing dead bodies to be devoured
by the fowls of the air, so that neither
earth nor water nor fire should be made
impure by decay. To us the most Interest
ing fact in connection with Zoroastrlanlsm
is its infiltration Into Christianity through
Manlchaelsm and its Influence In this
way on so many of the European here
sies of the Mlddlo Ages.
II.
The great and merited fame of Fltzger
old's Rubalyat has made one of the Per
sian poets a true English classic, and
though this version of Omar Is so free aa
to be a paraphrase rather than a trans
lation, yet the voluptuous and seml-mystl-cal
beauty of Fitzgerald's lines la not a
bad representation of the Persian lyrics.
It would be Interesting to study at large
tho other famous lyric poets Haflz, Attar,
Saadl and the rest but today we must
concentrate our attention rather upon tne
great epic writer whose woik precedes and
outshines them all.
We have seen how Persian literature !
divided into three distinct periods, and how
tho third or modern period begins about
the year 1000 A. D.. with the work of Fir
dusl. Let us look for a moment at the
life of this famous author. FIrdusI was
born In a small vallage near Tus In the
year 940 of our era. Already a poet of the
name of Deklki had undertaken to weave
the old Persian traditions into a continu
ous narrative, but had left his work un
finished. Inspired by this example, the
young Firdusl et himself to recover the
ancient legends of his land. Much he
found written In books, much he took down
from the oral traditions among the people,
for the people of Iran had not forgotten
the glorious deeds of their ancestors, and.
Indeed, to this day, these traditions nre
handed down by memory from father to
son. This fcreat body of legends the poet
wrought Into a long narrative of some
CO.000 coupleta Having got this vast work
well under way, he set out for the court
There is a curious story told of an adven
ture on the road. In a garden near the
capital he happened to come upon three
wuri ytreia unnjuiig wine ana amusing
a few years after the conquest of Babylon niu nimeeir in nis native town, .were ne i Dotn ausraciory ana nmeniu
Tiv Pvriin in 5M R (. to the conauest of died a poor man. but tradition declares I Besides, in nearly every mining
AtPT.indpr. "From the ace of Alexander, that the Shah repented at last and that In the state there are veins that
OF. LITERATURE
Seymour Eaton.)
DIRECTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON
themselves with extemporizing verse.
ThmkInff to have ft wlth the stranger
they asked him to cap a stanza for them.
Choosing a most difficult rhyme they each
,,, ",, .u ' ,,,.,.
amazement, the newcomer added a fourth,
which contained a historical allusion quite
unknown to them. As a reward they In
troduced him to the court, where Flrdusl
soon won the favor of Shah Mahmud.
Never had such verse as his been heard,
and all at first were glad to do him honor.
In the end, however. Jealousy and malice
found h!m. He was accused of sllsrhtlnt
the Mohammedan faith for the ancient i
reHe-lon of his fathers: he ffns cheated I
of his promised payment, and. in disgust,
having added a few lines of bitter satire I
against the Shah at the end of his com- i
pleted poem, he fled from the court and
th meKSf-neorR hpflriiKr h' hminfv ontnrM i
the gate of the town at the very moment
when the nopt's hortv xenn helntr rnrri.d I
o i
out to his last resting place.
The epic of FIrdusI. "The Shah Xameh, J
or Book of Kings," Is well described by
"S name. It is a continuous narrative ct
3IAP OF THE
Persian history from Gayumers, the fab
ulous first man and king of the rrtcC,
down to the Invasion Of the Arabs In the
seventh century. A groat number 8f epi
sodes are woven Into fte thread, and, In
deed the poem Is bewildering by Us very
richess of material. In plan It Is thus
quite different from the epics of Greece
and India and Germany, each of which Is
made to center about one historic event.
Yet. if the "Shah Neman" lacks the unity
of the "Iliad" or the "Ramayana," It has
another kind of unity of Its own.
We have seen that the old religion of
Iran was strongly dunllstlc, and this dual
Ism Is the central and harmonizing motive
of Flrdusl's poem. Here again we see the
everlasting conflict of Ught and darkness,
of truth and fatoehood. waging on the
earth. H'story and mythology have been
Inextricably confused. The old mythical
powere of light are now the Persian peo
ple themselves, while the princes of dark
ness are the aborigines and Turanlnns
with whom Iran was continually at war.
Th'a religious background lends a certain
moral earnestneev to the poem, and Ls one
of Its most pleasing features. FIrdusI has
changed the faith of h's fathers Into his
tory and woven It Into the very texture
of his plot; tho doctrine of Mohammed,
of which he was nominally a follower, ho
has for the most part avoided, saving hlm-?-lf
by giving a certain delot'c tone to
the work. At bottom, fate Is the power
that FIrdusI really worships fate that
mockfi at human affairs and raises up the
mighty only In the end to toss them Into
the dust. At the close of each epoch of
events he Is wont to aid some such oad
moral as this: "Look ye! "Who could at
tain a glory like to this man's? He hath
shown to men how riches nre won. but he
hath not enjoyed riches. The world Is but
a passing dream; neither happlnco3 nor
sorrow endures." And again: "O world,
cense to raise us up only to gather us as
a harvest at the end! If thou wlehest
that we vanish away, why, then, raise va
up? Thou exaltcot a man above the fir
mament, and nralghtaway hiirlcst him un
der the obscure earth."
