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TERMS Tt A love trill bt furaUhi al
Ths ranrsiSToa ur Tiia AllOl'S rs ntrrt
In inform ths jjiiIiIIo that he has Just rsteivsd a '
large stock of JOU TYl'IC aud othrr nrw print'
Ing inatrriul, nnd will be iu ths Sed j receipt (if
additions iuI'kI to sll the nonimmune of this lo
cality. JIANDIIIUA 1UbTKI!H, HI.ANK8,
CAKD8, CIIICULAKH, I'AMHILKT-WUllK,
, fcwif u 9 IJljf CMS "NT 4111111
fintff tuhirribrrtTkret Vo'.Urt
'' ' fs eluktef ten al ant arte:
A Weekly NewHjwpcr, devoted to tho Principles of Jeircrsoniun Democracy, and advocating the fide of Truth in every issue.
ITT Two pulton or tit amsffts A'a tabterip-
Hunt rtctirtifor a I tit rrriiid.
JIT " paper duconlmutd until all arrtarag
an paid, ualntt at tkt eptiea On publitktr.
OREGON CITY, O.T., MAY 31, 1856.
and other liuds, dune lo order, on short notice. ' '
THE OREGON ARGUS,
, ruausiino svsar n'm Mussina,
j BY WILLIAM L. ADAMS.
For the At rut,
''An old bachelor recently ekwl us, with i treat
desl of apparent soUituds, 'What Iim becowof
V IOU T "A rgiuo April Vila.
When is Viola V that's Uia question, is lit
Some lonely old bachelor would lik lo kuow
Perhaps he'd better pay her a short visit
' Or does ha frnr she'd lake birn far a beaut
If tbal'a Iba trouble, tell bun not lo fuller,
. Toe time bee passed when thai ouuld bo the caao(
Viols' neck now wean the inarriaa halter,
And niatronlika and serious is her face.
))ut if be can't afford to call aud sea her,
I'll try to toll him sstnuthln; of her home ,
think my story will be apt lo hve her
From all such questionings iu lims to come.
Hut flrat, though not to raise In song a rival,
A I'ltlo qiK-etion let me aik, I prsy
i nut this bachelor i hits arriral,
Kot yet iuitiuted iu our ways?
Nviiul S ak what has become of young lady !
Feep Iu that cabin, small, yil full of cares,
You'll find her there eo busy with I lie baby,
She has little time to tell you how alia fares.
But hark ! that noise pray, what can be Ilia mat
Yes, ctn wlfle I writo, I hear a wail
The baby atid (lis cat, they raits a clatter
Uuder the atuvo he's pulling at her tail.
There, hush my boy j I wish you had your papa
. Von t pull my dries so do let mamma write J
Such conduct, dear, in you, is quite improper;
' Here, sea the chickens what a pretty sight !
Veil, now he's still, these liues I might to finish :
, I thought dtacriplion of my home to give,
. And tell its beauties, but till cares diminish
t 1 have so much to do I scarce can live.
But If you wish to hear from me quits often,
I'll seek among the scribbling of my youth,
Select the gems, the roughed edges soften
The test I now can do for you, In truth.
And if Inclined to pity my condition,
i I do assure you I am well supplied,
Nor would exchange with high born wealth poai
For fear that Lore aud Fritndt would be denied.
Iris llill, May 7th. Viol.
Temperance at the llatloi-tlox.
' Editor of the Argus )eah Sir : Th
principle of a prohibitory liquor law is
vyain to cotno before the peoplo. A fair
nnd open convention of its friends has boon
iild, and thoy have resolved (but this quos
lion shall not be laid aside. They have
tried all honorable means and tbey will
try no oilier lo have one er both of the
political parlies adopt it as an issue in tbe
election. But party lenders, parly cau
cuses, and party conventions, have invari
ably not only refused to entertain tlio ques.
lion, but have opposed it, denounced its
friends ns funatics, and endeavored to prej
udice the ignorant by calling it an "ism,"
"dangerous lo Hie liberties of the Union"
''a union of Church and Stnte" "an op
pression" a "tyrannical wresting away of
oar personal liberties," and all such non
sense, that will have an effect amid the ex
citements of passion at an election.
