The state Republican. (Eugene City, Or.) 1862-1863, December 20, 1862, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    :R JEPU B1JCAN o
DEVOTED TO THE POLITICAL AND GENERAL INTERESTS OF THE PEOPLE,
VOL. I.
EUGENE CITY, OREGON, DECEMBER 20, 18(52.
NO. 49-
THE STATE REPUBLICAN
Published every Knturday by
J. NEWTON GALE.
Term or Subscription.
Tut Rkpcbmcan M ill be published at ti an ft year in ad
vance; UO if pniil at the end of aix month; or (4 t")
t the olosa of the year. Una dullur additional will be
charged fur each year paymeut is neglected.
So paper discontinued mail all arrearages are
paid, exuepl ut our option.
Rateti of Advertising.
One square (ten lines or less) oue month,
Kucb additional insertion,
Business Card, oue aquare or less, one year,
aix months.
Four squares aud upward, one year, per aquare,
" aix mouths, per square,
" " three months, "
Administrator's Notices, and all advertisements re
lating to estates of deceased persons, which
have to be sworu to, one square, four insertions,
3 OO
50
12 00
8 00
10 00
7 oo
S 00
5 oo
To Advrtiskrs. Business men throughout Oregon and
California will timl it greatly to their advantage to adver
tise in the Stats Kkfiiilican.
The Law ol Newspapers.
1. Subscribers who do not give express notice to the
eoutrary, are considered a wishing to contiuue their snb
criptions. 2 If subscribers order the discontinuance of their pa
pers, the publisher may contiuue to send them till all ar
rearages are puid.
. If subscribers neglect or refuse to take their papers
from the otfice to which iliev are directed they are held
responsible till they have settled the bill aud ordered the
paper discontinued.
4. If subscribers remove to other places without in
forming the puolisher, and the paper is sent to the former
direction, they are held responsible.
S. The courts have decided that retusing to mice a p
n., rmm tlii. omc or removing ana lemma: uui-uut
per from the office, or removing and leaving it unca
led
tor, is prima lucia eviueuce oi niwiinuu., ,uu.
PRESIDENTJMESSASE.
DELIVERED
TO 1I0TH
on Monday,
HOUSES OF
CONGRESS,
December 1st.
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and House of Rep
resentatives :
Since your last assembling, another year of
health aud bountiful harvests has passed, aud
while it has not pleased the Almighty to bless
js with a return of peace, we cannot but press
on, guided by the best light lie gives us, trust.,
ing that in Ilis own time and wise way all will
be well.
OCR Fi'KKlOS RELATIONS.
The correspondence touching foreign nlf.iirs
which has taken place during the last year, is
herewith submilteil, in compliance with a request
to that elici t made by llio House of Represent
iitives near the close of the past session of Con
gress. If the condition of our relations with
ither nations is less gratifying than it has usual
ly been at. oi her periods, it is certainly more
satisfactory than a nation so unhappily distracted
its we arc might reasonably havo apprehended.
In the iiionlli ol June last there were some
grounds to expect tin t the niaratime 1 owers
winch at the beginning of our domestic difliculties,
so unwisely and so unnecessarily, as we think,
recognized the insurgents as a bclligerant power,
would soon recede from that position, which ha:
proved only less injur. oils to themselves than to
our own country ; hut the temporary reverses
w'.ach afterwards befell the national arms, and
w hich were exagemtcd by our own disloyal cit
izens abroad, have hitherto delayed that act of
simple justice. The civil war, w hich has so rad
ically changed for the moment the occupations
itnd habits ot the American people, has necessa
rily disturbed the social conditions and affected
very deeply the prosperity of the nation with
which we have carried on a commerce that has
been steadily increasing throughout a period of
half a century. It lias, at the same time, excited
political ambitions mid apprehensions which have
produced a profound agitation throughout the
civilized world. In this unusual agitation we
have forborne taking part in any controversies
between parlies and factions in any of the States.