MINING BUREAU NEEDED.
Should Be EMtnlillN'tcd in Portland
AVIthont Relay.
TREMONT, March 5. (To the Editor.)
As much has been said of late In regard
to the establishing of a mining bureau
In Portland, you will pardon a few sug
gestions from one who has the prosperity
of our state and the development of our
resources at heart, and as facts fprm the
only true basis for correct conclusions,
I shall endeavor to state a number not
to provoke a controversy, but for the pur
pose of calling the attention of our peo
ple to the Importance of such an Insti
tution at the present time.
The necessity of such a bureau has long
been felt in our state and city, and I
know of no better or more satisfactory
way than to establish and maintain In
the" .City of Portland a small but thorough
ly reliable mining and industrial exhi
bition one affording special facilities to
those who desire Its use for a personal
exchange of business views and giving
the public access to a superior and exten
sive collection of facts covering all ques
tions connected with the Industries and
advantages of the state, especially that
of mining, a subject which has always
been neglected. If this matter ls taken
hold of In the right way, there ls no ques
tion that It can be made not only of
great benefit to the state, but. by proper
management, be almost self-sustaining,
for our state has long realized the neces
sity not only of a state collection of min
eral resources, but also somo reliable
ore-testing works, as the need of exten
sive, careful and exhaustive sampling ls
becoming bettor understood and more
fully realized. So, also, is the demand
growing for tests of larger quantities of
ore than it Is possible to use In an assay.
The mineral Industry of the entire coun
try Is making rapid strides, and ls of
such Importance that It attracts wide
spread attention, not only In our own
state, but also of the general Govern
ment, and a new office may be added to
the President's cabinet, to be known as
Secretary of Mines and Mining, who shall
have charge of all affairs relating to
mines. Including tho Geological Survey.
Another mining measure favorably acted
upqn establishes "mining experimenting
stations" in each of the mining states,
similar to the agricultural experiment sta
tions, and provides for the appointment of
a Government geologist and an assayer In
the several mining states, whose duty It
will be to furnish assays, issue bulletins
and conduct tho explorations of mining
regions. Both measures no doubt will
become laws, and I know of no better
time than the present for our Representa
tives at "Washington to work topether and
secure for our state some of the benefits
to accrue, and If we cannot secure a
"branch mint." let them strive for a
Government assay office and mining ex
periment station.
Today greater activity prevails In our
mines than ever before, and we should
provide some measures bv which we will
ho able to show visitors to our city some
thing that will merit investigation. Nearly
all of our leading mining comparers are
all of our leading mining comparers are
largely increasing their territory and ex-
tending their underground developments
while our various mining 'districts offer
fields for further development of veins,
of which little Is known as yet, but whose
prospective chances are equal to the best.
Another striking feature that should not
be overlooked is the fact that there Is
no boom or wild excitement, as the mines
are being profitably operated, assuring a
Ftable growth In population and general
prosperity. Another Important point la
the wide distribution of our mineral
wealth. Instead of deposits being con
fined to a small space, or to one locality,
controlled by two or three large mining
companies, our mines number thousands,
wldoly separated, yet sufficiently near to
transportation facilities that ores could
be profitably shipped to Portland and
smelted.
Today we find that many of our mines
have reached a high state of development,
the machinery used In their operation be
ing moVJern and comp'ote, with all aux-
lllarles usually found around a mine of
nnv Imnortance. and offer an Inviting
field for the investor of capital. "With the
modern process now used by metallurgists
In handling low-grade ores, a previously
unprofitable product can now be rendered
district
show free
trnM nt tho siirfnri nnd nre of sufficient
value that the output fully pays for all I
rlovelrvriment wnrk nnil nri parried alone I
- - --,--.....
without the aid of capital.
Oregon being located midway of tho
great mineral belt that extends from
Alaska to Nicaragua, and being ravorea
PERSIAN EMPIRE.
with all that Is essential to greatness,
should be at the head of the mineral
producing states! and tt properly conduct
ed ihlneral bilreall will tfr. far towards"
placing her where she properly belongs.
It is an established feet that Oregon's
surplus products mUst flrid foreign mar
kets and Interchange with .h8 Gdmmod
itles of other cOUntrieu by means or deep
water craft. Another InexOrabld lAvt of
success in trade and commerce la that
adequate land transportation must begin
where deep-water navigation ends
where the carriers by land and by water
come together upon lines of least resist
ance. Our City of Portland ls backed by
the largest resources from which to draw
their burdens of freight and commodities,
and no place on the Continent Is better
suited for a smelter than Portland, but
wo want one that can handle ores of all
grades and compositions. Considering
Portland's favorable location, she should
have a smelter equal to the great one at
Omaha. "We want a "branch mint," and
should have an assay office, with samp
ling works, and also a mining experiment
station; but If we cannot have either,
then let us a'.l try and build up a "min
ing bureau" worthy of the name.
A. "W. MILLER.
il 9 .
ARRIVING AT ABSOLUTE ZERO
How Temperature Too Low for Tlier
xnozneter Ik McBiinrcd.
