3 THE STATE REPIBLICAS. "To Slra jle of to-iay ii not altogether for to-iay, it is for the vast future alio." EUGENE CITY. APEIL 11. 1863. ItO ADS AND HIGHWAYS, Dun Kg the rainy season we have bad roads in Oregon. This remark applies to no particular locality, but to the entire State from Jacksonville to Portland. This is in a great measure owing to the nature of the soil, and to the amount of rain which falls during the winter season ; but more to the fact that the roads are not properly worked. In many places the roads are now in the same condition that they were years ngo, when the travel first started over them. They pass over the fl.it surface, with no embankments, even in the lowest places, and no ditches at the sides to carry off the water. This is not because the people have entirely neglected to work the roads, but they have filled to work them 5n a propper manner, and have expended a groat deal of work to no good purpose, (t has been the custom when a place got very bad to throw in a little brush and dirt and patch it up. As soon as that would get cut up the travel would turn a little to the right or to the left and soon cut out another hole, and that would bo patched up in a similar way. Thus the roads go, shifting from side to side, and the road makers following up the travel, instead of making the travel follow them. In this way tho work of whole districts lias been squandered for years, and no roads made yet. The same work applied every year in tho samo places, in some permanent manner, gravelling, planking or bridging, would have made good roads long ago. All know the advantage of having good roads; they benefit every citizen in the country, and all nearly aliko. To bo without good roads, as we are in most parts of the State, nnd to be com pelled to tug through the deep, soft mud of the rich soil, worked up all over tho surface of what we call the "road," from one to two feet deep, for about six months in the year, is unpleasant to those who ore not used to that mode of trav. cling. It would bo quite as appropriate to live under a fir treo and call it a house, as to travel thoso mud holes and call them roads. With few exceptions Oregon lias no roads, though the country is old enough to have at least a few roads completed. It is time that the people, nnd more particular ly tho County Commissioners nnd Supervisors in the various counties, should consider the import ance of making good roads and of making thi.r. permanent. Greater care should bo observed in laying out new roads than has usually been ob served in such cases. Roads are too frequently located along the sides of farms nnd over bad ground, merely to save a little good land and to suit the convenience of some individual, instead of running over the best ground and straight through, as they always should. And when a road has been judiciously laid out, interested parties are too frequently allowed to chango it. Ono man gets up a petition signed by a few neighbors and turns tho road to correspond with his fences ; another does likewise, and so on, till tho road is a continual succession of offset nnd angles, made to suit tho crooks between their fences, instead of making the fences to corre spond with tho straight road. County Commis sioners should not allow roads, in which all tho citizens of the county aro equally interested, to bo hacked up in tins manner, by tho tew individ uals through whoso lands they happen to pass. In all cases roads should bo located over the straightest routes, with strict reference to the best ground, and not to the convenience of a few men. Then they sdiould be kept there, and should be Worked every year on tho samo track, until they beeoiiio good and permanent road. In this way tho filling, ditching and bridging of one year are not thrown away the next, as they aro w here tho road is continually changing, but may bo added to every year until tho road is made good. Supervisors should bo careful to commenco their work well, and in a manner that will admit of future additions ; then their succes sors can keep it in repair and add moro to it as they have tho means. Hut if Supervisors only aim to make temporory repairs, that must bo torn out, and cannot receive additions hereafter, then we will never have any roads. There should be some uniform system adopted to regu late this business. In somo districts they com menced graveling some years ago, and by con. tinning the same course every year, they have succeeded in completing tho work in a permanent manner. In other districts, where there has been as much work done, but in various modes, and without following up any uniform system, they have no roads yet, and never will hive any, un less they adopt somo system and work up to it every