We have attempted no propngaudisui and ack
nowledged no revolutions. We have left to
every nation the exclusive conduct and manage
ment of its own ulfiirs. Our struggle has been
of course, contemplated by foreign nations, with
reference less to its own merits than to its sup
posed aud oAeu exagerated effects and consequen
ces resulting to those nations themselves. Nev
ertheless, complaint on the part of this Govern
nient, even if it were just, would be unwise.
The treaty with Great Britain for the suppres
sion ot the slave trade has been put into opera
tion, with a good prospect of complete success.
Jt is an occasion of real pleasure to acknowledge
that the execution of it on the part of Her
Majesty's Government has been marked with
jealous respect for the authorities of the United
Suites and the rights of their moral and loyal
citizens.
The Convention of Hanover for the abolition
4ot the Stadtducs has been carried into full effect
under the Act of Congress for that purpose.
A blockade of three thousand miles of sea
coast could not be established and vigorously en
forced In a season of great commercial activity
like the present, without committing occasional
mistakes and inflicting unintentional injuries up
on foreign nations and their subjects. A civil
war occurring in a country where foreigners re
aide and carry on a trade under treaty stipula
tions, ia necessarily fruitful of complaints of the
violations of neutral rights. All such collisions
tend to excite ruissapprehensions and possibly to
produce recriminations between nations which
have a c iDiUion interest in preserving peace and
friendship. In clear cases of these kinds, I have
as far at possible heard and redressed lh cotn-
flaiuts which have been preferred by foreign
owers. There is, however, a large and ang
mentinff number of doubtful cases, upon which
k- r..tfnmMt is unur, e to Ajrce With lh.
Governtnenu hos protection is demanded by '
the claimant. There are, morover, many cases
in which the United State r.r their cittern uf ;
"er wrongs from naval or military authoities of
loreign nation', which the Governments of those
States are not prepared to redress. I have) pro
posed to some of the loreign Ministers thus in
troduced, mutual conventions to examine and
adjust such complaints. This proposition has
been made especially to Great Britain, to France,
to Spain, and to Prussia. In each case, it has
been kindly received, but has not yet been for.
tnally adopted.
1 deem it my duty to recommend an appropri
ation in behalf of the owners of the Norweigan
berk Admiral P. Torcens Iiiola, which vessel
was, in May, 1861, prevented by the eomtivuuler
of the blockading force off Charleston from leav
ing that port with a cargo, notwithstanding a sim
ilar privilege had before been granted to an Eng
lish vessel. I have directed the Secretary ot
State to cause the papers in the case to be com
municated to the proper (committees.
COLONIZATION.
Applications have been made to nie by many
free Americans of African descent to favor their
emigration, with a view ot such colonization con
templated in recent Acts of Congress. Other
parties, at home and abroad, some from motives
of prejudice, others upon patriotic principles,
and still others influenced by philanthropic setiti
meuts have suggested similar measures, while,
on the other hand, several of the Spanish Ameri
can Republics have protested against the sending
of such colonies to their respective territories.
Under these circumstances I have declined to
give any such colony to any Stale without first
obtaining the consent of its Government, w ith an
agreement on its part to receive and protect
such parties in all their rights as freemen ; and 1
have, at the same time, offered to the several
States situated in the tropics or having colonics
there, to negotiate with them, subject to the ad
vice and consent of the Senate, to favor the vol
untary removal of portions of that class to their
respective territories upon conditions w hich shall
be equally just and humane. Liberia and Hay ti
are as yet the only countries where colonies of
African descent from here could go with a cer
tainty of being reeived and adopted as citizens;
and 1 regr t to say that such persons coiitempht
ting colonization do not seem so willing to emi
grate to these cou tries as to some others, nor so
willing as I think their interest demands. I be
lieve, however, that their " pinion is improv
ing and that, ere long, there will bean augmented
and cousidcrab'e emigration to both those coun
tries from the United States.