PORTLAND, March 4. (To the Editor.)
Anent the Interesting accounts of Pro
fessor Trlpler's experiments with liquefied
air, I noticed particularly that he states
the temperature as 312 bejow zero. Will
you kindly state through your columns
through what medium this Inconceivably
low temperature Is ascertained that Is,
measured, since both mercury as well as
alcoholic substances congeal long before
that point ls reached, where, from the
accounts referred to, atmospheric air
liquefies, under pressure though it be.
Your early reply will creatly oblige
J. ADLcR.
This Is a very difficult question for a
novice to answer, and there have been
so many discoveries of late in the way
of liquefying gases and a temperature so
nearly approaching absolute zero has been
reached, that only one who has kept pace
with all these discoveries ls thoroughly in
formed on the subject, and there are but
few such persons here.
It may be said in. a general way that
the measure of very low temperatures is
made by mathematical calculation. In the
same way that absolute zero was arrived
at. This calculating ls not of the kind by
which the distance of the sun from the
earth Is said to have been arrived at, viz.,
by guessing at" a quarter of the distance
and multiplying by .four, but Is based
on certain natural laws, which have been
discovered by observation.
When it is necessary to measure a tem
perature lower than that at which alcohol
freezes, thermometers are used In which
the expanding substance is air, hydrogen,
oxygen or other "permanent" gas. It has
been found that under constant pressure
equ.il volumes of different gases Increase
equally for the some Increment of tem
perature. If temperatures be measured
by thermometers in which the expanding
substance ls hydrogen-, oxygen or other
permanent gas, and if these Intervals of
temperature be called equal and corre
spond to equal amounts of expansion, the
indications of these thermometers always
agree very closely with each other, and
also, though less closely, with the Indica
tions of a mercury thermometer.
Calculations based on these facts afford
a means of forming a thermometric scale.
which is Independent of the properties,
as to expansion, of any substance, and
that this scale corresponds with a perfect
gas thermometer ls a fact which Justifies
the term absolute, as applied to tempera
ture measured by the expansion of gas.
Through these calculations absolute tem
perature or absolute zero ls fixed at 461
degrees Fahrenheit, or 274 degrees centi
grade, and by the same calculation the
temperature ls measured when It gets be
low the freezing point of alcohol or the
llquefj-lng point of 'gases.
It Is very fortunate that this method of
measuring extremely low temperatures
was devised before the liquefaction of
oxygen, hydrogen, etc, or what .used to
be called permanent gases, was discovered.
Ah Explanatory Statement.
PORTLAND, March 6. (To the Editor.)
-I have been a subscriber of your val
uable paper since I came to Oregon, and.
in fact, was persuaded here through the
efforts of Its columns. In today's Issue
3'ou advertise my petition in bankruptcy.
Please allow me to explain that I had
no desire to accumulate indebtedness;
that my liabilities In New York were
caused by a Western land shark, who fur
nished me a certified abstract from a
worthless company on Kansas land. My
liabilities In Oregon were caused by the
panic from 193 to 1S95 and the deprecia-
I tlon of real estflte, BDWJN J CQYEY.
AN AMERICAN OPINION
THE ISSUE BETWEEN THE ENGLISH
AXD THE BOERS.
A Moderate and Apparently Impar
tial Examination and
Jndfrment.
United States Geologist George F. Beck
er has a paper In tho Forum for March
In which he discusses the question of
"rights and wrongs In South Africa." As
ho spent several months In the Transvaal
In ISM. and besides all he has read on the
Boer question, has repeatedly heard the
Boers debate their case, and as he person
ally studied the grievances and personally
discussed the franchise and cognate ques
tions with President Krugcr, and ac
quainted himself with the facts of dispute
In the Transvaal, he considers himself
qualified. In some degree, to pass judg
ment. As the views of such a man must
be of value in considering the Issue be
tween the English and the Boers, a glance
at his statements without comment upon
them one way or another, will not bs
without profit.
Mr. Becker looks upon Boer hlstcry
during the last 70 years as one of the
most romantic episodes In the chronicles
of the past Between 1S14 and 1S3C Becker
says It Is undeniable that the treatment
of the Dutch colonists of the Cape by the
English was harsh and Inexpedient.
The result was an emigration north
ward from the Capo int8 a rcgl6n swarm
ing with savages; a brave ddtgolng; d
facing bf difficulties with admirable rierve.
The wave of Anglo-Saxdn colonization re
peatedly overtook the emigrants and
caused renewed trcka Until the Boera
passed beyond the Vaal RIvef.
Financially stranded, harassed by sav
age tribes, a part of the Boeni In 1S77
sought the protection of the British flag,
and annexation followed, partly by desire
of the Boer, ahd partly becUuse the weak
ness ot thfe Transvaftl Republic was n
menace to British Interests. Many, and
finally a majority, of the J3oers, however,
opposed the action, -and war followed.
Peace was established In 1SS1, the British
statesmen acting from mixed motives.
The Transvaal was re-established as a re
public by treaties made In 1SS1 and 1SS4.
Thefie documents are In print and readily
accessible. In 1SS3 gold was discovered,
and two years later production began and
Immigration flowed In until In ls&5 the
male foreigners, chiefly British, outnum
bered the BOer men, but Becker thinks
that the total Boer population has always
exceeded the total of the Ultlanders.
