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About The Oregon Argus. (Oregon City [Or.]) 1855-1863 | View This Issue
THE OREGON AltCUS,
ruiLwiiico tvxav stTuaotr moimno,
BY WILLIAM L. ADAMS.
Office-Good's Building, Main st. EJito
rial uooin in hrst story.
TFRMS-Ths Aoui Kill b, furnUtud at
lit Dollar per-Annum or Sit Months
Jar Thru Dollar:
t2T Nt Sutiicriptions nrthti for Uu than Six
VtT AT pnpn diteoniinuti until all tmitragtt
urtpaw, unlets at tne option oj the puttlither.
Ouo smuiro (IS lines or loss) una insertion, $.1,00
" " two Inrtiiim, I, (m.
" " threo insertions,
Each auhaeniient liuct:nii. ai nh
lleaaoneble deductions to Uium who aJverli.e by
Tim raorxntToa or tiik ARGL'3 h iiawt
Jn Inform the public-that he has jmt received a
farce stock of J Hi TYI'K.mH nil,r n.
iiiK iimUTinl, and will be in the speedy recent if
uuiuuu PMiiru io mi ma requirements or th lo
Mlity. IUNDIIII.Ls, POSTICUS, BLANKS,
CAUDS, CIltCUL.UM, I'AM I'll LET-WOllK
ana ouier km.n, dune to orJor, on short notice.
Fir thi At gut.
Hlate Government. .
Mr. JilorT)EAn Sir : Sojtiucli confi
donee is pined by the advocates of a
State govornnient in tlio conclusiveness of
tlio land argument tint I desire to givo a
till further answer, although I believe my
first lo be a complete refutation. I propose
to admit, for tlio sake of argument, thai
the Stato of Oregon could locate this grant,
when our title to it is perfected, on vuluablo
lands. It is proposed, in order to swell
the revenue arising from the side of thoso
lands, to bold ihem up to the highest price
that can be extorted from purchasers. Is
it reasonable to suppose that emigrants will
perform a journey, perilous in Itself, of
over two thousand miles, simply for the
purpose of purchasing lands from the State
of Oregon, and that too at exorbitant rates,
when the publio domain can bo had in nny
of tho Territories nt the simple rates of
ettlcment and cultivation t None but the
rich could come and secure a farm, and
and ihey nro the very persons who have no
inducements to come. There is a class of
meritorious persons, with limited means,
who have strong inducements to changp
their residence, hoping thereby to improve
their condition. These persons by th op
eration of this beautiful scheme would be
expelled the country I and Oregon would
be a State of landed aristocruts. Could
tfioro be a measure adopted replete with
more consummate fully, fraught with more
mischievous conscquonccs than this I
Was not the policy good that granted do
nations to actual settlers in this Territory ?
Why then abnegate this policy in regard to
lands which the future- State may possess?
To do it is to disregard (he warnings of
eminent statesmen, nad to net heedless of
past experience. -Gen. Jackson recom
mended that as soon as the publio debt was
paid, to the payment of which tbeso lands
were pledged, that they should cease 'to be
a source of revenue,' and that they should
be disposed of chiefly with reference to
settlement and cultivation. This is high
authority, and it is sustained by the lustre
of names equally as great. Edmud Burke
recommended the application of this policy
to the Crown lands of England, and sus
tained the recommendation with arguments
Bound, rational, and unanswerable, Thos.
II. Benton is now and always has been a
distinguished advocato of this policy. Mr.
King, the lute Vice President of the United
Stales, while chairman of the committee on
publio lands, in a masterly report made by
him A D. 1632, showed that the gross pro
coeds arising from the sale of the public
lands from tho time of their cession to the
Government to that time hud not equaled
the expenditures with reference to those
lands, the expenditures being $49,701,280
17, the gross receipts arising from the sale
of lands being 838,386,624 13, leaving a
balance of expenditures over receipts of
eleven millions and upwards. In the light
of tho ,0 J0'' facts wna' hecomes of the
'splendid t'.cvCnue that tho future State of
Oregoa expect W derive from thef sale of
'500,000 acres ?