year. COXYEKilATIO.il NO. 1. In the following dialogue we have commenced lo show up tho Unionism of certain men who are Union as long as it is popular. We propose to continue the subject occasionally, as the times may demand. Uoiox. " Say, John, aro you really a Union man at heart 1" Umo.i Democrat. " Why, yes, Jo. Don't you hear me every day crying 'down with trea Hon, prosecute tho war moro vigorously V Don't oe that by my every word and action I am lending my aid lo the Government f U. " Yes, I hear all thi, and I hear even Nr than this." j U. D. " 1 have been a leading man in the Union party ever since it was organized ; in (act I helped to conceive it, and have ever given it my entire support. Why do you ask me if I am a Union man at heart 1" U. " Well, John, I'll tell you frankly why 1 ask the question : Id the first ph.ee, nnd before the Union party' was conceived,' I, in com pany with several others, heard you say, after having read the rebel constitution' By G d it's the grandest documei.t my eyes ever beheld. It is as far in advance of the Old one, (meaning the Constitution of the United States,-ED.) as it is in advance of an absolute monarchy.' U. D. That was before there was much feeling maifested on this Coast, and I did not know but we might want to join the Confederacy, or establish a Pacific Republic." U. " I also remember very distinctly that af ter the Union State Convention, nt which Jo Drew was not nominated for Governor, that you in company with Dush and a few others, re tired to SALEM to hold a " Union Democrat ic" Convention, and run your own pets; but being foiled in that attempt, you all whipped nicely into tho traces nnd worked seemingly very wull for a season. Hut I now often hear you denouncing such men as Greeley, Sumner, Wade, Hen liutler and nil the host of veteran patriots who are willing to sacrifice everything, even to slavery itself for our glorious Government, as 'Fanatics,' 'Abolitionists,' ' Dis-Unionsts' and ' Foreign Interventionists.' Why do you do so John if you nre really a Union man" U. D. " Well, I, I, You know that I don't like tho policy of tho Administration." U. " What part of the ' policy' do you ob. jectto? Do you approve the nation of the Secretary of State ?" U. D. Y'cs, I think Mr. Seward does well. U. " Do you object to tho Currency, tho Ex cise Tax, the Conscription Act, or what do you so seriously object to ?" U. D. " No, these are all necessary, I don't much like the Conscription yet could get on pretty well if that was the worst." U. " Pray tell me what is the worst." U. D. " Well sir, I don't like it is, I, I cbject to tho Emancipation Proclamation." U. " Ah ! that's it is it? Y'ou want tho war prosecuted, you want everything done up right, yet you want the traitors to bo let keep the bone and sinew of war. You want to give them a good sound cudgel while you give us a small reed only, yet if wo don't whip them-whip them quick and whip them badly, you think tho 'Ad ministration is not using sufiicient energy,' and after they have disabled our light weapon if we seize nnd wrench from their right hand the des tructive missile which they have used to such an advantage ngain't ns, then you ' don't like the policy of the Administration.' " U. D. Jo, the truth is, I want the war pros ecuted, but 1 want it done on Democratic prin ciples, I'm sick of this Union organization (Jo this is confidential) and wo hope by railing out against the Agitators thoso who aro absolutely the stand by i.i the Nation, to crea'o a Demo cratic party that will be able to concentrate the so-called secession voto (by the way, don't consider them secessionists,) thereby giving us this State next election. Now Jo, for God's sake don't say a word, for if wo fail in this I want to bo re-elected by tho Union party, two or three or four thousand a year is too good to be lost. What say you to this, Jo?" " Well, John, I think I'll have to blow you a little about election times. I'm more for the principle of right than office or salary. So lay your plans well, for I shall attempt to show you up nt the right time." U. D. "Jo, I'll give you" ' U. " No yon wont !" U. D. " I can secure you a nomination for-" U. "I tell you John, I will not receive a nomination. 