The Boers witnessed the Influx with
chagrin and alarm. They had sought to
get away frflm British Influence, and now
It had fbilbwd them. The only resist
ance that seemed feasible to them was to
make residence for the foreigner in the
Transvaal Uncomfortable, and the fran
chise well-nigh Unobtainable because ot
onerous conditiona.
Becker thinks lie must have a very hard
heart who does not sympathize in some
measure with the Boers, and respect their
struggles, and he quotes Fitzpatrick, the
mouthpiece of the Reform Committee, In
praise of the suffering and. courage of the
trekkers, which, says Fitzpatrick, enlists
for them unbounded admiration and sym
pathy. But sympathy and approval, says
Mr. Becker, are not the same thing. Th-
convention between the Transvaal State
and England provides that on the estab
lishment of the State the subjects of
Great Britain who remained loyal to her
during the conflict should enjoy the right
to remain In the Transvaal and enjoy all
civil rights and have protection for per
sons and property; also, that all persons
conforming to the local laws might enter
and reside and be exempt from taxes other
than those Imposed on citizens of the re
public. It was the spirit of the agreement that
bona flde immigrants should have the
same rights as the Boers. Becker quotes
President Kruger as stating at the sign
ing the treaty of 1SS1, "There will be
equal protection for everybody, and no
difference In privileges to far as burgher
rights are concerned, except, perhaps,
some slight difference In the case of young
persons Just come into the country."
But the spirit of the convention was not
observed by the Boers, though the pic
ture is net as black as It has been paint
ed. In spite of exactions most oppressive,
and of pettifogging Interpretations of the
letter of the convention, the best mines
yielded enormous profits, anO while the
Ultlanders suffered much, many grew very
rich. The grievances of the foreigners,
however, were great: oppressive monopo
lies were granted to favorites, heavy taxes
laid on articles Boers do not consume,
public meetings forbidden, the freedom of
the press denied, education In English sub
stantially refused, and attainment of the
franchise made impracticable; besides
there were other causes for complaint.
Of course, such things irritated, the
more so that It was clear they were need
less and were intended to oppress and
annoy. Imposition the Anglo-Saxon will
not submit to. discrimination against the
white race they hold to be monstrous, with
the examples of America and Australia
before them, besides they held themselves
to be benefactors of the country, and
from the point of vl6W of Industrial civil
ization Mr. Becker declares that they are
entirely right.
Theso Ultlanders endeavored to" obtain
reforms and redress for their grievances,
but In vain. They were Impatient of de
lay. The formation of the National Com
mittee followed, and then came the arm
ing of the Ultlanders and that "monu
mental folly," the Jameson raid. Race an
imosity was thus stimulated, the advan
tages of a Just cause for the time thrown
away, and Great Britain and the Ultland
ers put upon the defensive. The two Boer
states were drawn closer together, and
the Afrikander Bund was formed. The
Transvaal, led by the astute natural lead
er, Kruger. armed to the teeth; the hopo
of excluding men of British blood was
revived, and the national Idea came again
to the front. England pressed for re
forms for her people, but the shadow of
the raid was over all.
Mr. Becker says that Boers repeatedly
confided to him In 1S56 their belief that a
war with England meant the destruction
of the republic, but that they would sell
their lives dearly in resistance of annexa
tion. Coming down to the matter of Judgment
the Forum's essayist declares unhesitat
ingly that the Boera are fighting for race
domination, the enthrallment of industry
and the maintenance of a condition that
Is mere seml-clvillzatlon; that the Eng
lish are fighting for no greater rights than
all foreigners enjoy throughout tho Brit
ish Empire and the United States, with
the privilege of the franchise on reason
able terms; for reasonable Industrial con
ditions, and liberty to be civilized after
the manner of the Anglo-Saxon.
He denies that the Boers have the right
to complete control of their territory and
to be as uncivilized and tyrannical as they
please. As Mr. Becker puts it:
All rights are enjoyed cither by nations cr by
Individuals on the tacit understanding- that
they be xerclsd with due consideration, for
the rights ot neighbors and of the greater pub
lic. The Boera are attempting to arrert the
march of civilization, to hamper Industry and
to retard education. England la fighting the
battle of civilization. A atate may not op
preso tho .oubjecta ot other powers, nor commit
injuatlcto under the shelter of pettifogging in
terpretations of treaties or conventions. Thlo
it may not do because there is no International
police court which will uphold "legcl quibbles
and evasions.
He adds that no one on earth value?
freedom more than the Boers, but thef
regard It as a treasur to be protected
so Jealously that no one ehall share it.
In spite of their gallantry ho holds the
Boers to be wrong, while he believes the
English are fighting for Ideas most dear
Ito the American heart ideas for which
under analogous conditions the tfnltcd
States would fly to arms. Th end lie be
lieves certain, namely, that the British
will succeed, and the Boers have greater
freedom and better government than their
own oligarchy has ever given them.
TO OREGON FRUITGROWERS
Proujpeotlve Lartre Crop Emphasizes
the Need of Organization.
CORVALLIS, March 5. (To the Editor.)