Again, the sale of lands is, but a single
operation connected with an expensive ab
sorbing machinery, and the proceeds if any
are-liable to be carried off. by defaulters or
'spent in the various schemes of folly and
'extravagance, and gives PO assurance of
'cultivation, or increase of population, the
'the ouly sure basis of wealth and power in
;b republic ; while on the other hand settle
Wnt brfng population, and cultivation
Vealth, and wealth gives the ability to pay
taxes and to support the complicated ma
fchinerv of government. Ohio, Kentucky,
a3 Tennessee early adopted this principle,
and disused cf their lands in donations,
pre-emptions, and sales at too cents per
acre. Ana to .w.s wisa puncy mv v
much of their present greatness, properity,
and wealth. Where Would they be now.l
had they conceived the luminous idea of
r r r,
P.AIInaa4 I..- " '
making a fortune off their fellow-citizons
by selling lands to them at exorbitant rates I
For thi Argus.
Mr. Eaitor As a member of the Order
just established in our city I thought ii
perhaps not entirely inappropriate that
some expression be given as to our princi
ples, and tho niolivea inducing us to sup-
portjiy all our influence this ( without
loubt) laudable enierpriae. The platform
on which wc stand is the mutual agreement
not to make, buy, soil, or use in any form,
as a beverage, nny thing that will intoxicate.
This pledge is simple, and need no expla
nation. In examining our list of mem
bership, perhaps the query will naturally
arise, why all those strictly temperate men
need tuko this pledge and join this society!
Surely no selfish motives urge them to 'hi
course. I hey need induliro no fear thai
they will fall victims to this great scourm
ui our race, intemperance, iiiey are an
imated alone by the desire te aid sufforina
humnni'y. If they,, by tho sacrifice of
time and means, can rescue one victim who
otherwise would fill a drunkard's crave.
will t bey not be richly rownrded I None
need consider ibis institution as a dispar
agement to olbor efforts now being made
for the same end. Like the Apostle Tnul,
becoming all things lo all men, if by any
means we mny save some. Wo have the
testimony of the past that this society, with
the influences it has brought to bear, has
reclaimed those who seemed utterly lost,
and when all other means had failed.
Knowing this, we ask is it not the duty of
all who favor the cause of temperance to
lend tho measure of .their influence to
strengthen the bands of love which are to
save their fellow. men while all who do
sire purity of heart and lifo should rally
under our standard, for our watchword is
purity, supported by love for each other and
fid. lity to our principles. The ladies are
expected toco-operate with us in this great
work, for assuredly their influence is pow-
rful, and their presence and encourage
ment will go far toward carrying this cause
forward triumphantly. Hero rises from
the depths of memory a stanza of nn old
son; heard in childhood, which, though
somewhat unpolished, I will quote :
"The ladies, too, God blew Hum all,
AY ill help roll on the teinpenincv bull,
For whether 'tis temperance, love, or song,
Their motto is, 'we'll go it strong.'"
Should these few disconnected thoughts
awaken in any a desire to understand this
matter more fully, or lead to an expression
from some one capable of treating it prop.
rly, I am content. Jos. D. Locey.
Oregon City, March 20, 1856.
Telegraphic coiumnnlcaUfln between North
America aid Europe.
The subject of establishing a sub-mnrine
telegraph line between the new and old
world, has been a favorite topic of interest
on both sides of tho ocean since the success
ful working of this medium of communica
tion over immense distances, has establish
ed its complete practicability and useful
ness. Several sub-mnrine telegraphic wires
are in constant Use, connecting parts of
Europe. The first of these was under the
British Channel, between France and Eng
land ; then followed others on portions of
the European shores of the Mediterranean,
but the longest of them at present is the
line under the waters of the Black Sea,
which leads from the Allied Camp in the
Crimea, a distance of some throe hundred
miles, across the Black Sea to Varna, in
Bulgaria, a European province of Turkey.
It will be remembered that the first attempt
at connecting the eastern and western hem
ispheres by the telegraphic wire was made
by an expedition from New York, late in
the past summer, and that this work, soon
after its commencement, was forced to kus
peosionj owing to the breaking of the cable
which contained the wire, before any con
siderable distance had been laid. This
project contemplated the connection of tho
two continents at their nearest point of ap
proach, about latitude fifty, which are at
Newfoundland and the west coast of Ire
land, a distance of 1800 miles. Since the
first attempt has passed, the attention of
scientific men has been attracted to this
subject, in regard not only to the risk at
tending the laying down of so long a stretch
without a point of rest above the stirfuco
ef the ocean, but to the immense impoit
ance of establishing an independent line,
subject to control this side, and also tu
make it the means of connection with other
V" continent of Euroj.
