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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 19, 1895)
THE MORKXKX3- OBESOOTAS" TUESDAY, FEBB,TjAX,X 19, 1S33.
A BRITON'S LETTER
MIS OBSERVATIONS OX THINGS SEEN
Vt CALIFORNIA AND OREGO.V.
lie la Aninzed at tlieWollonx of Many
I'eoplo sx to 3Ioney and
The following- letter from a young Eng
lishman to his father in Bristol, of -which
st copy -was obtained, appears to strike
in so many places near the truth that the
Jlnder has thonght It -worthy to lay be
fore the public It is dated Portland, Or.,
U. S., February. 1SS5:
In my last letter to you from San Fran
cisco, CaL, I gave you some of the partlc
lilars of the new democratic, or, as it ap
pears to me, rather, of the president's
tariff law. That, as an Englishman and
a manufacturer yourself, you will like
many things in It, I am satisfied. But
that a large portion of the American peo
ple should applaud it, when it appears
plain that quite a. number of their Impor
tant industries will, under Its operation,
have to go to the wall, and most of all
that the most Important and essential of
them all, their agricultural interest, must
practically be destroyed by it, I cannot
understand. On another point, what they
"here call the silver question, I found the
people of San Francisco almost unani
mously crazy. This is. of course, not a
polite expression, but to you, my dear
father. I write as I feeL That in a city
like San Francisco, in -which a dozen of
Its leading- men have accumulated through
the enormous output of their silver mines
jrobably not much less than a thousand
million dollars, it is but natural that
their local influence to form public opin
ion rauit be very great. I can also un
derstand how such men would at length
become fearful of overstocking the mar
ket, and under such a dread would leave
no stone unturned to prevent puch a glut.
That It should occur to them to try to
make, by appropriate laws, the United
States treasury a perpetual purchafeer of
their metal, looks quite natural. That
they actually succeeded in this, the whole
nation has found out to its cost. But by
v.hlch means thehe few men have been
ible to convert or persuade two-thirds of
a c cngress, elected by a wide-awake na
tion, to adopt a policy which the -whole
civilized world looks upon as radically
t.rong and fraught with unspeakable dan
gers, is a mystery to me. and particularly
bo when I become aware of the arguments
used by them so successfully for this pur
pose. Had 1 not received them from the
mouth of one of these so-called silver
liings himself, I should have been inclined
to disbelieve these reports and ascribe
them to party rancor. As it is, I will
;lve you the trend of them, as an evidence
of the ease with which designing men can
mislead an unthinking- and ignorant mul
titude, if such it is their interest to do
This is the essence of what the rich man
sa.d to me:
"Our money is gone, none is to be had,
and business Is at a standstill. To do the
business of the country properly v.- ought
to Increase our circulating medium imme
diately by at least a billion dollars. Gold
is undoubtedly the nicest thing to do this
with. But as the whole world cannot fur
nish this additional amount of It to us,
particularly as just now everybody every
where appears to be crazy for it, we shall
lje obliged to use silver. Of this, the
mountains of the United States are full,
and it can be furnished by our own peo
ple in unlimited amounts. If even it Is
not In every respect as desirable as gold,
there Is no difficulty whatever tojnake It
bo by law, and to make both metals in
all mon;y transactions stand side by side
in full parity."
What do you think of these arguments,
my dear father? I know I have been as
yet in the United States and made these
subjects my particular study only for a
comparatively short time, still long enough
to see the utter hollowness and falsity of
every one of these pretended arguments.
When money disappears from sight, it
does not go out of existence. As the value
representative in all business transactions
and exchanges, when work is plenty then
money is plenty, and when times are hard
because there Is no work there is no use
for money and it disappears. I have
learned that in these United States, dur
ing the last DO years, overproduction, as
the principal cause, has produced four
times great depressions, accompanied by
ereat and serious suffering among the
people, but particularly among the work
ing classes, with apparent great scarcity
of money. As is natural and to be ex
pected In a country like the United States,
of so great resources and with a labor-loving
people, these depressions were followed
again by prosperous times, with plenty of
-work and nlenty of money. And just here
3 perceive the shocking- perversion of these
k'Iv er-holders' arguments for their pre
tended necessity of this enormous in
crease of their circulating medium. Of
tourse. as might be guessed. sller is to
be the material to be used, which they
liold and can furnish in unlimited quanti
ties. The almost simultaneous appearance
und disappearance of money as times be
come prosperous or hard has made it
possible for these inflationists to reverse
cause and effect and make the people be
lieve that It was money that caused the
work during the booming times, and that
its disappearance caused the cessation of
work and the hard times, and that, there
fore, the more money a country could get.
the more prosperous it would be. As re-K-irUs
America, the lessons of Its repeat
ed booms and depressions, and its perpet
ual readiness to meet every requirement
with money In prosperous times, convinces
me that America, like England, has all
the money it needs for many years to
come, and every inflation in either coun
try, as things are now, is in the wrong
direction of their people's true interests.
The firm hold that this utter perversion of
facts has taken upon the American peo
ple, namely, that "money produces work,
and that, consequently, the more money
the more -work." added to the conception
that when in hard times the money passes
cut of circulation it has gone out of ex
istence, and calls for more in unlimited
quantities, shows itself clearly in the stu
pid and wild schemes now before con
gress. A few words about the so-called double
standard, or, as my rich San Francisco
friend expressed it. "if silver is not as
eood as gold, law can easily make it so.
and make both metals stand in our cur
rency forever sldi? by side in full parity."
How utterly futile and impossible it" Is
to make two unequal things equal by law
or flat, appears to me so plain as not
to need argument, and It certainly does
not speak well for the perception or
statesmanship of the present secretary of
the treasury that when under the natural
action of this double-standard law he saw
J8.000,0W of his redemption reserve dis
appear, that he could not see the cause
of its disappearance, and. instead of get
ting the law that caused It wiped out,
he asked congress for 559,000,000 of bonds
with which to buy gold to stop the leak,
and w hen he got it. and saw that also pass
away, that he still remained purblind
und asked for 5100,000.000 more, which is
going the same way; and now of a
stone blind congress he has asked for
5200.00a.ew more, and has got that too.
to do what God Almighty himself
tannot do. namely, to put good and bad
on a par by flat. But one thing he can
and will do in this dreadful experiment
settle an enormous debt upon a suffering
nation in the midst of peace, and which
will benefit but a few rich banking houses
and some wily money speculators. And,
v.orse than all. the people appiaud.
la observing all thee things taking
place In the foremost of all republics in
the worJd, a great sadness, dear father.
o ertakes me. You often called me a re
publican when at home, and 1 acknowl
edge that It has been for years my ideal
form of government. But now that I see
the great, lurking danger lying at its
very center, namely, the necessity of In
trusting to men utterly unfit the greatest
and dearest interests of a great nation,
and which may shape their destinies for
weal or woe for ages, where shall we
henceforth look for the salvation of our
A friend Invited me to go with him to
Salem, the capital of Oregon, to see the
legislature which is now in session there.