COMMERCIAL RELATION'S.
This r.cw comn.crcial treaty between the United
States and the Sultan of Turkey has been carried
into execution. A commercial and consular
treaty has been negotiated, subject to the Senate's
consent, with Liberia, and a similar negotiation
is now pending with the republic of llavti. A
considerable improvement of thy national com
meree is expected to result from these measures.
Our relations with great Briiain, France, Spain,
Portugal, Russia, Prussia, Denmark, Swceden,
Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Rome and the
other Enrop 'an States, remain undisturbed. Very
favorable relations also contiuue to be maintained
with Morocco, Turkey, China and Japan.
During the last year there has not only been
no change in our previous relations with the in
dependent Slates of our continent, but more
friendly relations than have heretofore exisled
are believed to be entertained by these neighbors,
w hose safety and progress are so intimately con
nected with our own. This statement especially
applies to Mexico, Costa Rica, Nicaragua,
Ilond' r.is, Peru and Chile.
The Commission tinder the Convention with
the Republic of New Granada closed its sessions
without having audited and passed upon nil the
claims which were subniitled to it. A proposition
is pending in revive t .e Convention so that it
may be aide to do more complete justice.
1 he Commission between the L ulled States
and the Republic of Costa Rica has completed
its labors und aubiiiitted its report.
TDK ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC TELEGRAPH SCHEMES.
I have favored the project of connecting the
United States with Europe by an Atlantic tele
graph, and a similar project to extend the tele
graph from San Francisco, to connect, by a Pacific
leli giiioli w ire, with the wire that is being ex
tended across the Russian Empire.
Till TERRITORIES.
Tho territories of the United States, with
unimportant exceptions, have remained undis
turbed by the civil war, and they arc exhibiting
such evidences of prosperity as justifies an ex
pectation that some of them will soon be in a
condition to be organized as States and be con
stitutionally admitted into the federal Union.
The immense mineral resources of some of these
Terr lories ought to be developed as rapidly as
possible. Every step in that d'rection would
have a tendency to improve the resources of the
Government and to diminish the burdens of the
people. It is worthy of your serious considera
tion whether some extraordinary measures to
that end cannot be adopted. The measure which
suggests itself us most likely to be ellective is a
scientific exploration of the mineral regions of
these Terr i tor es, with a view to the publication
of these results at home aud in foreign countries
results which cannot fail to be auspicious.
THE RATIONAL FINANCES.
The condition of the finances will claim your
most diligent consideration. The vast expend!
tore incident in the military and naval opera
lions required for the suppression of the rebellion
have hitherto been met with promptitude and
certainty unusual in similar circumstances, and
the public credit has been fully maintained. The
continuance of the war, howeverand the increas
ed disbursements made neve-sarr by the augmeo-
ieu lorces now in uie ueiu oeiuaiiu juur ue.i rc-
ct'n as to the necessary revenue w ithout injury
10 buisness and wiih the leat possible burden.
"P"" 'b:,r-
The suspension of specie payment by the banks
soon niter the commencement ot your last session
made large issues of United Statu notes unavoid
able. In no other way could the payment of the
troops aud ut her just demands bo so economical,
ly or so well provided for. The judicious legis
lalioii of Congress, securing the rceeivabi lit v ot
these notes for loans and internal duties, and
making iiiem a legal tender lor other actus, tins
made them a currency, and hits satisfied, patially
at least, and for the time, tho long felt want of
an uniform circulating medium, saving thereby
to the people immense sums in discount and ex
change. A return to specie payments, however,
ut the earliest period compatible with a due re.
gard to all interests, should be kept in view.
1 1 net nations in the value ol currency are always
injurious, and to reduce these lluctuati us to the
lowest possible point will ulwys be a leading pur
pose in wise legislation. Prompt and certain
convertability into coin is generally acknowledged
to be the best and surest protectiont against them
and it is extremely doubtful whether the circula
tion of United States notes, payable in coin and
sufficiently large for the wants of the people, can
be permantly, useful ly aud safely maintained.