1 am working for tho good of the people do not want position, nnd do not intend you shall have it. I consider you corrupt and willing to barter the people's interest for a sal ary. Good afternoon." exit U. U. D- Soliloquising: What can I do to get that fellow out of my way 1 It's evident that if I don't work some plan to counteract him I'm gone in. Let mo see, let me see I I'll at tack his private character, and get the whole community down on him so that he will have either to keep cool or leave altogether, that's what I'll do. I'm all right. exit U. D., whistling Dixie. Tub undersigned Trustees of tho Corporation of Eugene. City, appointed by Act of the Legis lature of Oregon at its last Session, desirous that tho citizens of Eugene shall decide for themselves in regard to said act of incorporation ; and taking into consideration, tho absenco of one of their number and the opposition of another to the regular organization of the city council ; and anxious that the Act of the Legislature may not prove vain and useless by any negligence of the undersigned, have concluded that it would be right nnd appropriate to call a Town Meeting at the Court House in .hugene City, of all citizens living within the Corporation limits to accept or reject said charter by vote. And if by a major ity tho charter shall bo accepted, they suggest the propriety of the nomination by the citizens, of candidates to fill the following charter ofiiees, viz. ; "President of the Council," '"Five Trustees" and "Recorder." Tho Town Meeting to be held on Monday the I4ih day of April at 2 P. M. at the Court House, and the election to to bo held on Monday the l-t Anril lKl.!. nt tha anrnrt rtTnea nlul hnur. AoHKIS lIl'MrilRET, S. Ellsworth, Geo. II. Brtnix. Eugene City, April 10th, 1S'.1. LOCAL AND MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. Last Monday the Electors cf this School District, (N'o. 4) held their annual meet ing and elected llueo Directors, to serve res. pectively one, two and threo years. E. Waud, Win. Smith nnd Henry Parsons were the men chosen, all men of families and interested in having a good school. We hope they will secure the services of Miss Lizzie Boise, for in so doing they will net in accordance with the wishes ofatleast nine-tenths of the citizens. The meeting was well attended and passed off pleasantly, yet there was one feature about it we regret to see in a school district. The election was strictly a political affair. However much we regret such things, when it is made the order of the day, we are always on hand and ready to stand up for our side, nnd our side by a little good " clean eleventh hour bumming," .won the day, nnd we have an entire Union board. The best feature in it is, we beat tliem nt their own game. We ore informed by tho School Super- inteiident that the clerk of one district in this county has entirely failed to make a report of his district as required by law, nnd consequently the money that sjiould have been appropriated to that district waineluded in the general fund which was disbursed among the districts that were reported. Tho peoplo of that district feel very much wronged, and are, we understand, going to prosccut3 the clerk, on his bond, for negligence in office in not reporting the district. We should like to see tho matter tested. Mr. L. W. Coe, U. S. Collector of In- ternal Revenue for Oregon, has appointed Mr. II. B. Parker, Deputy Collector in the following districts : 1st, Clatsop, Columbia nnd Tillamook coun'ies; 6th, Linn and Lane counties; Till, Douglas and Unipqua ; 8th, Coos and Curry ; S)th, Jackson and Josephine counties. Mr. Par ker was in town this week, co'Iccting revenue, and has gone to the southern counties on the samo business. On the Cth inst. the annual election for city officers came offin Portland. The Times gives the names of the successful candidates us follows : "For Mayor, David Logan ; Recorder, J. F. McCoy ; Treasurer, F. C. Pomeroy ; City Marshal, W. B. Clark." Pomeroy was on the "People's Union Ticket," all the others were on the "People's Ticket." The Commissioner of Interna Revenue has decided that contracts made payable in gold coin may be legalized by affixing stamps equal in value to one half of one per cent of the amount of money to be paid. This decision will remove many embarrassments which have grown out of the difference in the value of Legal Tender and gold. More Plots. By way of a "slant" wo nre placed in possession of certain facts relative to the " secret" doings of tho torio s of this county. The plot liny , are now talking about (well the poor igiiorfliiifises must have something to exer ciso their whisky -toboeeo soakod mud puddles which they term brains, on,) is to come to Eugene 6omp night, burn the houses of all the Union men in town ai:d hang every "d d aboli tionist" whether man or woman. They pro poso to comitenco on Mr. Henderson, ho being the most obnoxious. Y'e poor deluded dupes, yo'i had belter be digging your Camillas for next winter, for somo how or other us "abolish" haven way1, of finding out your "deep laid" schemes, nnj when you commenco this thing somo of yol will get tho wax warmed in your ears, " you bet." Remember that burning, and hanging, too, is a game that others can play at as