- . . .
( tuvmaii a
Haawa "nasal af Carwacte.
OREOON PITT, ORBOOW TERRITORY, IATPRPAY, MARCH 39, Hgg.
There have been three routes proaosed
for a line. Tho first reached along tho
north westernmost port iona of this com incnt,
touching the projecting points of the ley
regions of the North Atlantio from Labra
dor to Norway. Much shorter sea dis
tances would occur by this route than by
any other, but there were other linpedi.
menu peculiar lo that Arctio region which
might obstruct the good working of such
a routo. The next plan was the one es
sayed the Inst autumn, fiom Cape Race,
the southernmost point of Newfoundland,
to a point on the southwest coast of Ireland.
The ocoan stretcht as above stated, by this
line would be 1900 miles. One feature
fHvorublo lo the route from Cape Race is
found in the conviction which prevails that
the Grand Batiks of Newfoundland, or a
imilar sub-marine elevation, extends across
tho Atlantic from this point to tho coast of
Ireland ; but even this feature, if admitted
to be the cne, is considered by semu scien
tific people as of doubtful advantage, inas
much as it is believed there is no special
utility in the shallowness of water for the
purjose of laying down and protecting the
The third line, and one which thorough
ly recommends itself on many accounts,
and to which no practical objections have
yet been started, is the route from Capo
Raco to Florcs, the westernmost of the
Axoros, or Western Islands, distant 1080
miles. From this point to St. Michaels, the
easternmost ofthose islands, it is 300 miles,
and from thence to leading points on the
western coast of Europe, it would bo less
than a thousand miles ; to the mouths of
the Tagus, the distance is only 800 miles.
These islands belong to Portugal, so that
for all practical purposes they might 'be
considered, in almost every contingency,
as a neutral spot. In addition to the other
advantages of this line over any other, is
the opportunity which so central a point,
as the Azores are in mid Atlantic, would
afford of laying down radinting independent
telegraphic lilies to different prominent
points in Europe, the length of which would
not bo more than one-half as long as the
prornsed route from Cnpe Race to Ireland.
The permanent benefit, under all cir
cumstances, to this country of an indepen
dent line with Europe, resting as it were
on neutral ground, for its halfway station,
cannot be too strongly urged.
Singular Arithnktical Fact. Any
nu in be j of figures you may wish to mulii
ply by 5, will give the same result if divi
ded by 2, a much quicker operation ; but
you must remember to annex a cipher to
tho answer when there is no remainder;
whatever the remainder mny be, annex a S
to the answer. Muhiply 404 by 5, and the
answer will be 2320 ; divide the same num
ber by 2, and you have 232, and, as there is
no remainder, you add a cipher. Now
take 357 and multiply by S, the answer is,
1785. On dividing this by 2, there is a
178 and a remainder, you therefore place a
3 at the end of the line, and the result is
again 1785. It is a quicker way, however,
to nflix a cipher to the number :o be mul
tiplied when you commence and divide by
2.- Multiplying by 5 is multiplying by the
half of 10. The same is already multipli
ed by 10 by affixing a cipher, then divdo by
2 gives half of the multiplication of the
sum by 10, which is, of course, the multi
plication by 5.
JC3T They are trying to burst some big
guns at Richmond. The TI7tsays: "The
lnrge guns made at the Tredegar Works in
this city for two of the new steam frigntes,
have been tested by Uncle Sam's officers
and proved satisfactory. Not or.e has
burst during the trial, although subjected to
every test known to the most experienced
gunners. For a day or two past, they
have been firing two formidable pieces re
cently cast by order of Government. They
design firing each of these guns 1,000 times
successively with the usual charge, and if
they stand that test, they will increase the
charge and continue firing until they burst.
The object of this experiment is to ascertain
in which port of the gun the explosion is
most likely to occur, the metal having been
graduated in thickness upon a new plan."
gjf Usual Knapp, tho last of Washin
ion's Life Guard, died at Newbtir?, N. Y.,
lately, age 00 years. He was buried with
OCT The number of the venerable and
patriotic band of revolutionary pensionnrs
grows lrs and less. It is now reduced lo
720. The number of revolutionary wid
ows receiving pensions is 5,552.
af lalaea roMli-m of iiihi.
aaa Star, aaa HlrtasOi
Iris IIiix, March Bib, 1 866.