As nearly all over this country, so also
here in Oregon the two principal political
parties are the republicans and the demo
crats, the former just now In decided ma
jority, and to which a handful of men
have to be added, who call themselves
"populists." but who more significantly,
as it appears to me, ought to call them
selves the "windies." They want to be
considered the real financiers of the
country. It is they whom par excellence,
I call on this question, "the cranks."
They don't want gold to be the standard
and base of the money of the country,
neither gold and silver combined.
They want no standard except it be
"wind"; their foundation " principle,
as announced by themselves, though
not expressed In these identical
words, being that the mere wind that can
be inserted into their money, the more
stable It will be; and the more worthless
It can be made in the eyes of the world,
the more precious it will be in their own
eyes. All that they want is to get lots
of good, strong paper, cut it into strips,
print various numbers on them, attach
the name of the United States president
to them, with his printed order added to
it, that these numbers shall signify dol
lars, and that henceforth the United
States and the lest of the -world shall
treat these rags as real money, and shall
accept them as such in all their money
transactions. As there is no redemption
clause or any responsibility to anybody
attached to these rags, this windy party
promises to be very liberal with these
new-fangled strips of paper. In their
speeches to their deluded followers some
have thought that to print and distribute
In fair proportion among all the people
a sufficiency of these paper strips as
would represent, say a hundred billion
dollars, which would average pretty near
ly about 510,000 to each family, would be
about the fair thing!
I am very much afraid, my dear father,
that you think me joking. But I am not
Joking. I am in full earnest. The tragic
comedy Is at this very moment being
played in Salem, before the eyes of all
the people, with the said Windies as the
star players, and some 20 odd bolting re
publicans as the applauders and subs. In
plain language, the financial question is
just now the all-absorbing question of the
country. The Oregon legislature, now in
session, has a United States senator to
elect. The republicans have always stood
before the people as the friends of good
money, though of late some of them have
yielded to the persuasive arguments of
the sllverites. In spite of this defection,
the party in Oregon was unanimous for
the re-election of the same man who for
12 years, standing almost alone among his
Western compeers, had boldly proclaimed
in favor of gold as the single and only
standard for the money which the whole
world would receive.
But suddenly and unexpectedly the sen
atorial bee made its appearance, buzzing
in the hats of about a dozen men. With
no chance for any one of them, except
they could divide the republican party on
this money question, It was attempted
and succeeded. Some 20 or more Bloughed
off, and, their reason being demanded,
they had to swallow their words and re
pudiate the very principles on which they
had been elected, and had to pass over
to the wind-makers. Some of these men
were pointed out to me. Whether it was
only fancy, to me they looked like school
boys found out in a disreputable scrape,
and undoubtedly most of them are con
vinced by this time that the time is near
that both the party of a stable currency,
as well as the party of paper and wind,
will spew them out. In the meantime,
while trying with their feeble powers to
make themselves the laughing-stock of
the country, they nevertheless will suc
ceed In keeping their own state unrepre
sented In the counsels of the nation for
years to come.
COLORADO A GOLD STATE
Her Silver Idea Arc Detrimental to
A Denver financial writer, Mr. John E.
Leet, contends In the Times of that city
that Colorado has already reached a point
In gold production where hor mining In
terests, as a whole, would now lose rather
than gain by the free coinage of silver.
He argues, from the silver point of view,
Our people are saturated with the Idea
that Colorado cannot have any prosperity
until the free coinage of sliver is restored.
Let us see. Last year this state produced
approximately 512,000,000 in gold bullion
and 512,000,000 In silver bullion. Conceding
that the gold standard has reduced the
average of commodities one-half in 20
y-cars, it is clear that the 512,000,000 of
gold bullion will now purchase as much
as 521.000,000 would have purchased then.
The 512,000.000 In gold which we received
for our silver bullion will also now pur
chase a quantity of commodities equal to
what 524,000.000 would have purchased 20
years ago. Therefore the actual purchas
ing power of our gold and silver product
for 1S91 was equal to what 51S.000.000 of
gold and sliver would have been about
the time of the demonetization. Xow
our theory Is that if free coinage was re
stored prices would double and go back to
where they were In 1573. If this Is true
the 512,000,000 of silver bullion which we
produced would be coined Into 24,000,000
silver dollars. Yet as all prices would
have doubled the purchasing power would
not be increased. But how would it be
with our 512.000.000 of gold product? Its
purchasing power would be cut In two.
With all prices doubled by free coinage it
would only purchase half as much as
now, while silver would gain in purchas
ing power by doubling, along with com
modities. Stated differently, our 524.000.003
of gold and sliver bullion now purchases
what would be 54S.OO0.O0O -worth of com
modities under free coinage prices, but if
free coinage existed this same gold and
silver bullion would only purchase 5ft.
000.000 of commodities, because gold would
not double in price as silver and commod
ities would. Therefore, theoretically, the
free coinage of silver would have caused
us a loss on our gold and silver product
the last ear of 512,000,000. O course It is
not exactly true that all prices have fallen
one-half as a consequence of the gold
standard. Labor has not fallen one-half
a yet. But If the theory were true, my
conclusion that free coinage would injure
our mining industry rather than help it
would be irresistible. Of course this cal
culation leaves out of view all the Inter
ests of the state except precious metal
mining. But we will encourage ourselves
and encourage others to invest here if we
qutt mourning over the loss of free silver
coinage and contend that under the gold
standard an ounce of silver will purchase
as much as It ever did, while an ounce of
gold will purchase just twice as much s
It did before 1STS.
The Flower of Fnjtltlon.