well ns yourselves. -I Rosebuko. April, Gih, 1803. Ed's RicrjnLiCAN: I notice by the Patigonian correspondence last week from "Stonewall" (alias Judge W's r ng tailed monkey) that matters in relation to the Southern Confederacy haveussum ed a very llifeatening aspect. England is said to be on the point of interfering in our great na tional family quarrel, and the news is evidently re lie-able, fir it is supposed to come direct from London. And every oi.e in this vicinity who reads tho Af'ican organ knows that the dispatches from that quarter will tell, ie. ; tell lies and neighborlioitl gossip. Indeed, this little town is getting to bt quite conspicuous, a person hardly dares to walk around the corner on the most ordinary errand without being in danger of a blast through tho Corvallis Union. And with such a strong combination of intellect on the re portorial alert tho Union folks here are necessar ily very circumspect. With such a reporter as "Stonewall' I mean tho ring-tailed monkey Stonewall to favor her fortunes it is hoped that Roseburg will come to distinction. Our schools can get a gratuitous puff, our ladies can have the pleasure of seeing their names in print, without being married, nnd our military aspirants can have cheap training nt the expense of this mod ern light. It is unfortunate, however, that his extensive reading has not taught him that there is a alight difference between the Oregon Cavalry Regiment and the recent organization of the State militia. This splendid scholar seems to be specially interested in having words spelled cor rectly ; his strictures on this useful branch, how ever, w iil not be presumed to apply to his own writing, Pat's readers wiil certainly exercise more charity than to make tho critic saw himself. For parallel specimens of his syntax the "false syntax" of somo old style grammar book may serve as a faint illustration. Thoso who wish to have tho benefit of this learned monkey's erudition should procure a copy of Pat's halt sheet issue, two weeks past. It will "whistle itself." Yours for tho Stars and Stripes. Hooker. Womax is an interesting book, but not alwys an open one ; she's a volume that is sometimes tightly clasped. Oia Roseburg correspondent shows up their ring tailed quack pretty well. LATEST EASTERN NEWS. Washington, March 21). Richmond papers of late dates contain a full description of the rebel steamer Georgians, recently lost. Bhe was an iron vessel, left England wilh an assorted cargo valued at 81,000,0000, among which was a bat tery of twelve guns of superior manufacture. The last information from the frontier, states that the prevalent belief was that a considerable rebel force of infantry under Jackson, is now in the vicinity of Port Royal, designing another raid into that district. New Y'ork, SO. The following was received by the Asia: The Union emancipation party, having sent a protest to the Early Russell against fitting out vessels in England for the Con federates. Earl Russell replied by pointing to the net of Parliament requiring evidence on oath to enable proceedings to be taken against parties subject of contravening the law. Fortress Monroe, GO. The Richmond papers say Judge Meredith of Circuit Court has decided that every citizen of Maryland, and every for eigner ever enlisted in the rebel army, no mat ter for how short a time, is liable to conscription, between 18 and 45 years of age. An officer who deserted the rebel army, arrived nt Norfolk yes terday. He reports that the rebels are evacua ting Richmond as fast as possible. At Fortress Monroe on the 29th, the enemy attacked Will, iamsburg with infantry and cavalry, but were repulsed, and by noon they were in full retreat, and our pickets were reestnblised. The enemy attacked Weldon a few days since, but were'V. pulsed after a fight of an hour and a half. Headquarters Army of Potomac, 30th. The following aro from tho Richmond dispatches of the 27th : Mobile, March 23th. Official intelli gence has been received of the evacuation of Pen saco'a by the enmy, now at Fort Hawaii. The garrison of tho town aud all other troops that could be spared, having been sent to Gen. Hants. Yk ksburg, 29. Saturday morning Col. Fer guson, Commanding the batteries at tho Junction of Deer Creek and the Sunflower river, S3 miles ahote the Junction of Sunflower repulsed tho en eiuy, and destroyed three gunboats, and drove the ballance back. Col. Ferguson has sufficient fore to hold the enemy in check, he recommends reinforcemei ts to bo sent iu the rear of the ene my to cut off his retreat. Kansas City, 28. Capt. Bowdcn of the Sam Getty, from Independence Mo., reports while pass ing Tibley's Lauding, he was assailed by guerril las who succeeded in boarding tho boat, and tnk ing a number