AVe have resorted to petition ; we
Lave humbly addressed the Legislature,
asking them to abate this great social evil ;
, we have portrayed the loss of health, of
property, and of character, of which the
liquor traflic is -the cause and means ; we
have shown the oppressive taxes which li
quor sellers impose upon the community by
destroying productive labor, and by redu
cing so many citiaens to poverty and crime,
and their families to absolute want. Even
wives and daughters have petitioned our
( Legislature to save them from the disgrace
and ruin which this one traffic alone brings
, upon them, parents have again and again
besought our lawmakers to tako away the
temptations which this traflic holds out to
their children. The last words of the dy
ing Lave been a prayer that tlio people
would remove this curse, and save those
"who are ready to perish." The tears and
agonies of suffering wives whose condition
suppressed their words have been plead
ing every year before our courts, our Legis
latures, and our self-governing and self
protecting people, to save their husbands
from the druni.rd's ruin and the drunk.
ard's gravel And what has been the re--ply
to all these petitions and all these
tears f Cold neglect by some ; others have
insulted the petioners by advocating the
traffio and openly visiting the saloons ; oth
ers have added injury to insult by tramp
ling their petitions tinder foot, and de
nouncing them as hot-headed fanatics
, yes, sir, denouncing mothers and children,,
who have been made poor by this traffic,
s fanatics for asking relief and asking it
at the hands of the people's representa
, tivcsl 'With what base ribaldry were
- these petitions assailed last winter in the
, Legislature, and then thrown under the
And what hope is there of better treat
. nient in time to come f Probably the pe
. titioners will never again submit themselves
to the jeers of legislators. The friends of
temperanco know their rights, and they
know how to secure them. They know
the duty of mutual protection which our
. social compact requires. Tbey also know
the sacrifices which even the rumseller
must make for the common weal. And
- they expect that he will snake those sacri
fices, rather than forfeit the privilege of
titiienship. They expect that he will qui
tt'y yield at the command of the people-
Cringing sycophants' incro ofllce.seokor
may court aud flatter him Dow, but when
tho demand is made upon him by the piso.
pie who are his protectors ho will not
hesitate what course to lake; he will obey
the law. It Is our purpose to call the at
teution of the whole people to this subject
w mean to arouse them lo make this do
msnd ; we mean to exhibit the wrings and
sufferings which a small class of favored
monopolists aro inflicting upon a Isrje
class of their neighbors in every conimuui
ty. And when they see tho facts and tho
remedy, we expect that they will demand
in a voice and manner not to be mistaken
that liquor salouus bo abated as a publi
Hut some, who aro with us in principle,
object thnt a Temperance part? is not
needed to secure Iho objects of Temperance
iiion. Wo reply that no cause ever has
succeeded without tried and pledged friends,
hven the Gopel, with alt its army of tro
meiidotis motives, must have zcaluus and
able ministers. Much more ought an in
cidrnlal enterprise like the cause of Tom
pcrance to liavu aula advocates in our
Lr-gibluturcs, and especially since it is so
bitterly opposed and so much muligucd.
Wo reply again that the exclusivcnessof
the other parlies compels the organization
of a Temperanco parly, or else compels us
to be utterly silent on this subject. ' If we
will not bo at rest, and we cannot while
we see our best citizens sacrificed loth
Moloch of Intemperance then wo mutt
speak out and wo must vote fur the men
only who dare to speak and act on this
Moreover, we fed the insult, which ma
jorilies pleaso to hurl at us, too keenly, ti
submit to tlioir dictation, even in matters
of opinion, and much less in matters of
couscieuce. Yours truly. A.
Oregon Temperance sseclatloa.
Salem, May 17, 1958.
Mr.Editor of the Argus Dear Sir: The
Oregon Temperance Association met at
this place last Tuosday morning. We have
never seen the friends .of temperanco in
r . .... ...
urrgon so earnest ana so united in seeking
tho same object in the ame troy, as they
were at the anniversary just past. All
seemed to fuel that the time had come when
he lovers of temperance and good order in
Oregon should lay aside party feeling, and
instead of pulling at opposite ends of the
rope, all pull tbe same way and at the
same end. The forenoon was principally
taken up in preparation tho appointment
of commiiters, ifco. for expediting the
business which should come before the
mooting in the afternoon.