The woman who loves flowers, but
whose Income is such that she cannot al
ways gratify her taste, will be glad to
know that carnations are high In favor.
They are the raest satisfying flower in ex
istence, and are inexpensive enough to be
bought frequently. The flaming red car
nations are just the things to brighten a
dull room. Those which blush In pink are
charming to wear with an evening- gown.
The shaded carnation is a delight to the
eye. and those which are pure white are
cool, restful and refreshing: with their
spicy odor. Is it any wonder the car
nation is fashionable, when one adds to
its other charms Its lasting quality?
"Talking: about styles in women's dress."
remarks the bald-headed philosopher, "I
notice about every man thinks the style
the handsomest that the women wore
when he was about 2fc years old." In
ITS RELATION TO TRANSPACIFIC
Interesting Statement by Americana
Hexident nt Sydney, Ans-
The American business men resident in
Sydney, the commercial metropolis of Aus
tralasia, held an enthusiastic meeting in
the great reading-room of the "Australia,"
to canvass the propriety of taking some
steps to strengthen the hands of friends ini
America who favor the construction of
the Nicaragua canal by the general gov
ernment of the United States. There is
considerable American capital and a great
deal of American enterprise centered in
this city at the Antipodes. Many Ameri
can firms are represented here by gentle
men who would be an honor to any coun
try, and they hold their own in competition
with the world, as might be expected.
These American business men usually
have large experience and broad and en
lightened views. They are succeeding,
though the odds are against them In many
ways. Owing to the meagerness of the
population our people have not a proper
appreciation of the trade of this country.
But It must be remembered that, with a
population approximating but 4,000,000,
there is no like number of people anywhere
having so large a per capita commerce.
In the value of her commerce. Sydney Is
the fourth cHy of Britain, and tenth among
the commercial ports of the world. Aus
tralasia has a purely external trade of
C.457,030 tons, In 1S91. Of this vast ton
nage, nearly all, except 286,319 tons which
go to India and Ceylon, 324,820 to Hong
Kong, 127.1S9 to Fiji, and C60.2U to Cape
Colony, or a total of 701,539 tons, goes, to
Europe and the United States. This leaves
for the European and American ports
over 5,700,000 tons, most of whlch-v.348,409
tons go to the United Kingdom.
In this trade, the Americans are placed
at a great disadvantage, both In distance
and freights. By sail, the distance and
cost are about the same between Sydney
and Xew York as between Sydney and
London. The more favorable winds, I be
lieve, it is claimed gives an average ad
vantage to London. But the length of the
average voyage is 100 days, and time is be
coming more and more a factor In com
merce. By steam, the average voyage be
tween Sydney and London is 42 days, while
there is no direct steam line between Syd
ney and New York. Of course, San Fran
cisco is but 23 days from here by steam,
but, as It costs more to carry goods 500
miles by rail In portions of America than
7000 miles by water on the Pacific route,
our Eastern trade Is greatly handicapped.
Theniost of American goods now demand
ed In this market must be shipped overland
over 2000 miles, and then transshipped over
the Pacific, or sent by England and then
here by tne 42-day route. This places
American dealers at a disadvantage of a
distance more than equaling the Atlantic
Under the strong competition in Austral
asia, with a growing necessity for a bor
der market for American products, an idea
has dawned upon the minds of the shrewd
Sydney Americans, that the Nicaragua
canal is the only solution of the Austra
lian trade problem. With a purpose of
discussing these questions, the meeting at
the "Australia" the finest hotel in the
Southern hemisphere, run on the American
plan by a wide-awake American waa
held. Major Rennie, of the Mutual Life
Insurance Company, of New York, was
called to the chair, and Mr. Jerome, editor
of the Cosmos Magazine, was chosen
secretary. The purposes of the meeting
?ere stated by the chairman, and intelli
gently discussed by the meeting. The local
advantages of the canal to our Atlantic
and Pacific states were but briefly set
forth. It being, however, incidentally
claimed that It would bring New York and
San Francisco 10,000 miles nearer together
by water, and vastly develop both sides
of the continent, but the aspects of for
eign traffic were carefully reviewed. Books,
charts and statistics were used by skillful
hands, and the case made too plain for
doubts. It was shown that while New
York was now seven days from London,
plus 42 days from London to Sydney, or a
total of 49 days from Sydney, by the Nlca
raguan route It would be not to exceed S3
days, or say 17 days shorter, in addition
to saving transshipment. Besides Austral
asia, Hong Kong, Yokohama, Manilla, and
other Eastern ABiatlc ports, would be cor
respondingly nearer New York. Of course,
It was shown that the Nicaragua canal
would also bring London nearer Sydney,
Yokohama, etc, by fully five days, than
she is by the Suez route; yet it would give
New York at least five days, and nearly
2000 miles, advantage in this trade. The
canal, then, would not only remove the dis
advantage of seven days' time and trans
shipment that our Eastern ports now labor
under In these competitive markets, but it
would give them the advantage of the five"
days in distance above indicated, as
against all competitors.
It may seem strange to your readers,
but none of the many and Interesting
facts placed before the meeting were new
to the wide-awake "Yankee merchants"
and business men. The methods for the
construction of the work were also dis
cussed. One gentleman objected to "as
suming" to "Instruct congress" how the
work should be done, or by what financial
methods, but the Americanism soon show
ed Itself by calling to memory the fact
that the "people" are the rulers and con
gress but the servant of the country-
The question of toll was then discussed,
and it was shown that as a decreasing
distance was an attractive force, so a toll
was a repelling force, and as the average
toll on the Suez canal was about 52 a ton,
and as traffic ence afloat can be carried at
a ton 1000 miles for 40 cents, and as 50 cents
per ton would largely influence the traffic,
with distance nearly equal. It was decided
to suggest a toll of 52 per ton on freight
passing the canal, instead of 52 50, as had
been proposed by the company whose
measures have occupied the attention of
congress. It was shown, too, as the time
from these ports to London via Nicaragua
would be shortened fully five days, be
sides esecaplng the monsoons of the In
dian ocean and the heats of the Red sea,
that at the same toll most of the 5,700,000
tons of Australasian traffic would go by
the new route, as well as that of Japan,
Hong Kong, etc., and this would increase
the revenues of the canal. It was further
shown by the most careful, conservative
estimates, based upon full and detailed sta
tistics, that at 52 per ton toll at least
C.000,000 tons of traffic would annually pass
the canal, and old shipmasters nnd navi
gators present declared these estimates to
be too low by at least 30 per cent.