of soldiers. After this they rob bed the passengers, nnd threw overboard a lot of provisions nnd Government wagons. A Confederate raid was made on Austin, Ark., alovo Helena a few days ngo, they cut the levees nrd flooded the country. Washington, 30. Admiral Dupont, in a re pert to the War Department, attaches much im portance to the destruction of the Georgiana, which he says was brought over by a British offi cer, and intended for tin; Confederate navy. On tlie night of the IS: li of March she attempted to run into Charleston, but was chased into the c'lanncl. The alarm was given and the Wabash opened her heaviest guns upon her, the comman der said he had surrendered. The Wabash ceased firing, but the Captain of the Georgiana took ad vantage of it and ran his vessel aground. All on board, nnd Capt. Davis of the Wabash, be ing o tlto t?pinit that uliu ooutd nut be saved, set her on fire. Louisyilll SO. P.-isser-ors from Winchester report Humphry Marshal, with a heavy infantry force, near Mount Sterling. Tiu;' rebels were driving stock from all directions toward that place and coming toward Lexington. All is qui et aluug the Louisville and Nashville railroad. New Y'ork, 31. The steamer McClollan, from New Orlems, has arrived with dates to 22 1. A bottle containing a dispatch from Farragut's fleet had been picked up. It said that they were nil well. We had three men killed and two wound ed. Several schooners had arrived at New Or. leans from across the lake, with a largo quantity of cotton and w heat. A number of passengers were compelled to come in order to get some thing to eat. They relate that great destitution and suffering exists among the rebels. The Pic. ayune of the 20th, reports that the Monongahela, hose machinery was injured during the fight, has repaired her woodwork and is again in fight ing trim. New Y'oik, 31. The Trihune has a dispatch from Washington, stating that some of Gen. Dix's officers report that they had satisfied themselves from various circumstances that the rebels are preparing to evacuate Richmond, and have re moved a quantity of supplies. The officers be lieved that the show of Hooker nnd the demon stratum on Washinton, are intended to mask the real object, and that they intend to concentrate in front of Rosecrans, in hope of being able to drive him back and occupy and hold Kentncky. These opinions nre not shared by tho principal officers of the Army of the Potomac. An expedition from Hooker's army under Far child's, returned to Hello Plain yesterday, they captured several prisoners and a quantity of pork, bacon and oats and a number of horses and mules. Farchild's also surprised a schooner en gaged in bringing contrabrnd goods into Virgin ia. A Hilton Head letter says that Beauregard, had the impudence to demand the surrender of the steamer Mercedita nnd Keystone State, which he said were captured Jan. 31st. The latest news from Jacksonville, Floridia, says the Clh Connecticut nnd 8th Maine regiments have been ordered to reinforce the negro troops. A rebel force had been driven from their oringin al position six miles by tho negroes. Three reg iments of Georgians were known to be marching on the town. A Hilton Head letter says the Wabash, Pow Rattan and Pawnee draw too much water to cross the Charleston bar, and will therefore rema;n at Port Royal to receive the rebel ram from Savon ah. Another letter dated 27th says heavy firing was heard all the previous day in tho vicinity ot Charleston. It was thought probable that the fleet, which left Wednesday 23th, was attacking the batteries at Stono Inlet. The Savanah Republican, of the 23ih, reports an engagement between the rebel batteries nnd Federal gnnboat, on Monday but no particulars given. Cincinnati, 81 The rebels are rapidly retreat ing from Kentucky. Pegram, at last accounts, was hotly pursued, and it is reported to day, will have to abandon all the cattle about two hun ded head Mnrfreesboro dispatches sny that scouts report that the reliels must soon attack or fall back, in consequence of the scarcity of provisions. A gentleman from Chattanooga states that the rebels have been building Immense fortifications there, and already have fifty or sixty large guns in po sition at Stevenson, Shelbyville, Dechard and Tullahoma. Sacramento, Abril 1. In assembly, bill to prevent fitting out of practical and other trea sonable enterprises, was amended by inserting a proviso for tho death penalty, nnd passed. San Francisco, 1. General Wright has re ceived orders to permit no vessel to come with in 500 yards of Alcatraz after dark or they will be fired upon. Legal Tenders 62 to 64 ; they will be lower to-morrow. Chicago, 1. Full dispacthes have been receiv ed of Sherman' expedition. Admiral Porter had