Throughout the state, fruitgrowers feel
assured that the crop tnls year w.ll be
except.onally large. Only very unusual
climatic condltlons'at blossoming time will
cnange our present sp.encid prosp.cis Into
rebuild of ordinary maxcltuae or less. In
view of this condition, the proposed con- j
ventlon -n tort land for the puipose cf tan- i
ing preliminary sttpj toward the organl- j
zatlon of the prune interests ls a most i
opportune movement, and one whi.h noc '
oiuy every grower ought to Indors;, bu .
every citizen of Oregon a6 well. This !
movement, though partaking of the uatu.e
of a tnut. Is one that impilis, and, If '
properly managed, must resu.t in tne a
p.Icatlun ot only one phi.se ot the p.lnc.lc
of a trust, viz.. the ciaolen. dlstr.oui.on -of
the product of our oiclmras at tue
Itast ei.pens to the consumer. At the
same time the grower and the Jeg.timu.e
dealer arc enao.ed to get as good, o.
eui better, returns from the on.ha.d
pioduct. In uo businccs of equal magn.tude j
is there such a wate as in Oregon i
orcharding, and of iht-he wastes none L. j
greater than that rcsuit.ng from our lack
of method In marketing our products.
Aith the scores of iuccissfui oiganlzcd
efforts before us as examples of wnat can
be accomplished, it. ought not to be diffi
cult so to organize our groveis as- to 02
able to dispose of our crop, though o!
unusual bulk, at a fa r price to both grow
er and consumer. One point must be kept
In view. A e cannot expect to revo.utlon
lxc the methods of marketing, and dlss.
pate the established agents therein. Our
ch.cf benent L to be expected from tne
absence of su.cldal competition among our
Ke.ves; better and more unLorm quality
of products that "will be necessarily put
upon the market through organization.
Tne fear of loss of indiv.duailtj , which
so often seriously attacks a giower when
he begins to consider matters of organiza
tion, ls the biggest kind of a bogie. No
nan Is rtfbbed of Individuality. There is
no more efUcent way of giving each man
his due than through organization. The
present indiscriminate way of marketing
our products only sets a premium on In
different quality and consequently Ignores
individuality. No discrimination Is made
between rusted and unaffected fruit; none
between fruit well dried and thoroughly
cleansed and that Indifferently treated;
none between stringy, fibrous, tough
skinned, and that of pulpy, meaty, tender
texture. In fact, all the features of our
products which give best Inducements for
individuality are ignored, and size the
false criterion made the single standard
of market requirements. With organiza
tion these errors will be corrected.
Today the requirements of the great
markets are quite well understood. Good
to fancy, uniform packages, are demanded.
Nothing so effectively brings about high
grade uniformity as organization. Markets
demand, when an order Is placed for a
certain class, grade or brand of goods,
that It shall be the same, or uniformly
better, from year to year. At present
there is no assurance to a buyer that an
order placed this year will bring the sam;
character of product that a similar order
placed lajt year brought, except to a very
limited extent. Organized effort, together
with the handling of large quantlfes, alone
makes this possible, while at the same
time reducing the expense of putting the
product In the best possible marketable
condition.
The Important, the paramount require
ment of the orchardman, and likewise the
farmer, of Oregon. Is brain effort. Only
through the expenditure of brain energy
can he hope to keep his place among the
producers of the Nation. To make nn
organization do its best for the producers
of our state. Imperatively demands that
the growers study the workings, methods,
means and management of such institu
tions; take bold of the work bv affiliating
with the movement, and steadily resisting
the efforts of the "walking delegate" to
go It alone, even at the apparent prospect
of loss which at most can be only tem
porary. Only through the application of Its
acknowledged principles of business can
f our producers expect to bring their Indus
try up to the plane of other Industries.
If organization Is good and no one ques
tions it, for the evidence Is dally all about
us for the men who manufacture secon
dary products, like watchmakers, wheel
makers. Implement-makers and other.-?,
then It Is equally good for the manu
facturer of primary, or first, products from
the soil. To effect thorough organ'zatlon
may require greater effort, yet Its results
must be correspondingly beneficial.
E. R. L.
at.
ACTED ON THE DEFENSIVE.
Charge of Assault Made by a. Woman
XlctmltH In Acunlttnl.
An assault and battery case before the
Municipal Judge yesterday afternoon. In
which R. A. Frame appears as defendant
and Mrs. Mary E. Hart prosecuting wit
ness, resulted in the former's acquittal.
Frame Is a broker In the Marquam build- J
ing, mm niu uiuii is ai.egea to nave
occurred In the hall of his office. The evi
dence showed Mrs. Hart waited In the
hall half an hour or more, and when
Frime arpearcd at the door a scuffle "en
sued. She drew a revolver, which was
taken from her by the defendant and an
other man who. happened on the scene. In
dlEsrmlng the woman, Frame seized her
by the hands, which was the technical
grotndr for the charge of assault, but
whl-jn th. Judge thought Justifiable under
the circunrstances, and dismissed the case.
The whole trouble appeared to be over
money Mrs. Hart asserts she loaned
Frame, her statements concerning which
in some particulars he disputes.
Mrs. Hart also caused a charg3 to bo
lodged against Mr. Frame In the United
States Court for misusing the malls, and
a warrant waa Issued.