The proposition now before congress to
aid a private company at the expense of
the nation was earnestly discussed and
emphatically disapproved, the feeling be
ing unanimous that the safety as well as
the commercial interests of the country
demanded the construction, ownership and
operation of the work by the general gov
ernment. These gentlemen were opposed,
as much as they desired the canal, to
handing so important a highway or so gi
gantic a monopoly over to a private cor
poration. This led to a discussion of sub
sidies generally, with the result that as
the United States is rather opposed to
the policy regarding shipping, and as a
subsidy policy among other nations had
deprived the Americans of a power to
compete In the carrying trade. It was sug
gested that, in the event of the govern
ment becoming willing to assume the con
struction of the canal as a public or na
tioal highway, American-built bot
toms be allowed to pbes toll free. This,
it wss claimed, would be no discrimina
tion as a fact, as the man who builds a
house may justly occupy a room without
paying rent. But It would develop our
commercial marine and restore our pres
tige upon the seas. It would also fur
nish a vent for our disaffected population,
furnish employment for the Idle, and op
portunities for Americans to compete on
I fair terms In the open markets of the
world, while unr ability to pass and repass
with warships from ocean to ocean would
insure our peaceful march, to commercial
The whole case was then briefly reviewed
by copious references to the calculations
of experts employed by the Maritime Ca
nal Company of Nicaragua, by French
and English statisticians, by reports made
to congress, by committee upon foreign re
lations, and by Senator Morgan's great
speech, showing the difficulties to be over
come, the cost of construction and opera
tion, the time necessary for construction
and the certain and probable traffic that
would pass through, as well as the na
tional and commercial interest it would be
to our country, and from this mass of
facts the following- petition was read, and.
being: unanimously accepted, it was signed
by those present, with instructions to the
chairman to forward it for presentation
to both houses of congress, towit:
"We, the undersigned, your petitioners
and citizens of the United States, now en
gaged In business or sojourning" in Sydney,
New South Wales, mest respectfully call
the attention of your honorable body to
the importance of some measure providing
for the early construction of the Nica
"Your petitioners respectfully assume
that the members of your honorable body
are familiar with all the facts which have
been published regarding the advantages
of this canal to our coastwise trade, to the
growing Importance of the Pacific as a
highway between the United States and
the Asiatic and Australian countries, and
that they are desirous at all times of
learning: the views of persons belonging
to the great constituencies.
"We have learned from senate report No.
1142, 52d congress: from speeches made by
honorable members of both houses; from
pamphlets published by the Maritime
Canal Company of Nicaragua; from re
ports of various engineers and experts,
and from general statistics of trade and
commerce, that the said canal can be con
structed at an cutslde cost of 5100,000,000;
Including value of the present company's
franchises that at a toll of 52 50 per ton
there would pass through it, at least 7,000,
000 tons of traffic annually, less than 1,000,
000 tons of which would be American;
that the annual operating- expenses would
not exceed 5100,000.000, and we believe, with
modern appliances, that the work can be
completed inside of five years.
"Further, to secure to our own people
the full advantage cf this great high
way; to bring our widely-separated coast
states closer together by water transpor
tation; to enlarge the opportunities of ourv
industrial classes; to encourage the con-"
struction of an American merchant ma
rine, and to secure our shores from pos
sible foreign aggression; we respectfully
petition your honorable body to take
measures at the earliest possible moment
providing for the construction, operation
and ownership of said canal by the gov
ernment of the United States, and that
as a means for carrying out such proposi
tions you do issue 5100,000,000 3 per cent
canal bonds, payable in 20 and due in 50
years, to be used as banking- capital as
found desirable, and we respectfully sug
gest that, when said canal Is finished,
it be opened to the traffic of the outside
world at a toll of 52 per ton (equal to av
erage toll on Suez caral), but free to all
"We would respectfully call the atten
tion of your honorable body to some of
the advantagas of the proposed scheme:
"First By the sale of bonds, only as
money Is needed for the work, at the time
of completion, at the end of five years,
the government would have actually ex
pended but T12,000,000 interest on bonds.
"Second That on comple tion of the kork
there would annually pass at least 6,000,000
tons of foreign traffic, at $2 per ton, yield
ing1 an annual revenue of 512,000,000; that
the revenues from the foreign tonnage
would pay interest, operating expenses and
the entire issue of canal bonds inside of
CO years, leaving a handsome revenue ever
afterward, and the property a valuable
national asset. --
"Third That freeing- 'American bottoms
passing through the canal would be equiv
alent to a bonus of 52 per ton, which would
result in the creation of an American,
merchant marine and a restoration of our
prestige on the seas, and that the opening
of this highway, and so vastly lessening
the distance between our own opposite
coast states, as well as between the Eu
ropean markets and Japan, Australia and
many of the Pacific countries, would revo
lutionize the commerce of the world and
make the United States matchless in peace
and invincible in war."
The above Is furnished by United States
Consul Bell, who is well known in Oregon
THE MEXICAN SOLDIER.
Kurd "Worked, Poorly Paid, But a
!AJ regiment of Mexican infantry contains
four companies of 153 men each, counting-non-commissioned
officers. There are two
captains, three first lieutenants, threer sec
ond lieutenants, 10 sergeants and 19 cor
porals. The first captain receives 5S0 per
month; the second captain, 5j per month;
first lieutenant, 563 per month; second
lieutenant, 555 per month; third lieutenant,
550 per month; first sergeant, 530 per month
the other sergeants $21 per month, and
the corporals 44 cents a day, and the pri
vate soldiers 374 cents a day, or at his
option, the government providing the ra
tions, deducting from his pay for the same,
16 cents per day. Clothing is issue'd to the
soldier without charge. Commissioned
officers furnish their own uniforms and
rations. The first captain commands the
company. The second captain keeps the
company records, in addition to duties at
the time Imposed. The first lieutenant
act3 as officer of the day by turns of one
week each, the first sergeant always act
ing as paymaster in the presence of the
then officer of the camp.