Is there any other mode in which tho necessary
provision lor the public w nts can be made and
the advantage of a sate and uniform currency
ascured 1 1 know of none which promises so cer
tain results, and at the saino time so uuobjection
able as the organization of banking institutions
under a general Act of Congress, well guarded
in its provisions. To such associations tho Gov
ernmeut might furnish circulating notes on tho
security of United States bonds deposited in the
treasury. These notes, prepared under tho su
pervision of proper officers, and being uniform
in appearence and security, and convertible
nlways with certainty, would at once protect la
bor against the evils of a vicious currency, and
facilitate commerce by cheap and safe exchanges.
A modern e reservation from the interest of the
bonds woulJ compensate tho United Slates for
the preparation and distribution of the notes and
a general extension of the notes und u general ex
tension of the system would lighten the burden
of that part of the public debt employed as se
curity. lh' public credit, moreover, would be
greatly improved und the negotiation of new
loans greatly facilitated by tho steady demand
for Government bonds, w hich the adoption of
the proposed system would create. It is an ad
ditional recommendation of the measure of con
siderable weight, in my judgement, that it would
reconcile, us fur as possible, all existing interests,
by the opportunity offeredo existing institutions
to substitute a uniform national circulation for
the local and various circulation, secured and
unsecured, now issued by ihem.
The receipts into the treasury from all sources
including loans ami balances from the preceding
year, for the fiscal year ending on ihe 30;h of
June, 1802, were $533,N8o.'2-l? 0 ot which sum
fc-W.OD.S.y'JvJ were derived from customs; $1,
7 'J .",;.'$ 1 73 from tho direct tax; from public lauds,
ft 1 52,20$ 77 ; trom miscellaneous soures, sfryiJl,
78!) 01 ; from loans in all forms, "$521)1ti92,35i)
50 ; tho remainder, 257,005 50, was the baU
ance f rum last year. The disbursements during
the same period were, for Congressional, Execu
tive aud Judicial purposes, i50,0.t!),0l)!) 2!); for
foreign intercourse, fl.2o!),710 ; loans, post
ofiices, deficiencies, collections of revenues and
other dues and charges, $11,129,701 ; for ex
pense under the Interior Department, 3,1 02,
!)85 52 ; under the War Department, $.181,308,.
407 38; under the Navy Department, $13,07 1,
58!) 69 ; for interest on" the Public Debt, $13,
190,321 45 ; and for the payment ot tho Public
Debt, including reimbursement of temporary
loan and redemption, $90.0!0.!23 09; making
an aggregate of 570,81 1,700 25; .nd leaving a
balance in the treasury on ihe first day of July
1802, of $13,013.41081. It. should bo obsiuod
that tho sum of $915,090,923 09 expended for re-
imliursmeiits aud redemption of the Public Debt
being icluded also in the loans made, may be
properly deducted both from the receipts and
expenditures, leaving tho actual receipts for the
year $187,788,321 97, and tho expenditures
$171,711,788 10. Other information on tho sub
ject of the linani'es will bo given in tho report of
the Secretary of the Treasury, to whoso state
ments and views I invite your most considerate
attention.
THE WAR AND NAVT DEPARTMENTS.
The Reports of the Secretary of the Navy and
the Secretury of War are herewith transmitted.
These reports, though lenglhy, are scarcely more
than brief extracts of tho very Tumorous and
extensive transactions and operations executed
through these Departments. Nor could I give
a summ irv ot them here upon any prun-mie
which would admit of its being much shorter
than the reports themselves. I therefore content
myself by laving tho reports bofore you, and
asking your attention to them.
POST Of FICE DEPARTMENT.