The afternoon was entirely used up in
tho animated discussions which followed
the reading of the following resolutions,
except a few minutes occupied in the ap
pointment of the officers of the society for
the ensuing year, viz :
1st. That the great extension of the pro
hibitory principle, and its embodiment in
aw, under various forms, by twelve States,
instead of the license system, is cause of
congratulation, and as the power is with
the peoplo, it is confidently believed that
prohibition will become the law of the va-
ious States of the American Union.
This resolution was adopted unanimous-
2d. That the practice of licensing the
ale ef spirituous liquors, as a beverage,
by law, is a Wrong committed upon society,
which has a direct tendency to corrupt and
degrade its morals. Adopted.
3d. That in order to secure the exter
mination of intomperance in Oregon, pro
hibition, in addition to moral suasion, is
imperatively demanded. Adopted.
4th. That temperance men cannot, con-
sislently with their principles, bestow their
suffrages upon men not pledged to prohibi
tion. Adopted 15 to o.
Now, sir, I do hope every reader of The
Argus will read these resolutions over a
half dozen times. I believe the principles,
and course of action embodied in them, are
worthy of the six hours' thought which the
thirty or forty men gavo to them in their
late meeting at Salem ; ond I further be
lieve, that had all those wlA pray for the
extermination of rum, been present, and
heard the discussion, heard the reasons for
and against the several changes which took
place in these resolutions, until they were
brought to their present form, there would
hardly be a dissenting voice when we come
to bring these principles to the polls.
In the evening we had a treat from S. Q.
Thornton and Rev. Mr. Smith. The first
gentleman delivered a logical lecture, defi
ning the position of the Association, and
defending it most conclusively, viz: Total
abstinence from all spirituous liquors as a
beverage, to be secured by moral and Uyal
suasion. Mr. Smith's lecture was perti
nent, showing tbe rightfulness and expedi
ency of prohibitory laws. Taking tbe
meeting all through, we had a good time of
it. I think all present felt abundantly re
warded for their time and trouble of going
to and from the place of meeting.
Jow, Mr. Editor, I may say lo youpri-
rattjy tiat I bavo Ukea this forsi tJ pre
sent an abstract of the doings of tho tem
perance convention, instead of the usual
way of just giving a purl of the minutes,
which lo the popular oyo is a very unread,
able thing. As tho secretary of the Socie
ty, 1 was directed lo furuish an abstract of
tho minutes. Tho officers of tho Society
nro J. Q. Tiiohnton, Prcs'lj D. Haui.f.y,
Vice Pres't ; O. Dicki.nson, Sec'y ; Kev.
G. U. Atkinson, iiio.mas i oi'k, ii. IIinbs,
I). . Ulain, Alex. Caui-dell, Ex. Cum.
The Boinbardutkl ef V'orl Mootlrlc
ST RICHARD EVERETT.
As there was no national flag at the time
I was desired by the Council of Safety lo
have one made, upon which, as tho State
troops wrre clothed in blue, and the fort
was garrisoned by tho first and second regi
ments, who wore a silver crescnt on tho
front of their caps, I hadalurge blue flag
mado, with a crcscnt In the dextor corner,
to be in uniform with the troops. This was
tho first American flag displayed iu the
South. Moultrie's Memories.
In the Spring of 1770, tho committee of
safety in Charleston, S. C, ordered Col
Wm. Moultrio to erect a fort upon Govern'
or a Inland, this island is tho key to
Charleston harbor, and the safety of the city
calico mat it no strongly loriuuti. stone
and mortar were scarce and the light sandy
soil of the island was not easily held in em
baukmcnts, therefore Col. Moultrie tried
another and vorycflkieut method of forti
fication. Two parallel walls of palmetto
logs wore laid down, sixteen feet apart, and
strongly bound together by cross limbers
These walls wore about six feet high, and
tho space bclweeu them was filled with
sand. Thus was formed an imprccnablo
fortress in an exceeding short space of time;
and when it was completed, tho blue colors
mentioned above wore displayed from tho
At the embrasures of this fort Were
mounted thirty pieces of cahncn, most of
them long thirty-twos, but the garrison was
composed chiefly of militia, unused to tho
management of heavy guns, and when Gen.