Mr. AtliimtRt I aviid you soma lines writ
ten by a friend. I think there loo good to loaa.
They were written rather as a continuation of the
subject of the lut piece I sent you. Viola.
TIi author headed them
Alt True Beanty la from aaa will lletara
I love the flowers thai bre athe their twovta on air,
And laugh In ninhiiia with their uniting eyea,
For In Iheir breath there's something io like prayer,
The flower may die, but still in odon rieo
Like the pure orUou from rapt soul given
The knee llmt bent may nioldcr, but the prayer'i
Lock at the flower faded, crushed, and faflc-D,
Its withered leaflet! weltered lo the wind,
And all ita beauty fled ) ean thia be all, on
Which to Ai the imperishable mind f
Would memory's genu be treasured with such care,
If all the light ilie baa ia but from things that wen.7
Look at the chain how beautiful ! On earth
The Aower fades, but lives in memory
Takes root r-prinm up behold another birth I
WIiom life's coeu.ua! with eternity.
The flower before imperfect lifts its fragrant head,
And that a immortal now, that perished o'er the
Tia but the germ of beauty which we see below,
Aud 'twill not germinate in earth's foul aire ;
Tie only where celestial breexesbluw
That Ita development perfection bears.
You search earth's fairest grounds, but ever search
Some favored spot to Cud untarnished by a stain.
When Sdeu bloomed freeh from its Maker's band,
No flower was there but symbolised its source ;
Since sin stretched forth its desolating wand,
Mo flower remain but testifies the curse.
All, all must die! Thus thundered the divine
And mingling dust, and tears, confirm Its certainty.
And ia there nothing beautiful en earth T
The sunlight, music, fragrance, what are these?
Is there no excellence in moral worth T
Most truly, all poteen a poicer to pleait.
The affection, when 'tia sanctified by heavenly
Is truly beautiful, but earth is not its place.
Like the pure beam proceeding; from the sun,
Awhile itemilea o'er hill and flowery plain,
Makes earth look glad this moment then it gone,
Returning quickly to ita source again i
So lingers beauty here a moment, and then fliee
With lifting tuubeams upward to its native skiea.
Who Mnrdered lUrhard Donate 1
About the end of the eighteenth century,
whenever a student of the Mariscbal Col
lege, Aberdeen, Scotland, incurred the
displeasure of the humbler citizens, he was
assailed with the question, " Who murder.
ed Dowuit " Reply and rejoinder gener
ally brought on a collision between ''Town
and Gown," although the young gentlemen
were accused of what was chronologically
impossible. People have a right to be
angry at being stigmatized as murderers,
when their accusers have probability on
theirside; but the "taking ofF" of Downie
occurred when the gownsmen, so maligned,
were in their swaddling-clothes.
Dut there was a time when to bo branded
as an accomplice in the slaughter of Rich
ard Downie, fuade his blood run lo the
cheek of many a youth, and sent him home
to his books thoughtful and subdued.
Downie wassacrist or janitor at Mariscbal
College, One of his duties consisted in se
curing the gate by a certain hour, previous
to which all the students had to assemble
in the common hall, where Latin prayer
was delivered by tho principal. Whether
in discharging this function, Downie was
more rigid than his predecessors in office,
or whether be becamo stricter in the per
formance of it at one time than another,
cannot now be ascertained ; but there can
be no doubt he closed Ihe gate with austere
punctuality, and that those who werd not
in the common hall within a minute of the
prescribed lime, were shut out and were af
terwards reprimanded and fined by the
principal and professors. The students
became irritated at this strictness, and took
every petty means of annoying the sacrist j
he, in his turn, applied the screw at other
points of academic routine, and a fierce war
soon began to rage between the collegians
and the humble functionary. Downie took
care that in all his proceedings he kept
within the strict letter of the law ; but his
opponents were no, so careful, and the de
cisions of the rulers were uniformly Against
them, and in favor of Downie. Reprimands
and fines having failed in producing dun
subordination, rustication, suspension, and
even tho extreme sentence of expulsion
had to be put in force, and in the end law
and order prevailed. But a secret and
deadly grudge continued to bo entertained
against Dowuie. Various schemes of re
venge were thought of.