Mr. Frame says the 'basis of the woman's
attacks is a money transaction, which
datrs back to 1S93. During that year. In
his capacity as broker, he loaned money
for M- j. Hart. and. ns was the case with
niai. "tlier loans, hers became worth
less. He, however, promised to relm-bu-e
her for her losses, agreeing to pay
a certain sum per month, whjch contract
his been h existence over two years. Be
cause he wo, slow recently In two pay
me:.s, the woman became Infuriated, and
attnctd hln..
Vlb reference to a charge preferrod In
th tTr!ted States Court of violating the
Unitca States mall laws, Mr. Frame says
there Is absolutely no foundation for It.
and that he will have no trouble In dis
proving It before the Commissioner of the
Court. Mr. Frame has no hesitancy In
saying that the woman's motive In bring
ing the charge Is extortion.
. a i
The IUIlHUoro Philosopher.
HILLSBORO, Or.. March 5. (To the Ed
itor.) Election is coming on and we want
to know what you mean tiy expansion
and Imperialism. If you mean that the
acquired territory becomes a part and par
cel of the United States Is ours, to be
treated as all acquired territory has been
treated heretofore. These are the senti
ments of most of us. But if you mean,
as has been said frequently, that the ac
quired territory Is to be treated as Brit
ain and Germany treat theirs, we say
"Nary treat." They are monarchies, and
treat their acquired territory as depend
encies of the Crown. We want no dukes
and duchesses in Puerto Rico or any
where else. Are the late territories ac
quired a part and parcel of thi3 Govern
ment, or are they held In trust as Crown
dependencies, to be delivered when the
Mark Hannas of all parties have sucked
tho Juice all out? ,, R. CAVE.
ONLY A SUGGESTION.
Bat It lias Proven of Interest and
Value to Thonsnndn.
Common sense would suggest that If one
wishes to become fleshy and plump It can
only result from the food we eat and di
gest and that food should be albuminous
or flesh-forming food, like eggs, beefsteak
and cereals; in other words, the kinds of
food that make flesh are the foods which
form the greater part of our dally bills ot
fare.
But the trouble is that, while we eat
enough and generally too much, the stom
ach, from abuse and overwork, docs not
properly digest and assimilate It, which !o
the reason so many pwple remain thin
and under weight; the digestive organs do
not completely digest the flesh-forming
beefsteak and eggs and similar wholesome
food.
There aro thousands of such who are
really confirmed dyspeptlco. although they
may have no particular pain or inconve
nience from their stomachs.
If such persons would lay their preju
dices aside and make a regular pract'ec of
taking, after each meal, one or two of
Stuarts Dyspepsia TabletF, the food would
be quickly and thoroughly digested, be
cause .these tablets contain the natural
peptones and dlsntase which every weak
stomach lacks, and by supplying tho
want tho stomach Is soon enabled to re
gain Its natural tone and vigor.
Stuart's Dyspcrela Tablctr, digest every
form of flceh-formlng food. meat. eggs,
bread and potato?.- and this Is the reasm
they so quickly build up. strengthen and
invigorate thin, ujvspeptlc men, women and
children.
Invalids and children, -ven the most deli
cate, use them with marked benefit as
they contain no strong. Irritating drugs, no
cathartic nor any harmful Ingredient.
Stuart's Dyspepsia Tablets te the most
rucccssful and most .widely known of any
remedy for stomach troubles because it Is
the most reasonable and scientific of mod
ern medicines.
Stuaifo DyiTpepsia Tablets are sold by
every drnggVt in the United .States and
Canada as well as In Great Britain, at 0
cents for comnlete treatment.
Nothing further is required to cure any
rtomach trouble or to make thin, ncrv
ou". dyspeptic people strong, plump and
wclL
If the Body Is All Right
The Soul Will Be Alt Right Also
The properly applied current of Galvanic
Electricity Infuses new life Into a weak,
nervous person. It builds up and strength
cno in a natural way, because it IS the
lacking element. It IS life and nerve
force Itself.
GIvca you the propercur:xent In the proper
form.
It Makes Men Strong.
Rheumatism Cured.
"WASCO. Or.. Dec. IS. 1809. Dr. A. T.
Sanden: Your Dr. Sanden Belt cured me
of a very bad case of Muscular Rheuma
tism with no sign of Its returning.
(Signed) "JOHN M. ALLEN."
The Dr. Sanden Electric Belt with at
tachment for men glve3 strength and over
comes the effects of early indiscretions or
later exco3ses. Six thousand gave willing
testimony during 1S99.
The Name Dr. Sanden
Standa for unequalcd electric appliances
and 30 years of experience, which you can
havo to mo-.o you strcng and well again,
if you wish fair dealing.
Read my "Three Classes of Men."
.A.'T.
Russel B!dg., CorFourth-and'Morrisan Sts.
POItTLAXD OR.
OQce hours, 9 to 9; Sundays, 9 to 1.