Lee (who bad boon sent from the North to
take command,) saw the fortification and
its armament, he styled it a "Slaughter
pen," and requested Col. Moultrie to vacato
it at once. But the gallant officor answer
ed that he would do no such thing. He
was then told that tho enemy would knock
his fort to pieces in half an hour. "Then,"
said he, "we will fight behind the ruins, and
prevent the men from landing." On hear
ing this reply, Leo gave up nil hope, and
began lo arrange- matturs for a general re
treat, as he felt confident that the royal
fleet would soon be in Charleston harbor.
The fleet, consisting of two frigates of
fifty guns, five of twenty-eight, one of
twenty-six, a bomb-vessel, was at longth
discovered hovering upon the coast. It
was under the orders of Sir Peter Parker,
a bravo and experienced officor, who, be
lieving that the American fortress was a
mere piece of sham work, anticipated an
easy victory. Contrary winds detained his
essels off coast for some time, but on the
28th of Juno, 1776, a fair breeze sprung up,
the ship sailed proudly shoreward, and with
springs on their cables, anchored within
fair cannon shot of the- forh
To the poople of Charleston this was an
eventful day. Tho roofs and spires, the
wharves, and shipping around the piers
were crowded with anxious spectators, and
from many a patriotic heart went up silent
and sincere prayer to the God of Battles,
that success might crown tho cause of lib-
Slowly the vessels swung round broad
sides to the fort, and as they did so, every
embrasure blazed forth a groat volume of
fire and iron ball. But the ships soon re
plied, and were enveloped in vest clouds of
sulphurous smoke. Tho cannonade was
dreadful ; three hundred heavy guns min
gled their mighty thunders together, until
tho shore trembled at the sound. Vithin
the fort a strange spectacle Was prescntsd.
There were hunters, militia regulars, snd
volunteers, all mingled together, many of
them working 'cannon for the first time in
their lives, but all full of courago and en
thusiasm. Some had stripped off their
coats, and with handkerchiefs bound round
their heads, trained their long "thirty-twos"
with the skill of old artillerists.
At the beginning of the action Gon.Lee
bad taken a position which commanded a
full view of the fort, and he gazed with the
expectation of beholding the "slaughtar
pen," as he termed it, knocked into splin
ters in ten minutes' time. But he was
mistaken, for when the fresh sea breeze
rolled away tho smoke, the black ramparts
were seen unharmed, and the blue flag
streamed gaily from its stafT. Tbe huge
cannon ball sank harmlessly into the mass
of soft sand, and the nature of the pal
metto wood, (soft and spongy,) prevented
splinters, those dreadful oflVprings of tim
ber walls in general, when they are smitten
by cannon balls.
At length, Lee, warmed inU admiration
by the gallant conduct of the Carolinians,
crossed over to the island to cher and en
courage them. There, amidst tho din and
fury of baltlo.he found Col. Moultrie coolly
walking about, smoking his pipe and su
perintending tlio defence with watchful eyes,
now directing a cannon, and now atsiiiing
to convey some wounded man to a place of
safety. Rut die shins stifl'urod. First the
bomb-ship was ridJIud, and forced to censo
her fire. Then tho "Cuminodoro," a fifty
gun ship, was raked fore and oft ; and the
"livperiuienl" reduced to a hull only, slack
ened her fire and sent her men below, whilo
throo of the smaller frigates, lost their
spars unJ running rigging. At ono time
tho firo of tho fort slacked, and a faint cheer
rang across the waves from the English
fleet. Rut iheir joy was only for an instant.