Dowuie was, in common with the teach
ers and tho taught, enjoying the leivure of
, HtBMt.nir iu.
Five Dollar a ear.
the short New Year's acalion: Ike
pleasure being, no doubt, gently enhanced
by tho annoyances to which he had been
subject during the recent bickerings ; when,
as be was one eveningseatcd with his family
lu liisoftiuiul residence at the gate, a mes
senger informed him that a gentleman at s
neighboring hotel wished to speak to him.
Downie obeyed the summons, and wns
ushured from one room ) another, till al
l.-ngth be found himself in a large apart
mont hung with black, and lighted by a
solitary candle. After waiting for some
lime in this strange place, about fifty fig
ures, also dressed in black, and with Had
mask on their faces, presented themselves-
They arranged themselves in the form of
a court, and Downie was given to under
stand that he was about to be put upon his
A judge took bis seat on the bench : a
clerk a public prosecutor sat below; a jury
was empanelled; and witnesses and spec
tators stood around. Downie at fir.t set
down the whole affair as a joke J but the
proceedings were conducted with such per
sistent gravity, that, in spite of himself, be
began to believe in tho genuine mission of.
tho awful tribunal. The clerk read an in
dictment, charging bim with conspiring
against the liberties of the students; wit
nesses were examined in due form ; the
publio prosecutor addressed the jury ; and
the judge summed up.
"Gentlemen," sajd Downie, "the joke has
been carried fur enough : it is getting late,
and my wife and family will be anxious
about me. If I have been too strict with
you in times past, I am sorry for it ; and I
assure you I will take more caie in future.''
"Gentlemen of the jury," said the judge,
without paying the slightest attention to
this appeal, "consider your verdict : if you
wish to retire, do so."
The jury retired. During their absenco,
the most profound silence wss observed ;
and except renewing the solitary candle
that burnt beside the judge, tbore was not
tho slighest movement.
The jury returned and recorded a vordict
of "Guilty I"
The judge solemnly assumed a large
black cap, and addressed the prisoner:
"Richard Downte 1 The jury havo unan
imously found you guilty of conspiring
agninst the just liberty and immunities of
the students of Marischal College. You
have wantonly provoked aud insulted those
inoffensive lieges for some months, and
your punishment will assuredly be condign.
You must prepare for death I In fifteen
minutes the sentence of the court will be
carried into effect."
The judge placed bis watch on the bench.
A block, an axe, and a bag of saw dust
were brought in the centre f the room.
A figure more terrible than any that had
yet appeared, came forward, and prepared
to act tho part ofdoomstcr.
"It was now past midnight. Thero was
no sound audible save the ominous ticking
of the judge's watch. Downie became more
and more alarmed.
"For God's sake 1 gentlemen!" said the
terrified man, "let me go home. I promise
that you never again shall have cause for
"Richard Downie," remarked the judge
"you are vainly wasting the few moments
that are left you on earth. You are in the
hands of those who demand your life. No
human power can save you. Attempt to
utter one ory, you are seized, and your
doom is completed before you can Utter
another 1 Every ono hero present has sworn
a solemn oath never to reveal the preceed-
ings of this night ; they are known to none
but ourselves; and when the object for
which we have met is accomplished, we
shall disperse, unknown to any one. Pre
pare, then, for death l other five minutes
will be allowed you but no more 1"
The unfortunate man, in an agony Of
deadly terror, raved and shrieked for mercy;
but the avengers paid no heed to his cries.
His fevered trembling lips then moved as
if io silent prayer ; for he felt that the brief
space between bim and eternity was but a
few more tickings of lhatomiiioua watch
"Now!" exclaimed the judge.
Four persons stepped forward and seized
Downie, On whose features a cold, clammy
sweat had burst forth. They bared his
neck, and made bim kneel before the block
"Strike ,'" exclaimed the judge.
T he executioner struck the axe on the
floor ; an assistant on the opposite side
lifted at tho same moment a wet towel,
and struck il violently across the neck of
the recumbent criminal. A loud laugh sa
nounced that the joke had at lut come lo
Uut Downie responded not to the up
Thoy laughed again ; but still lie moved
not. They lifleJ him, and Dowuie was
Fright Lad killed him as cft-ctually as
if the axe of a real hcanmti hud severed
his head from his body.