BEWARE OF IMITATIONS OF
COMPABY-S EXTRACT
OF BEEF. The genuine has
boon. Jrnown 'round the world
for over thirty years as tho
standard for croality- It is pure
beef, freo from ail adulterations,
vrithout fat or gelatine. It has
recently boon salocted by the
English government for use in.
the field hospitals of the Brit
ish Army Corps in South Africa
a romark3blo official endorse
ment. This Ir-iha signature
on OiBfcJ JJiiuwuiar
inl .-op per. Be
turo liailt Is there.
r
--i
The World's Medicine.
r
Fom all Bilious and Nenromt Dim
orders; Sick Moadache,
Coasipaton, Weak Stomach, la-
paired Digestion, Dlxordercd
Hirer, said 'Impu&o Blood
, Arm-Hal sale over 6,000,000 loses. 20 cents
and 25 cents at drug stares.
' .Beechfttn's Pills hare tho largeit sale of any Pro
prietary iledicino in tho -world. This lias boea
aebisTod -vrltbout tho publication or testi
monials.
.ppOp.C'OpO'ppi
Radwnys Ready Relief cures or throat,
bronchitis, penumcnla. rheumatism and All
pains.
Sli'lSi
Dr.Sanden's
Electric Belt
THE PALATIAL
Ui
Not n (inri; office In the Iinlldlnso
ul:siltitc!y fireproof : electric liKhtii
and nrteainn water: perfect sanita
tion and thoroojrl. ventilation. Ele
vators run doj- mid xtislit.
VvoamiL
AXnnKSOJT. GTTST.W. A:tomey-at-Law sta
ASSOCIATED PRESS: E. L. Powell. Mg: ...8v
IJANKEHS' LIFE ASSOCIATION, of Des
Molne la. ; C. A. ilcCargar. State Asent-.502-
DKH&CE. It. W. 1'rln. Tumlc Shorthand
School 211
I5ENJAMLN. It Y... Dentist 3l
I.IXSYVAXGEK. DIt O. S-. Pays. & Sur..-m-Us
UHUEP.E. DR. G. E.. Phylclan 412-113-U.
nu&TEEO. RICHARD. Agent Wilson, 4i ilc-
Callny Tobacco Co tiO2-60I
CAUKlX. G. E.. District Agent Tra velars
Insurance Co...... . .................. .....Til'
CARDWELL. DR. J. U 500.
CLARK. HAROLD. Dentist 3U.
CLEM. E. A. & CO.. Minlns PropcrtlM...ol5-Blt,.
COLUitUIA TELEPHOXU COMPAXV
CW-60O-606-007-013-OU-013-
CORNELTUS. C. W.. Phys. and Surgeon 2Ut$.
COVER. F. C. Cashier Equitable Life 3lhl.
COLLIER. P y.. Punllsher; S. P. McGuire.
Manager ..... - -113-118
DAY. J. G & I. 5J 313.
DAVIS. XAPOLEOX. Pres:dent Columbia
Telephone Co COT
DICKsOX. DR. J. F.. Physician 713-TH
DRAKE. DR. II B.. Physician 012-313-5H-
DUNHAM. MRS GEO. A. T1V
DWYER. JAS F-.-Tobaccca -102.
EDITORIAL ROOMS Eighth llcor
eq;iitable lift: assurance society:
L. Samuel. Manager; F. C Cover. Cashier..30Ci
EVENING TELEGRAM 32S Alder stre:
TENTON. J. D.. Physician and Surgeon..60B-310
TENTON. DR. HICKS C Eye and Ear 3l
FEXTON. MATTHEW F.. Dentist 303
FIDELITY MUTUAL LIFE ASS'N: E. C
Stark. Manacer 601.
FRENCH SCHOOL (by conversation): Dr. A.
Muzzarelll. Manacer "00-
GALVANI. W. H.. Engineer and Draughts
man C0fl
GAVIN, A.. President Oregon Camera Club..
214-215-21C-217.
GEARY. DIU EDWARD P.. Physician and
Surgeon 212-213 1
GIE3Y. A. J.. Physician and Surgeon.... 7C0-71K
GODDARD. E. C. & CO.. Footwear, ground
floor 129 Sixth street
GOLDMAN. WILLIAM. Manager Manhattan
Life Insurance Co.. ot New York 200-21P
GRANT. FRANK S.. Attorr.ey-at-law C17
ORENIER. MISS BEATRICE. Dentist 703
Haramam Baths. King & Compton,' Props.. 300
HAMMOND. A. I. 310
HEIDIXGER. GEO. A. & CO.. Pianos and
Organs 131 Sixth St.
HOLLISTER. DR. O. C Phys. & Surg... 304-303
IDLEMAN. C. M.. Attorr.ey-at-Law.. .410-17-19
Johnson. W. C 3I5-31G-31T
KADY.-MARK T.. Manager' Pacific North
west Mutual Reserve Fund Life Asb...604-cca
LAMONT. JOHN. Vice-President and Gen
eral Manager Columbia Telephone Co 60I"
LITTLEFIELD. IL R.. Phys. and Surgeon...20fl:
MACRUM. W. S.. Sec. Oregon Camera, Club..214
MACKAY. DR. A. E.. Phys. and Surg.. ..711-712:
MAXWELL. DR. W. E.. Phys. & Surg... 701-2-3
McCARGAR. C A.. State .Agent Bankers"
Life Association 302-303
McCOY. NEWTON. Attorney-at-Law 713
McFADEN. MISS IDA E.. Stenographer 201
McGINN. HENRY E.. Attorney-a:-Law.. 311-313
McKELL. T. J.. Manufacturers" Representa
tive 303
MILLER. DR. HERBERT C. Dentist and
Oral Surgeon 603-60
MOSSMAN. DR. E. P.. Dentist 312-313 -31
MANHATTAN LIFE INSURANCE CO.. of
New York: W. Goldman. Manager 200-2IC
McELROY. DR. J. C.. Phys. Jt Surg.701-702-70I
McFARLAND. E. B.. Secretary Columbia.