Tho American guns only ceased lo play
for want of powder, and a supply boing ob
tained, tho battle oponoJ with greater fury
than ever. Once the broadsides of four
vessels all struck tho fort at ono instant,
and the ramparts seemed on the point of
yielding. But the wet wood settled down
agnin, and in a moment was as firm ns
All day long tho bombardment continu
ed, and until tho sun had sank all red and
fiery into the distant ocean depths. It
was about 0 o'clock in the evening when
Sir Fetor Parker, despairing of passing the
fort, aud finding his fleet almost iu a sink
ing condition, gave orders to cut cables aud
start off tho coast. Then from tho fort,
from tho harbor, from the crowds upon tho
house-tops and tho piers, went up deafen
ing shouts of victory, and every patriot
thanked God that ho had shed such a halo
of glory upon the American arms, and bid
the foe turn iu fear from tho shores of South
This battlo was no loss glorious to the
Americans than calamitous to the Eng
lish. They lost in killed and wounded
over 200 men, and many officers. Among
the wounded was Sir Peter himself, who
lost an arm. Ono ship, lhe"Actoon," was
left a wreck Upon the Water ; and others
were so damaged that they could scarcely
bo kept afloat long enough to be repaired
The Americans lost in killed and wounded
30 officers and men. For twelve hours
and better they sustnined with SO cannon
and a scanty supply of ammunition, the
combined fire of nino vessels armed with
230 cannon I The annals of war cannot
find a parallel case ; and the defence of Ft.
Moultrie is acknowledged lo be one of the
greatest and most remarkable military
achievements of modern times. Our gallant
men covored themselves with glory.
Throughout the whola country a wild ex
citement was created, and the inhabitants
of South Carolina, and especially of Charles
ton, set no bounds to thoir rejoicing. Col.
Moultrie and his men recoived thocongratu
lation and praises of tho whole, city.
And here let us consider an instanco or
two of individual heroism which occurred
during the memorablo battle. Sergeant
McDonald, whileserving hisgun, was mor
tally wounded by a cannon ball, lie was
instantlr taken up by his comrades, and
carried, all mutilated And blooding, to the
unexposed part of tho works. As tho brave
but dying man, felt himself in tho arms of
his friends, he opened his eyes, over which
the films of death were stealing, and faintly
said: "I die, but don't let the cause of liberty
die with mo" and the next moment Ser
geant McDonald w as a corpse 1 But the
cause of liberty did not die.
'While the fire was hottest, and while the
walls wore shaking from the storm of iron
which poured upon them, the blue flag of
the Carolinas, which Moultrie had planted
upon tbe outworks, Was shot away, and full
fluttering to the beach below. A cheer
arose from the fleet) and the" hearts of tho
gazers upon the shore quaked with fear
and grief, as they supposed the fort had
surrendered. But the gallant Jasper leap
ed from-the walls, seized tho flag, climbed
up again, amidst a hail of shot and with a
rope lashed the flag to a sponge staff, and
planted it firmly in the bastion ; as the wind
spread its folds once more into tho air tho
patriots made the shores resound with their
rejoicings. And when the fray was over,
Gov. llutledgo presented tbe brave man
with a sword, and at the same time Mrs.
Elliot gavo to Moultrie's regiment a beauti
ful stand of colors, w hich Jasper lost his
life in defending at the storraingof Savanah.
03r The report of the Director of tho
United States Mint thowS the amount of
precious metals received during the past
year at the Mint and branches to bo 30,-
151,002. The total coinage amounts to
$58,812,738, comprised in 18,007,807 1
pieces, lbs whole coinage of the l.!tud
States since 1793 is f 493,BGS,50f. of
which amount there hy, been received from
California, sinco 1818, 8313,234,302.
fcj The report of the Auditor of State
represented the taxable property in Ohio in
1850 at $ 439,000 ,(X0. The same author.
hy gives it for the year 1535 as4&80,77,
354. Doubled ia Svs years.
The Three Ureal Route to the Varlttc.
There may bo at some period (wo pre.
tend not to say when) THREE great Rail
road Routes lo the Pacific. Many persons
canno! imagine how one is to be built, and
therefore will bo inclined to ridicule the
idea of three. Rut wo say, thcro maybe
three, and that, too, at no remote period.
The reasons aro Very obvious, when wo con
sider that the people of this country havo
always accomplished whatever was neces
sary to be accomplished. Is'ow, both com
merce and geographical rotations require
three outlets on tho Pacifio from tho Mis
sissippi Valley. These three outlets ore,
Pugct's Sound, San Francitco and San
Diego. Now, if wo aro to make but one
route, the c.no is a clear one the Texas
route muit be preferred. It can bo made
for half the money, and in half the time, and
run with ha'f the cost. Theso facts aro
decisive w ith regard to one route. But we
will hero consider this subjsct in that broad
light which looks to all the great interests
and all tho great parts of the Republic, with
a view to show how this can be dono, and
what are tho true relations ef the great
1. The possibility of constructing three
Railroads to the Vacific. To do this will
require 0,000 miles of Railroad. Thiols
just equal to what tho peoplo of the United
States have dono in two years. It is self
evident, then, that both labor and money
are sufficiently abundant to accomplish this.