It gives me pleasure to report a decided im
provement in Hit) financial condition of the l ost
Office Department, as compared with tho several
preceding years. The receipts for the fiscal year
1801 amounted to $8,310,290. 1'l, which em brac
ed the revenue of ad the States of the Union
for three quarters of a year. Notwithstanding
the ceasatlon of the revenue from tho So-called
Confederate States during the last fi-enl year,
the increase of the jorrcsriendoiice of the loyal
States hs been sufficient to pro luce revenue
during tb same year of $8,220,820,90, being
only (50 004 leas thin was derived from all the
States of the Union the previous year. The ex
penditure show a still more favorable resirt.
'l-t . . . . . i i r i ta., i lit ef, i. I .
yar was 4,651,814,57. Tb rnjlts r in ft
i ue amount rii--tiuco ior ivi t i,iw'i.istf,-j in ie development ot a correct knowledge of re
11; for the l,-.t year the amount was rnduced toj celt impioveinrils in agriculture, in the mtro
$11.125.301, 13 showing a difference of about 'ductiou of new product and the collection of
2.487,000, in the expenditures as compare 1 agricultural statistics of the different States. I
with the preceding year, and about .1.750,000, so informed lb.it it will soon be prepared
as compared with the fiscal year of 1 SOD. The to distribute largely eeds, cereals, plants and i
deficiency tn ihe Department fr Ihe previous cuttings, and has already published and diffused
owing to the cessation of mail conveyance in the
insurrectionary States, and in part to a casual
rev
, o. an me expenuHum ... . at . eparttiieui
r.. i!. . i. . i . .
in mo interest ot economy, the clliclency
postal service, it is believed, has also been much
iv.v.ay .. ivwiiuiiii, lib t IIH.lt. Ill I l
improved. Ihe Postmaster General also open
ed a correspondence through the Department of
state with foreign Governmei.ts, proposing a
Convention of postal representatives for tho pur
poso of simplifying tho rates of foreign postage,
and to expedite the foreign mails. This proposi
lion, equally important to our udopted citizens
and to the commercial interests of the country,
has been favorably entertained mid agreed to by
the Governments from whom replies have been
received. I ask the attention of Congress to tho
suggestion of tho Postmaster General in Ilis re
ports respecting the further legislation required,
in his opinion, for the benefit of the postal
service.
TIIK INTERIOR DEPARTMENT.
The Secretary of tho Interior reports as fob
lows in regard to the public lands : Tho publio
lands have ceased to be a source of revenue.
From tho 1st of July, 1801, to the 30lh of Sep
tember, 1802, the entire cash receipts from tho
sale of public lands were $137,477,20, a sum
much less than the expenses of our land system
during tho same period. Tho I loin stead law,
which will take cllect on tho 1st of Januray next,
offers such inducements to settlers that sales to
such cannot be expected to an extent sufficient to
meet tho expenses of the General Land Ofliee
and cost ot surveying and bringing tho land into
market. The discrepancy between tho sums
here stated us arising from the sale of public
lauds and tho sum derived from the same source.
as reported from the Treasury Department, an
ses, as I undersatud. from tho fact that the no.
riods of time, though apparently so, were not
really coincident at tho beginuini; point. The
Treasury report includes a considerable sum now
which had previously been reported from the
Interior Department sufficiently largo to greatly
overreach the sum derived from the threo mouths
now reported on by tho Interior and not by the
Treasury Department.
INDIAN HOSTILITIES.
The Indian tribes on our frontier have, during
tho past year, manifested a spirit of insuhordina.
tioii and at several points engaged in open hostil
ilies against the w lute settlers in their vicinity,
Tho tribes occupying tho Indian country smith of
Kit! sas revoked their allegiance to tho United
States and entered into a treaty with the instir
gents. They who remained loyal to the United
States were driven from the country. The Chief
of the Cherokccs has visited this city for the pur
pose of restoring the former relations of tho tribo
w ith tho United States. Ho alleges that they
were constrained by superior forces to enter into
treaties with tho insurgents, and that the United
i States neglected to furnish llio protection which
t1 eir treaty stipulations required.