Telephone Co.... 604U
McGUIRE. S. P.. Manager P. F. Collier.
Publisher 413-41C
McKIM. MAURICE. Attorney-at-Law 30Cj
MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE CO.. ot New
York: Wm. S. Pcnd. State Mgr. 401-403-40S'
MUTUAL RESERVE FUND LIFE ASS'N:
M. T. Kady. Mgr. Paclflc Northwest 004-603
NICHOLAS, HORACE B . Attorney-at-Law.. 713
NILES. M. L.. Cashier Manhattan Life In
surance Co.. of New York". SO
OREGON INFIRMARY OF OSTEOPATHY:
Dr. L. B. Smith. Osteopath 40S-Kd
OREGON CAMERA CLUB 214-215-21B-2tZ
PERNIN SHORTHAND SCHOOL: H. W.
Behnke. Prln 2Ut
POND. WM. S.. State Manager Mutual Ufa
Ins. Co. of New York 40J-403-40U
PORTLAND EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY..
Ground tloor. 133 Sixth s:re
PORTLAND PRESS CLUB 71U
PROTZMA"N' EUGENE C. Superintendent
Agencies Mutual Reserve Fund Lire, of
New York rf,
PUTNAM'S SONS. G. P. Publisher 513i
QUIMBY. L. P. W.. Game and Forestry
Warden 71ft-7i:
REED & MALCOLM. Optician.. 123 Sixth atrft
RrED. F. C . FUh rommlsMoner 47
RYAN. J. B.. Attorney-at-Iaw 41
SALISBURY. GEO. N.. Section Director. U.
S. Weather Bureau 010
SAMUEL. L.. Manager Equitable Life 30fl
S4.NDFORD. A. C. .t CO.. Publisher' Agts 51A
SCRIBNER'S SOS3. CHAS.. Publishers:
Jese ITobton. Manager.... 313-511-311."
SHERWOOD. J. W.. Deputy Supreme Com
mander. K. O. T. if 51V
SMITH. DR. L B.. Osteopath 403-409
SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION IX'
STARK. E. C. Executive Special. Fidelity
Mutual Life Association of Phila.. Pa... cni
STARR COLE. Pyrograpny 42
STEEL. G. A.. Forest Inspector 21S
STUART. DELL. Attorney-at-Law... G13-G16 6 7
STOLTE. DR. CHAS. E.. Dentist 704-7'J3
SURGEON OF THE 3. P. RY. AND N. P.
TERMINL CO ?-5
STROWBRIDGE. TITOS H Executive Spe
cial Agent Mutual Life, of New Yort 4f1
SUPERINTENDENTS OFFICE Tl
TUCKER. DR GEO. F.. Den.Mst ni .ICC
U. S. WEATHER BUREAU... .PO8-007 0OT-0CO
U. S. LIGHTHOUSE ENGINEERS. 13TH
DIST.. Captain W. C Langfltt. Corps of
Engineer. U. S. A 6"U
U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE. RIVER AND
HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. Captain W.
C. Lnngfltt. Corps of Engineers. U. S. A. .Sl
WATERMAN, a H.. Cashier Mutual Life
of New Ycrk 4'v
WATKINS. Miss E. L.. Purchasing Agency 71C
WEATIIERRED. MRS. EDYTH. Grand Sec
retary NJtive Daughters 71G-717
WHITE. MISS I- E.. Ass't Sec. Oregon Cam
era Club 2U
WILSON. DR. EDWARD X.. Phy.. Sur.3CH
WILSON. DR. GEO F.. Phvs. & Surs...70O-7"T
WILSON. DR. HOLT C Phys & Sur?...307-3C3.
WILSON & McCALLAY TOBACCO CO..
Richard Busted. Agent G02-CS
WOOD. DR. W. L.. Physician, 412-413-414.
t WILLAMETTE VALLEY TELEPIL CO 6"'
A tfeTV morr elrgnnt office mn" !"
had Itr npjilylnjr to Portland Tmt
Company of Oresou. 100 Tlilril t.. or
to the rent clerU In the IiuUdius.
MEN NO CURE.
g) NO PAY THE
MODERN APPLI-
ANCE A positive way to perfect monhoad
Everythlng else falls. The VACUUM TREAT
MENT CURES you wtthout medicine of a.t
ncrvcus or disease) of the generative crgans.
such as lot manhood, exhauetlngr drains vari
cocele, impotency. etc Men are quickly re
stored to perfect health and strength.
Write for circulars. Correspondence confiden
tial. THE HEALTH APPLIANCE CO.. room
I 47-43 Safe Deposit building; Seattle. Wash.
BUILUII