But in order to make it easy, let us suppose
the work is accomplished In six years
then there will bo but 1,000 miles for each
year, and 333 miles on each route. The
work, therefore, is entirely possible. The
coM at $40,000 per mile will be two httn
dredand forty millions ; ono half of which
the government may grant in lands, and the
other half will bo raised by companies.
This is entirely a feasible plan, and may be
accomplished in a short period. Wo do
not say that it is desirable that all these
routes should be adopted and commenced
at once, but wo are now showing what is
possible, and what may at somo time come
to pass. Let Us now look at the geograph
ical relations which require this:
2. 27 three Ports From all tho in
formation we havo yet received, it would
seem there are but three really good ports
on the Pacifio, within tho American bound,
aries. The northern one is somewhere on
Puget's Sound, the second at San Francis
co, aud tho third at San Diego. The lati
tude and distances of these places are as
gcatilc (on Fugot Sound) 47 JtJ.
Ban Francisco 37 deg. 30 mln.
Sim Diego 32 deg. 40 mill.
From His Slruils of Fuca to Sao Francisco, 800 nils.
From San Francisco to San Diego 500 "
Thus we see that these places Are far
enough from each other to demand a sepa
rate trade. Supposing one route to leave
Milwaukee, Wis. ; the second 8b Louis,
and the third Fulton, Ark. these routes
will have a belt of 500 miles broad between
each two. As tho whole length is 2,000
miles, there is room on the routes of these
three railroads for twenty Slates of double
the ordinary size ; then allowing that only
half the lands aro arable, thore will bo
good land enough to make theso Slates
equal to the aid ones. And why should
there not be twenty Slates instead of four
or five) There is do reason, except that
icithout railroads these Slates cannot be
made productive. To incrcaso national
wealth therefore, and secure increased
means of subsistence to the increasing mil
lions of this country, no plan of improve
ment could be equal to this Very one of
constructing railroads from the Mississippi
Valley to tho great ports bf the Pacific.
3. Comparative Merits of Routes. On
this head we shall take Only such data as
are furnished by tho U. S. Surveys, and
such as has been added to them by recent
information. The following are the data :
Distance Summit ' Climate,
bypropo- oflii(h- Tunnel. lowest
sed route, est Pass. degree.
Route near the ( 2,025 6,044 at eleva- 30" be
4ttth parallel i miles, feet, tion of low zero.
Route near the
41st deg. from
Rone, low sera.
Route near the
Kone. 10 a
to San Diego,.
This talo is Conclusive upon certain high
ly important facts. .
1. Taken as a proposition to go from tho
navigable waters of the Mississippi river to
the Pacifio Ocean, the route through Texas
! is 404 miles neater than tie Northern route,
and 411 miles nearer tbn tho Middle route.
Gut if it wrre
proposition to go to tho
navigable tcuters of the Pacific, then it is
but 1,000 miles from Fulton to Ft. Yumub,
at the mouth of the Gila, whence steam
boats run at all seasons. .
2. Supposing that each route cost tho
same jrr mile, then the Texas route, being
400 miles nearer, will cost just sixteen mil
lions of dollars less than either of tho oth
ers, 3. Tho winter climatt of the 32d paraU
W. is 49 degrees milder than that of its
Northern route, and 30 degrees milder than
thnt of the middle route. If but ono route
is to bo made to tho Pacifio, then Iho que-'
tion Is entirely settled in favor of tha Texas'
route, but wo undertook to show that three
railroads lo the Pacific aro entirely possible)
and practicable. If they were mad, tbo
following will bo a near approximation la
the co'it !