Il wns a tragedy to till. The medical
sludenU tried to open a vein, but all was
over ; and the conspirators had now lo be
think thimsehts of safety. They now in
reality swore an oath among themselves ',
and tho affrighted young men, carrying
their disguises with them, left the body of
Downie lying in tho hotel.
One of their number told tho landlord
that their entertainment wrs not yet quite
over, and that they diJ not with tho indi
vidual who was left in the room to bo dis
turbed for tomo hours. This was to givo
them all time to escape.
Next morning, tho body was found.-"
Judiciul inquiry was instituted, but no satis
factory result could be arrived ut. The
corpse of poor Downie exhibited no marks
of violence iuternul or external. The ill
will between him and tho students was
known ; it wasalseknown that the students
ad hired apartments in the hotel for a
theatrical representation : Downiu had
been sent for by them ; but beyond this,
nothing was known. No noise had been
heard, aud no proof of ninrJcr could bo ad
duced, Of two hundred atudents of the
college, teho could point out the guilty
or suspected fifty I Moreover, tho students
scattered over the city, and lite magistrates
themselves had many of their own families
among the number, nnd it was not desirqlk
to go into the affair loo minutely.
Downie a widow and family were provided
for, and his death remained a mystery ; un
til, about fifteen years after its occurrence,
a gentleman on his death bed disclosed tho
whole particulars, and avowed himself to
have belonged lo tlio obnoxious class who
The Valon of tUe Allaalle ana Pacific-
lalor-Uccaalc Hblp Canal.
An able article in relation to tho iuter-
occanic ship cnnal, intended to unito tho
Atlantic nnd Pacific at the Isthmus of l)a
rien, is given in tho United States Xauli-
calMaratine. It is from the pen of Mr.
Geo. W. Scrrell, Civil Engineer. It has
been ascertained hy elaborate- surveys, that
the Atrato is a broad and deep river, hav
ing for seventy miles from its mouth art
average depth of forty-seven foot, while its
clianni 1-wny for the same distunce is from
eight hundred to twelve hundred feet in
width. It empties into the Gulf of Dariuti
by nine estuaries, whero there are bars
formed of- sedimentary deposits and the
water is only four at five foel deep. Tlio
bay itself it very ample, and deep enough
for the largest vessels. .The line of the con
templated connexion between the two oceans
mut ascend the Atrnto for sixty-throe miles
and then enters tho Valley of u tributary
known as the Truando, which is followed
for thirty-six miles. This is not navigable
for vessels drawing twelve feet of water, for
thirty-eight miles from its confluence with
the Atrato ; and for thirty-six miles of this
distance it is intended to deepen and widen
the Truando, and then to make nn oj n cut
through rock to tlio Pacific Ocettn. This
cut will averego ninety-six feet deep, ex
cepting a tunnel thrco and a quarter miles
in length, and tho cnnal is projected to bo
two hundred feet wide and thirly feet deep
at extreme low tide. At tho point of junc
tion with the Truando, tho Atrulo is 15'',
about the mean level of the two oceans,
and when the cut is complete, it will have
two mouths, one emptying into the Atlantis
and the Other into the Pucih'c. Tho river
flows at the rate of two miles and a half
per hour, and this rate will not Is materi
ally changed by the construction of th
It is slated alo, that all tho materials
necessary for tho work may be found in tho
adjacent country, except metuls, while an
excellent harbor already exists nt the At
lantic terminus, nnd on tho Pacific but lit
tle is required lo make the harbor thero
equal to any on the coast for safety and ac
cessibility. The distinctive features of this
route, says Mr. Serrell, are an intcr-occanic
connexion, having depth nnd width suffix
cienttopass abreast tho. largest vessels
now afloat, and upon which no locks or
other obstructions of any kind will occur,
and that there are goo J harbors at either
end- The country through which t!i 3 line
passes, were the construc tions and .deepen
ing of the Truando have to be done, is ery
healthy nnd productive; wl.ilu en iha
Atrato, the only unhealthy part of tho
route, there ia no work to be done, except
at the bars of tho mouth, arid here the cli
maUt is comparatively salubrious, from thn
constant sea brtcze. Mr. Srrrell estitnateH
the CO-t of the work, predicated on the
survey of Capt William Kennish, at otu
hundred and forty-seven millions of dollar,
I which is concurred in by several of tbe nut
! eminent engineers ia the cutintrj .