During drill the corporals are used as
markers, carrying a small flag for that
purpose. During battalion drill the regi
ment Is divided into three sections, and
each section into three platoons. The bat
talion has one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel,
one major, and one adjutant, all or
whom are mounted, as are also the first
captains. The ether commissioned officers
are usually mounted during active cam
paign. Ten days' rations consist of 15 pounds of
flour, 2' pounds of rice, 5 pounds of dried
beef, 2 quarts of beans, 2 pounds of coffee
and 2 pounds of sugar.
On an estimated 10 days' march, the
soldier cooks one-half his rations at the
start. He Is not provided with a haver
sack, but always has a canteen. His ra
tions are rolled up in his blanket. They
frequently bake cakes in live coals, turn
ing them often, and they appear to be as
good as any. A commissioned officer may
resign in time of peace, but his act Is
looked upon with suspicion; but after two
years of campaigning- he can resign with
all honors. Desertion Is punished by being
placed under arrest in camp for four
months and compelled to do manual work,
and no pay during sentence. If three or
more desert the leader gets from 15 to 20
years in prison, forfeiting all pay, and if
in the presence of the enemy, death. Com
missioned officers cannot obtain leave of
absence during active campaigns. The
private soldier seldom gets leave of ab
sence, even in time of peace. The arm
used i3 the Remington breech-loading
rifle, 43 caliber, 90 grains of powder.
The German Infant Terrible.
Here are two or three anecdotes of German
children. It was a large party. A gentleman
bad the misfortune to break a glass. Little
Lena, who was standing near her mamma,
raised herself on tiptoe and whispered, load
enough for all the company to hear: "And one
of the borrowed Ones, too!" Later ia the even
ing the hostess gave one of her little daughters
a nice apple. "Now,, give your mamma a kiss.
there's a dear," said the child's uncle. "I'm
not allowed to xhen she's painted her face."
Little Paul was sent with a bunch of flowers to
the manager's wife on her birthday, and waited
in silence alter he had been dismissed. Lady
Well, my young man, what are you waiting for
now? Paul Mamma aid I was not to ask for
a piece of birthday cake, but wait till I got it.
ME BILLS PASSED
NET RESULT OF THE DAY'S WORK
New Bills Continue to Flow la and
AH Told Twenty-four Were
OLYMPIA, Feb. IS. Both houses of the
legislature convened this afternoon at 2
o'clock, with more members in attend
ance than have been present for a week,
owing- to the return of numerous com
mittees from -visiting- state institutions.
Three bills were passed by the senate and
two by the house. New bills continue to
flow into both houses. Eight were pre
sented In the senate and 15 in the house.
Most of the afternoon In the lower house
was passed In the second reading of bills,
and several interesting discussions were
Indulged In. The bill by Senator Lewis,
relating to the method of counting de
grees of relationship in all cases, passed
without dissent. This amendment is a
statutory statement of the civil law. The
law already prohibited a judge from hear
ing a case when he is related to either
party within the third degree, so that if
a justice or judge were cousin to plaintiff
or defendant, he would be four degrees
removed, and could hear the case. Under
this bill the degree of relationship is as
certained and computed by ascending
from the judge to a common ancestor
and descending to the party, counting a
degree for each person in both lines, in
cluding the judge and party and excluding:
the common ancestor. The bill to protect
singing birds, which has already passed
the house, was reconsidered, amended
and passed by the senate. As amended,
It permits the killing of the red-breasted
European robin, black bird, swallow" or
Four bills by Bush, which passed the
house, came up In the senate for third
reading, and were referred to the fishery
committee for more careful consideration
of the Industries they seek to protect.
Senator Van Houten's bill to permit main
tenance of actions for damages through
death caused by negligence, was defeated
in the senate. Senator Taylor contended
that the bill amended the present law, so
as to abolish some of the existing safe
guards. The senate then passed Easter
day's bill, which makes assignments in
valid unles they be for the benefit of all
creditors In proportion to the amount
of their respective claims.
Senator Campbell presented a bill today
which, he says, will drive all Chinese out
of the state. It prescribes a penalty of
from 5100 to 5500 for any male person re
siding In the state wearing a queue.
A bill was also presented by Hall appro
priating 580,000 for maintenance and con
struction of buildings for the agricul
tural college, and one by Taylon abolish
ing days of grace on commercial papers.
Among the new bills introduced in the
house was one to appoint truant masters
in cities with over 20,000 population to
patrol the streets and gather in truant
school children; another for the appoint
ment of a sheep inspector, to prevent
bringing into the state sheep affected with
scab; and a third making the professor
of veterinary surgery at the agricultural
college a state veterinary.
Murray's bill fixing the fee for cancel
lation of mortgages, when the same is
entered on margin of record, and Callow's
bill relating to purchase and sale of tide
lands passed the house, while Conner's
bill relating to fee3 of officers of election
was indefinitely postponed.
In the senate tomorrow the local option
bill by Senator Taylor, of Pierce, will
come up as the special order. Both liquor
men and the friends of prohibition have
been industrious during the past few
days, and there is no certainty that the
measure will pass the senate. Senator
Ide remarked today that, in his opinion,
the bill will never reach the house, and
the senator has made a careful estimate
of local option's strength in the upper
house. The senator today received the
following telegram, signed by the Spokane
"In behalf of the good people of Spo
kane, we earnestly Implore you to stand
by the local option measure."
The presentation of a bill in the house
by J. C. Taylor, of Pierce, for annulment
of the capitol building foundation con
tract, was somewhat of a surprise to the
friends of the administration, Governor
McGraw having urged the completion of
the building in his regular message. It
was known early in the session that there
was a desire on the part of some members
to make a fight on the capitol, but the
hearty support given the governor's mes
sage created the impression that the effort
to delay construction would not be at
tempted. Taylor, however, comes from
the district in which Puyallup is located,
and, it is said, hopes to have the location
of the capital moved from Olympla to
that town. Taylor's bill is based on a
section in the capitol building law, passed
two years ago, which reserves the right
of the board, for good cause shown, "to
annual a contract without allowance for
damages, and allowing only the expense
incurred and the labor performed, not
exceeding the contract price, or the pro-,
portion that the the work done or ma
terial furnished thereunder, bears to the
total amount contracted for." It also re
peals that portion of the law appropriat
ing 5300,000 for the work.
Spokane and Seattle school districts
have protested against the passage of
Rogers school bill to give children 510
per capita for school purposes, as an
PROTEST FROM EMPLOYES.