Rouls of the 48lh psrallrl, !,03j mils,
at g lO.iiliO per mile $(l,000,OOO
Route of the 41st psrsllel, 2,033 miles,
at 1 10.000 per mile 1,260,000
Route of Ilie 3-'J parallel, 1 ,li'i I miles,
at ? 10.UUU per milt MJHUjtW
The (jovsrnmrnt Engineers make th
cost of tho Northern routrs much greater)
and we havo no doubt that, owing to the
far less favorable tlimato fur construction,
tho cost per mile will bo greater ; still wo
believe it fair to assume 940,000 per mile
Theofrgregnto cost of those roads will
then bo equal to 227, 120,01)0. Half of
this is 8113,500,000, which we suppose)
the Government will bo willing to furnLb.
At 81 porooro, this equal to 11300,000
acros, or 177,400 sections, or about 30
sections per mito. This is about one-
eiyhlh of the hinds owned by the United
States in the Unsettled regions, aud if, by
this grant, the Railroads to tho Pacifio wers)
actually made, there can be no possible)
doubt that tho Government lands would
advanco in raluo fur beyond tho outlay.
Tho interest on tho bonds, and the tim
necessary to secure business in ab Unsettled
country, may require a larger amount of
lands, but if even one fourth the Govern
ment lands were required, thore is no doubt
that, as a simple government measure, for'
rovenue, tho Treasury would be tho gainer
. If such a grant wore made, ths question
would still remain open, whether any conv
pany would avail themselves of such a
proposition, aud if they did, whether ono ot
all tho routes wonld bo taken, and all tho
roads constructed This Would bo very
doubtful, but this plan would throw them
open to a fair competition, and the respect
live routes would have to bo decided on by
tho best judges in tho world thos$ who
are to invest capital in Ihem,
In this brief review, we have only aimed
to set out the three routes distinctly) and
to show, if they aro mado, in What manner
they can bo accomplished, unless the Gov
ermnont steps in, and undertakes tho mag
nificent enterprise as a Government Worki
Cincinnati Rail-Road Records
IT It is estimated by the lion. Mr
McDoUgal, of California, thai in 1853 there)
arrived at San Francisco $100,000,000
worth of merchandise at an aggregate cost
for freights and insurance of t28,OC0,00Oi
That the passenger travol amounted to
$30,300,000, and government transporta
tion 13,730,000, making an aggregate ot
over $70,000,000 for expenses of traveling,
merchandise, and stores from the Atlantio
lo the Pacifio States. This would bare)
been dono on a Pacific Railroad at less than
one-third the cost.
Tb Hteam Frigate Niagara
This vessel, built under the superinten
dence of Geobqb BtBEns, has gone into
dock for the purpose of being coppered
preparatory to receiving her machinery.-
Upon the charactor of this tho New York
Times remarks :
"Engines for propellers raroly if evef
have leas than two cylinders; the Niagara's
has three, seventy-two inches in diameter
and three feet stroke, which will lie side by
side athwart iho ship. The cylinders weigh
10,400 pounds eacu, anil the condensers
22,000. The crank, crank-shaft and crank
pins Are all forged in one piece, and weigh
20,000 pounds. The crank-shaft is thirty
feet long. The propeller shaft is forged in
four nieces, 17 inches in diameter, and of a
total length of 05 feet, weighing 70,000
pounds. The propeller 18 feet by four
inches in diameter. The pitch of the blades
is 20 feet 0 inches. The surface of both
contains 43 square feet. At the hub, the
blades aro WJ inciie thicK, tapering to l
nch. The weight of tho propeller is
There are four boilers, each is SI feet
long, 11 feet 0 inches deep, arid 15 foethigh,
exclusive of steam chimneys. They aro
constructed on Marty's patent. ach has
6 furnaces, and 2040 vertical composition
tubes 2 inches in diameter; There are 17,-
600 feet of firo surface in them. They
weigh about 4.0 tons each. They will
stand in th ship longthwise, two on each
siue, lar.ng each other to uo ooaiea irom
tbe centre, There will bo a smoke pipe
to two boilers.
"The weight of the engine and boilers ia
about335 tons; the power, lhat of 1,200
horses. The whole will l below tho water
lino, except a small part of the steam pipes.1
TrAde of New Orleans. The exports
of produce from the port of Now Orleans,
coestwiso and to foreign ports, are very
large as will bo scon by the fallowing state
ment of the last quarter of the year 1833,
1854 and 1955 J
This exhibit does not harraonix witb
several recent statements by some of our
cotemporarirs in reLtion to the rapid de
diaa in tho busine of New Oiltaus.