succeeded in getting through both bayous with tho gunboats, when he encountered a small force of rabels, who nnnoyed with sharp shooters nnd by placing obstructions in the channel. Fur ther progress was impossible without the coop eration of infantry. The rebels nlso cut trees into the stream in the rear. Infantry reinforce ments arrived on 23d, and released the boats from their perilous position. On the 25th the rebel" left Black lisxyou. Federal Jo in killed and wounded, 12 prvate. Rebel reports say that Banks was repulsed, with considerable loss ; nothing definite, howev er, is known. Washington, 1. A rebel who came over to our lines tells the old story of destitution. Ha thinks, however, the army can remain where it is, on half rations, untill more supplies are for warded. Cincinnati, 31st. Most of the rebels lately at Danville are now encamped between Somerset and Cumberland river. They are said to be im pressing every white man into the service. Reb el Generals have declared martial law in every county to the Kentucky river. In a mutiny in a Georgia regiment near Monticello, six of tho ringleaders were shot. St. Louis, 31. Gen. Herron is to be assign ed to the army of the frontier. Fortress Monroe, 31. An attack on Williams burg, Saturday morning, in which the rebels had 3,000 cavalry and infantry ; our force was much less. Rebel loss 15, all told. Late Richmond papers contain detailed ae counts of the recent great fire, which destroyed property to the value of four million dollars. The Administration confidently expects, before the close f .f the week, to hear of important suc cesses by the fleet at Charleston. Fortress Monroe, 31. Refugees from rebel dom nre daily coming into our line from York town. They state that the rebels have already commenced to remove large guns and also ma chinery from machine shops iu Richmond to Chattanooga. Washington, April 1. The Governo cnt has1 authorized Gen. Ullman to raise n black brigade, and Governor Annrews to raise two black regi- ments. Beyond this, no authority has been jfiveii any one to enlist negro troops. Memphis, 31. Gen. Sullivan in command nt Jackson, scut an expedition, a few days since, nun. Street's brigade. They were overtaken and a fight ensued, in which Strt was wounded, and 2l of Lis men captured. New York, 31. 'iiie steamer Southampton) reports Feb. 23 1 she was spoken by tho Alii' bama. She had burned ihe Alace Cave, 21sf, bound from Bordeaux to New York ; same day she burned a large vessel, from California to Qoeenston. Tho La Piata, which arrived at Southampton, reports the Alabama cruising off tho West Indies, daily. The screw steamer, Southerner, intended for Confederato navy, will be launched nexj week. Louisville, March 31.-The reported capture of two thousand head of cattle is confirmed. One hundred nnd fifty prisoners were taken. The Federals are still closely pursuing the rebels. New Y'ork, April 1. A British bark from St. Thomas reports that two euglish steamers sailed with cargoes for Secessia. The British frigate, Phantom, sailed with them as convoy. The steamer City of Washington, with dates from Liverpool to the 18th nnd from Queenstown to the 19ih, has arrived. The Polish question was assuming great importance. French diplo matic correspondence had been published showing the gravity of the question. The French Senate were debating petitions in favor of Poland. All influential men in London denounce the course of Russia, nnd call for a cessation of diplomatic correspondence until a reform is brought about. The Loudon morning Post contains a threatening and warlike article. Is it Right 1 For a man lo leave this State, with a Brigadier's commission in his pocket, in the service of Jeff Davis' Confederacy, with the avowed purpose of fighting against tha United States Government, making his property over to another and leaving his family to the protection and care of the very Government he is now rushing in hot haste to assail, and to imbue his hands in the blood of those who seek to sustain the power which gives protection to those he holds dearest on earth ? We emphatically ans wer no ! Thus has Judge Terry acted ; and if it is Democracy to sustain him in such a position, we'll have none of it. S. F. Spirit. The weather continues very fine, and the grass and vegetation generally, give evidence that spring has come. Ma. A. S. McCli-rb returned from Port land on Thursday's stage. Mo will have a fine stock of goods in a few days, then you can get anything you want cheap. Thk Portland paper say that large numbers of pack animals are constantly arriving there, from the upper Willamette, bound for the mines. Passengers are now taken on the steamers from Ccli'o to Wallula for f 1, and through to Lcwis'ou for $7 50.