In tho mouth of August hist the Sioux Indians
in Minnesota, attacked tho settlers in their viciu
ity with extreme ferocity, killing indiscriminately
men, women, and children. This attack was
wholly unexpected, and therefore no defense had
been prepared. It is estimated that not less than
eight hundred persons wore killed by the Indians,
and a large amount of property was destroyed.
How this outbreak was induced is not definitely
known, and suspicions which may be unjust need
not be stated. Information was received by the
Indian Bureau from different sources, about llio
time hostilities were commenced, that a simulta
neous attack was to be made upon llio white
settlements by all the tribes between the Mis
souri river and tho Rocky Mountains. Tho Slate
of Minnesota lias suffered great injury from the
Indian war. A largo portion ot her territory
has been depopulated, und as severe loss has
been sustained by llio destruction cf property,
the people of that State manifest a strong desire
for tho removal of tho tribes beyond tho limits
of tho Mate as a guarantee against more hostil
ities, Tho Commissioner of Indian Affairs will
furnish full details. 1 submit for your special
consideration whether t ur Indian system shall
not bo remodeled. Many wise and good men
have been impressed with tho belief that this
can be profitably done.
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.
I submit ft statement of the proceedings of the
Commissioners, which shows tho progress that
has been made in the enterprise of constructing
tho Pacific Railroad, and suggn ts the earliest
completion of the road, nnd also tho favorable
action of Congress on the project now pending
bt fore them for enlarging the capacities of the
great canals of New York and Illinois, as being
of vital and rapidly increasing importance to the
wiiolo nation, especially to the vast internal re
gion hereinafter to be mentioned at greater
length. I propose having prepared and laid bo
f re you, at an early day, some interesting am
valuable statistical information on thu subject.
1'ho military and commercial importance of en
larging the Illinois and Michigan Canal, aud im
proving the Illinois river, is reported by Col.
Webster to thn Secretary of War, and now
transmitted to Congress.
Til DEPARTMENT OF A OR 10 L PTC R.
I respectfully ask your attention to carrt ing
out the provisions of the Act of Congress of the
15th of May last. I have caused the Department
of Agriculture of the United Suites to be organ
ized. The Commission informs me that, w ithin
the period of a few months, this Department has
established an extensive system of correspond
ence and exchange both at home and abroad.
! wbieh promises to effect hiuhlv beneficial results
, y. . . .
nitt, j, vsluabl r,fortni'ion in tb rtHr.tion of!
L ,..., ci..!,.,.-.,, ,.,. ul,ich will in l,itim
,u flin,i.s, ,t B,11,r.,0i,i. some vnliih! tt hi
- - n - . - - ...
, cwmiw, science, now it. progress in the labrato
-m -I"
ry. llio creation ot this department was tor the
more immediate benefit of a large class of our
most valuable citizens, and I trust that the lib
eral basis upon w hich it has been organized will
not only meet approbation but that it vt ill reulizu
at no distant day all the fondest anticipations of
its most sanguine friends, and become the fruit
ful source of advantage to all our people,
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
On tho 22d of September last, a proclamation
was issued by the Executive, a copy of which is
herewith transmitted. In accordance with the
purpose expressed in the second paragraph ot
that paper, I now respectfully call you,- attention
to w hat may be called compensated emancipation.