Tliey AhIc the Leerl.slnture Not io
Pa.iK Pending: Grnln-Rntea Hill.
TACOMA, Feb. 18. Seventy employes
of the railroads entering Tacoma held a
meeting tonight and adopted a strong
resolution asking the legislature not to
pass the bill now before it reducing rates
on wheat and other grain. The employes
say they believe they are entitled to the
same consideration and protection af
forded any other class of citizens; that
they are familiar with the cost and work
ings of the various roads In the state;
that the officials' statements as to the
cost of handling grain have been correct,
and that "we have no reason to believe
we can escape the hardships worked upon
other railroad employes throughout the
country, where such legislation has been
Destitution, in Hocking: Valley.
CINCISTXATr, Feb. IS. Word from
Buckingham and other points In the Hock
ing valley today stated that the destitu
tion was such that the sufferers were be
coming desperate. Governor McKlnley or
dered immediate necessities purchased at
Buckingham, and the bill sent to him.
The Cincinnati relief committee later sent
a carload of supplies, and Congressman
Paul J. Sorg, of Middletown, will send an
other carload on his own account, as soon
as he can have the shipment made.
Death in. n Dnlcota. Blizzard.
ABERDEEN. S. D., Feb. 18. Reports
have been received today of a severe
blizzard in the hills east of here yester
day. Mrs. Nehring and four children, liv
ing near "Webster, attempted to go to a
neighbor's house during the storm. They
became bewildered and, when found, the
mother and two children were dead and
the other children badly frozen.
N. W. HARRIS & CO.
163-165 Dearborn-st., Chicago.
15 Wall-st.. New York. 70 Stalest., Boston.
Bought and Sold. CorrecpoaSencs Solicited, j
CAST YOUR EYE
OUmn THIS CODE?iSED HIST
OF OUS SERLt ESTUTE
These are all Bargains, ana you. can buy out of this Hat -nrlta
youreyes slant ana hit it every time.
540.000-One block, between 13th and ICth, Irv-
lng and Johnson.
535,000100 feet square. Second and Jefferson
sts.; frame building.
$.0,000100 feet square. First and Couch sts.;
512,500100 feet square. 14th and Irving; store
51,500 One lot. Hood, between Wood and Gro
oeLframe building. ,
$-3,000-100 feet square, Elxth and Main; 4
..nouses, all rented.
5-5,000 50xOS feet. cor. Second and Madison
esl?.a11 fme buildings.
533.000 Half interest la 3-story brick. 100 feet
5quai?' within three blocks of The Dekum;
510,000 Corner lot and bouse, two blocks from
fJ?,2ljm buHns: 5C0O0 down.
$0000 Hair lot and bulldlnr. on North' Third
,o l-.Snt"ird down, balance can run.
512.000100 feet square, oa 17th and GUsan
sts.; will trade.
$7.000 Brick house. Robinson's Hill.
$3,500 No. 323 Fifth, between Clay and Mar
ket 8-room house and barn.
$.,000 Northrup. between 23d and 21th; 8-room
modern, two lots.
$6,500 Seventh and Caruthers: 6 houses. 3 lots.
$1,000 7-room. hard-finished. Grover's add.
$3.500 11-room house, cor. Front and Curry. .
$2,100 Nice cottage. 21st and Upshur sts.
$1,730 6-room cottage, Corbctt, between Ban
croft and Lowell.
$2,000 Front and Hood; 7-room house.
fa, 750 B-room cottage. Caruthers add.
7,000 Two houses. Park and Hall sts.
$4.000 Two houses, 21st, between Kearney
84,500 Good house and 2 lots. Meade and South
$5,50013 rooms, half block, Kelly st and Ham
$4,6002 houses and 1 lot. Glbb3 and Hood sts.
$13,500 9-room house and 5 lots, on Portland
$0,000 3 houses and 2 lots. North 14th and
Johnson sts $.t0fth down.
$0,2502 houses and 1 lot. Fourth St., 7 blocks
from city hall; will sell separately.
$0,1004 lots and 6-room house, 16th and Mill;
well sell separately.
$2,000 S-room house and 23x100, on Clay st.
$4.750 S-room modern house and corner, oa
Lane Et, in South Portland.
$11,500 2-story brick and 2-story frame, 14
lots. Delay and Knott sts.
$4.500 Saloon and up stairs, 624x100. Union
ave. and Tillamook st.
$2.500 Half lot and 2 stores, East Washington.
between th and 10th.
$0,5001 lot and frame building. Union ave..
between Oak and Pine.
$5,00040x100 and 2-story building, on Russell
st. ; rents for $50 per month.
$3,20025x75 and 1-story building. East 20th
and Morrison sts.; will trade equity for farm.
$1.C00 East 2Cth and Sandy road; 5 rooms. 2
S900-3 lots and 1 house. Mt. Tabor; very cheap.
$000 One lot and cheap house, East 24th and
$4,000 Two 8-room houses and corner lot, 13th
and East Pine. . - , . . .. .
$6,500 11-room house and 3 lots, convenient to
center of city. ....
$2,000 7-room house and 1 lot, S2d ahd Haw
thorne ave. , . . ..
$7.000 Large house and 100 feet square, Weld-
ler. near 17th.
$3.000 6-room house and 2 lots, on Base Line
road, near Mount Tabor.
$5,500 Fine modern house and 1 lot, Stephens'
addition; $2000 down, balance can run.
$2,300 7-room house and 2 lots, on Michigan
ave.; $600 down, balance In Installments.
$4.000 7-room hoaso and Inside lot. ort Larra-
bee st.; $1100 can run UU 1837; will trade bal
ance for farm.
$7.500 G-room house and 2 acres, on Hawthorne
ave.; will divide.
$1,100 Double house and 2 lots, in Montlcello
$2,000 5-room house and 2 lots, in Sellwood.
$1,000 S-room house and 1 lot. In Klnzel Park.
$3,800 8-room house and 100 feet square, on
28th and East Pine sts.
$2,300 8-room house and 1 lot, Sellwood St.;
$1,600 13-room house and, 1 lot, on East 26th
st. in Brush's addition.
$1,500 S-room cottage, In Sunnyslde; will trade.