A nation may be said to consist of its territory,
its people, and its laws. The territory is the
only part which is of certain durability. One
generation passcth away and another generation
comcth, but the earth abideth forever." It is of
the first importance to duly consider and estimate
this ever enduring fact. That portion of the
earth's surface owned and inhabited by tho people
of tho United States is well adapted to the home
of one national family, ami is not well adapted
for two or more. Its vast extent and its variety
of climate and productions are of advantage iu
this age to the existence of one people, w hatever
they might have been in former ages. Steam
and telegraph and intelligence have brought these
to be advantageous to tho constitution of a united
people. In the inaugural address I briefly pointed
out the total inadequacy of disunion as a remedy
for differences between the people of the two
sections. I did so in language which 1 cannot
improve, and which, therefore, I beg to repeat :
"One section of our country believes slavery
is right and ought to be extended, while the other
believes it is wrong and ought not to be extended.
This is the only substantial dispute. The fugitive
slave clause of the Constitution and the law for
tho suppression of tho African slave trade, are
each as well enforced, perhaps, as any law can
ever be in a community where the moral sense
of tho community imperfectly supports the law
itself. The great body of the people abide by
the legal obligations in both cases, and a few
break over each. This, I think, cannot bo
perfectly cured, and it would be worse in both
instances after separation of tho sections than
before. The foreign slave trade, now imperfectly
suppressed, would bo ultimately revived without
restriction in one section, while fugitives, now
only partially surrendered, would not then bo
surrendered at all by tho other. Physically
speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot
remove our respective sections from each other,
nor build ail impassable wall between thorn. A
husband and wile may bo divorced und go out of
tho presence and beyond tho reach of each other,
but the different (mrls of our country cannot do
this. They cannot but remain face to face, and
intercourse, either amicable or hostile, must
continue between them. Is it possible, then, to
inako that intercourse more advantageous or
more satisfactory lifter separation than before 1
Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can
make laws? Can treaties bo more faithfully
enforced between aliens than laws can among
friends? Supposo you go to war. Von cannot
fight always; and when, after much loss on both
sides and no gain on either, you ceaso fighting,
the identical question as to terms of intercourse
are again upon you."
There is no line, straight or crooked, suitablo
fr a national boundary, upon which to divide.
Trace through trom east to west upon tho line
between tho free and slave country, and we shall
find a little more than one third of its length are
rivers easy to bo crossed, and populated, or soon
to bo populated ihickly upon both sides, while
iu nearly nil its remaining length are merely
surveyors' lines, over which people may walic
back and forth w ithout any const iousness of their
presence. No part of this line can be mado any
more difficult to pass by writing it down on
paper or parchment as a national boundary. The
fact of separation, if it comes, gives up on the
part of the seceding section the fugitive slave
clause with all other constitutional obligations
upon the section seceded from, while I should
expect no tre' ty stipulation would ever be made
to take in that clause. But there is another
difficulty. The great interior section bounded
east by tho Alleghanies, north by the British
domains, west by tho Rocky Mountains and south
by the I. no lying where the cultivation ot com
and cotton meet, nnd which includes part of
Virginia, part of Tennessee, all of Kentucky.
Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois. Missouri.
Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and the Territories of
Dacotah, Neb rusk a, and art of Colorado, has
above ten millions of people and will have fifty
millions within fifty years, if not prevented by
any political folly or mistake. It contains more
than one third ot the country owned bv th
revolted States, and certainly more than one
million miles of surface. One half as populous
as Massachusetts already is, it would have more
than 75,000,000 of people. A glance at the
map shows that, territoi ially speaking, it is the
great body of the republic. The other parts are
but moginal borders to it. Tim magnificent
region sloping west front the Rocky Mountains
to the Pacific being the deposit of great mineral
wealth, aud also the richest undeveloped region
in the production of provisions, grains, grssses,
and all which proceeds from them. That this
great interior region is naturally oue of the most
important in tho world is certain, from the
statistic of iho small proportion of the region
which hasasyi-t been brought into cultivation,
aud also from the large and rapidly increasing
amount of its product. Ve shall beoverw helmed
with the magnitude of the prospect presented:
and yet this region has no sea coast- touching
no ocean anywhere. As part of one nation, its
people now may find, and may forever find their
sy to Europe by w lor ; to South At)-