$1,800 S-room cottage and 2 lots, in Portsmouth
$12,0005 houses and 3 lots, renting for $63, on
East Ash st.; $3500 down, balance can run.
$3,730 6-room houso and 1 lot, East 8th St.,
$2,000 7-room house and part of lot, at Sunny-
$l,500-5-room house and part of lot, at Sunny
side. $2,000 5-rcom house and 1 lot, Woodlawn.
$1,800 apiece 2 fine, roomy cottaees, at Wood-
$l,300-5-room house and 1 lot, Woodlawn.
$1.200 5-room house and 1 lot, Woodlawn.
$5.000 7-room house and 2 lots, 11th and East
$1,700 House and lot, Willamette; $350 down.
$1,300 House and lot, Willamette; $325 down.
$1,250 House and lot, Willamette; $325 down.
$1,700 5-room, modern house and half lot,
Cherry st. and Vancouver ave.
$3.150 9-room house and 1 lot, on 12th and
Davis. . .
$5,300 2-story house and 2 lots, on East 19th
$7,500100 feet square and 2 houses. E. 13th and
$3.500 Modern. S rooms, and 1 lot. Clackamas,
near East First.
$2,000 6-room house and 100x133 1-3, on 33th.
near Hawthorne ave.
$1,200 5-room cottage and 1 lot. Haight ave.,
between Skldmore and Mason sts.
J300-PorUand Heights. 115x56.
S2.000 Portland Heights, cor., 30x100.
$8.500 10th and Kearney, cor., 100x100.
$5 600 Two lots. Johnson, bet. 2Sd and 24th
$100 Columbia Heights. 50x100.
$100 Irvlngton Park, 50100.
54 ion East Seventh and Harrison: 3 lots.
$3!o00 Inside lot, College, between West Park
$1,2002 lots. Bancroft st, between Ohio and
Illinois. .,,., , .
$300 Willamette addition; inside lot
$500 Inside lot. Commercial, between Faillnc
and Posts sts.
$2,0004 lots, Monroe and Mitchell sts.; will sell
$3,0002 lots, cor. 10th and Weldler.
$2,500-2 lots. cor. 10th and Broadway.
$1,000 apiece On Erbeln st. and Vancouver
ave., between Morris and Stanton.
$900 aplce On Morris and Erbeln sts.
$3501 lot on electric line. In Cloverdale add.
$10,000-2 lots, between 12th and 13th, Couch
$3,250100 feet square, cor. Third and Woods.
$4,0001 lot, Glisan, between 21st and 22d; will
$1,1002 lots, on Market-st drive.
$1,000 apiece 10 rivtr-front lots, near Fulton
Park: will trade.
$1,000 apiece 2 lots, on Portland Heights.
$1,250 apiece 2 lota, on Portland Heights.
$5,000 2Vi lots, on Portland Heights.
$3,500100x120 feet, on Portland Heights.
$500 apiece 3 lots, in South Portland, on rail
road. $0,2502 lots, cor. 14th and Pettysrove sts.
$1,3001 lot, on McAdam st, between Wood
and G rover.
$900 Next to cor. Knott st and Rodney ave.
$1,5001 lot. cor. 19th and East Oak.
$3,0002 lots, on East Fifth and Taggnrt.
$4,0002 lots, on East Eighth and Yamhill sts.
000 Missouri ave., between SchaeCer and Ma
son sts.. 1 lot
$1,2002 lots, in Central Alblna.
$300 apiece Lots In Sellwood.
$2,750 1 block, in Kir.ffs ; will trade for farm
and assume some Indebtedness.
$2,2504 lots. In Alblna Homestead.
$5004 lots. In Mansfield addition. Just east of
$1,2004 lots. In Terminus addition: will trade
for small farm and assume indebtedness.
$4 500100 feet square. 12th and East Ankeny.
$3001 lot, in Central Alblna. on St John's
moor- -r. ...,.
$5,250100 feet square, on First and East Wasco
streets. , . .
$5,000100 feet square, on Eighth and East
$5301 lot In Woodlawn.
$6306 lots. In block 6. Chicago add.
$3501 lot. In Orchard Home.
$125 Lots in City View Park.
$10,0005 lots, on Collect, between Second and
Third; will sell separately.
Magnificent building tracts. In Belmont Villa;
prices from $2500 to $3500.
$125 apiece Lota in Tremont; easy terms.
The above is a. partial list of the prop
erty we have for sale. For further
particulars call on or address
DeLASHMUTT & SON,
$4,00030 acres. In Lafayette, Or.; improved;
$40 per acre 320 acres, S miles from Albany;
$1,100 10 acres, Clackamas county; 15 acres
cleared, will trade.
$32 50 per acre 327 acres, near Salem; 00
acres in cultivation.
5J,000 7 acres, near Beaverton: half cleared.
$-000168 acres, near Goldendale. Wash.
$50 per acre 4CO acres, at Farmlngton. Wash
ington county; 180 cultivated.
$12 per acre 600 acres, at Viola. Clackamas
county: 120 acres clear; will trade for city
$6,000100 acres. 50 in prunes, near Laurel,
Washington county; will trade for city prop
erty. $17,0001000 acres, Oakland. Or.: 430 in culti
vation. $123 per acre 10 acres, on Sandy road; part in
$15,0001520 acres. In Umatilla county; stock
and grain ranch.
$4,14641 46-100 acres, in Grant's Pass; light
$630 10 acres, lt miles from Coble; S acres
$1,10061 acres, 1 miles from Gale's creek: 8
$2,500160 acres, ia Nebraska; highly culti
vated: will trade.
21 farms In Yamhill county. For particulars
call at office.
$2.000 111S acres. 1 mile west of Ralclsh sta
tion, on Scholl's Ferry road.
$900 SO acres. 7 miles from Oregon City.
$1,00040 acres, J miles from Moscow; 5 acre
$12 per ncrc 576 acres. 5 miles from Medford;
50 or 73 acres In cultivation.
$35 per acre 125 acres, 7 miles from Salem; 250
acres In cultivation.
$3,500 CS acres, 1 mile from Damascus; 30
acres In cultivation.
$23 per acre 351 acres, in Tillamook county:
fine dairy ranch.
$1,500127 acres, 4 miles from Damascus: 11
?45?r1.0.acres n"ar Scl0 nal cultivation;
will divide or trade.
$23 per acre 120 acres, near Solo, one-third cul
tivated. $6,150203 acres, near Sclo, all In cultivation:
divide or trade.
$S.O00 200 acres, near Sclo. 50 acres hops: will
divide or trade.
$2,50050 acres, near Tlgardsvllle; some clear.
$8 per acre 570 acres. Sherman county, all
$1,50040 acres, in Benton county, 16 acres
$10,000 4S0 acre. 5 miles from North Yam
hill. 240 acres In cultivation.
$2,500100 acren, 1$ miles from Albany. 30
acres in cultivation; good stone quarry.
$33 per acre 259 acres. 2 miles from Wash-
ougal. 150 acres In cultivation.
$1,20020 acres, 1 mile from Warren's, 11 acres
$2,25036 acres, 6 miles from Forest Grove,
one-half beaver-dam: cultivated.
$2,500160 acres. 9 miles from Goble. 25 acres
clear: will rent.
$15 per acre 193 acres, at Junction of Cow
litz and Cowhegan rivers; fine dairy ranch.
$0 per acre 2720 acres, iu Morrow county, all
$2,73045 acres. 6 miles east of Woodburn, 30
acres in cultivation.
10 per acre Land on water ditch. In Umatilla
county; nothing larger than 40 acres sold.
$3,000120 acres, near Carrollton. Wash.; 33
$1,000160 acres. In North Dakota; will trade.
$10.600 160 acres. In Douglas county: 70 acres
$115 per acre 13 acres. 6 miles from Van
couver: one-half In orchard.
$73 per acre 20 acres, 6 miles from Vancouver;
$80 per acre 10 acres, 6 miles from Vancouver;
42 acres adjoining above, to rent
$C00 25 acres, 5 miles from Scappoose; 3 acres
clenr. and livestock.
$6,40055 acres, 8 miles from Portland, on
Powell Valley road; will cut up Into tracts:, 40
acres' In cultivation.
$2,500 102 acres; in Douglas county; well
stocked and Improved; will trade for East
$600 SO acres. In Benton county; 8 acres la
TimTier nnd Wild Iiand.
$630160 acres. Hood River.
$2.830 ISO acres. Nehalem vallev.
$950160 acres. Lewis county. Wash.
S2.SS0 4SO acres. Hood River.
$30010 acres, Tlgardsvllle. Or.
$1,000120 acres. 6 miles from Taylor's Land
ing: timber down and easily cleared.
$1,19093 acres, 3V& miles from Scappoose.
$1,00040 acres, 10 mites from Hillsboro.
$1,000160 acres. 5 miles from mouth of Bull
Run river; would trade.
$960-r-320 acres. In Linn county.
$1,50040 acres. Multnomah county, near Hoi
$1,100160 acres. In Clatsop county.
$1,500160 acres, on Yaqutna bay.
$600100 acres, In Chehalls county. Wash,
$030 10 acres. In Jackson county,
$800160 acres. In Lewis county. Wash.
$4,S00 320 acres, near Kalama.
$40085 acres, In Clatsop county.
52,100320 acres, in Michigan; will trade.
$3.000 4S0 acres. In Chehalls county. Wash.
5800100 acres, In Columbia county.
$52521 acres, near LInnton.
$1,500 41 acres, near Hillsboro; timber down.
$3,200320 acres, in Tillamook county.
$72080 acres, near LInnton.
Also soma large tracts, from 1000 to 10,000
Sl.SOO-lO-acre tract, near Bertha station.
$4,0005 acres, all in fruit, Frultvale.
$4,0005 acres, fully Improved, Clackamas sta
tion. $2,00010 acres, near Shattuck station.
$1.000 S,4 acres, in Willsburg.
$6502 acres, adjoining Wlllsburg.
$3,00012 acres, near Wlllsburg.
S030 5 acres. In Hazelwood.
$3,00010 acres, adjoining Kennedy's add.
$2,20010 acres, Taylor's Ferry road.
$0T0 5 acres, DeLashmutt &. Oatman Littla
Homes No. 2.
$2,300 10-acre tracts, adjoining Carson Heights.
$4,000 4',-4 acrts, adjoining Kenllworth.
$200 per acre 5 and 10-acra tracts, at Beaver
ton; all clear.
$2,73015 acres, Mount Scott: partly cleared.
$1,6002 acres, clear. Palatine Hill.
$3,800 Prune orchard, near Vancouver; 2500
SS00 Half acra and house, at Zlontown.
$2,00040 rods of ocean front, at Long Beach,
34 lots At Mount Tabor: 3 acres; price cheap.
$85013 acres, on Base Line road; 3 acres clear;
small house; 11 miles out
$1.150 10-acre tracts, 8 miles from Portland,
on Powell Valley road. ,
$1,10010 acres. In Hazelwood.
20 acres well Improved, 3 miles from Port
land, for rent, $20 pr month.
$1,3505 acres, all in cultivation; near Mount
$33 33 per month Store and 13-room dwelling,
SS00 Drug store, stock and fixtures, in thriving
$3,000 Drug store, stock and fixtures, In tba
city; good location.
Fourth Interest in good-paying business. In city.
$050 Furniture for 15-room lodging-house.
SS50 20-room lodging-house.
$300 Restaurant. In city;
$2,500 30-room lodging-house.
$1,050 Good home and business, in thriving
town down the Columbia.
$6.500 Old-establlshel hoteK in city.
$1.300 Banking fixtures and supplies, in a
lively town on the Columbia.
$1.600 Hotel business, established, at Dallas.
$2,200 50-room lodging-house: will trade for
small farm near city.
$1.750 Good 32-room hotel. In thriving country
$2.300 Good store and house and lot: also good
physician's practice thrown in. In Washington
S60O Photograph gallery, on East Side.
$700 Furniture in 8-room house; cost $1200 two
$2.500 Good boot and shoe business, on East
In Other Towns.
$3,200 One-half block and fine residence. 10th
and C sts.
$2 230 Two lots and house. Eighth and West C
S630 One lot. Ninth, between B and C.
$400 Four acres, uncleared.
$10.000 Nine houses and 6 lots; prospective
$3,000 Fine house and lot In St Helen's.
$2,000120 feet river front and wharf, at St
2.050 8-room house and -1 lot, la Warenton,
20'9 STARK ST., PORTLAND, OR