The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, April 01, 1879, Page 113, Image 18

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    April, 1879.
the winged female, back view ; greatly magni-1
tied, aa uie natural uze m shown in the short
line on the left
The phylloxera spreads in several ways. The
wingless inseot is said, by Prof. Riley, to travel
over the surface from vine to vine, or beneath
the ground where roots interlock ; while in the
winged form it may fly or be carried by the
wind 16 or 20 miles, and, under exceptional
conditions, even more. Through man's agency
by oommerce in plants or cuttings, it may bo
carried indefinite distances. Therefore some
governments, as the Australian, Algerian, Italian
and German, have prohibited the introduction
of vines from infested regions.
Signs of the disease are given by
Prof. Kiley as follows: "A vine attacked by
phylloxera has the more 6brous roots covered
with little nodosities or swellings, and a careful
examination of the swellings during the grow
ing season will disclose numerous yellowish lice
of different ages and groups of brighter yellow
eggs, barely visiblo to the naked eye. The
swellings in time rot, and the lice settle on the
larger roots. Vines that aro more susceptible
to the disease gonerally show oxternal signs the
second year of attack, in a sickly yellowish ap
pearance of the foliage and in stunted growth ;
while the third year they frequently perish,
when on examination the lice are no longer to
lie found ; they have left or died, and all the
liner roots have decayed and wasted away."
The time to make the examination is as soon as
the first signsof decreasing vigor appears. It is
true, as a correspondent argues on another page,
that sick vinos may arise from other cause than
the phylloxera, but it should be looked for, and
for those who are not sharp sighted, we can but
offer, as wo have done before, the use of our
eyes and mioroscope, to any reader who sends
us suspected vines.
SrONTANKOVH CoMBtlHTION. K. Bing, of Riga,
has experimented with different materials; wad
ding, raw llax, hemp, the waste from silk, wool
and cotton spinning as well as spongo, anil fin
ally wood dust as found in any cabinet-maker's
shop. They saturated with various fluids, via.,
oils, fresh and in a gummy stato ; turpentine,
Iietroleum, various varnishes, etc. All the
tibrous materials took fire when saturated with
any of these oils or with mixtures of the same.
Sponge and wood dust, on the contrary, proved
to be entirely harmless. Combustion ensuod
moat rapidly with 17 grains of waddiug ami i7
grains of a strong od varnish, in 37 minutes;
while 200 grains of wsahed cotton waste, of
whioh a portion was saturated with 750 grains
of strong oil varnish and the remainder wrapped
about it, required almost I t hours. Thesu ma
terials were placed in a well-sheltered spot and
subjected to a heat of from 18 to 40 C. Milk
did not Dame up, but slowly charred. Hmall
quantities seem to take lire sooner than large.
Snow Illumination. -During a recent snow
storm, in the early afternoon, an interesting ex
periment was tried in Paris. At the moment
when the sky was darkened by snow, the elce.
trio lamps were lighted in the square of the
Theatre Fraucais. The reflection of the light
from the snow-Hakes immediately dispelled the
darkness and produced a very pleasing effect
It in proposed to try a similar experiment in
misty weather, and if the light can penetrate
even to the distance of 20 meters (6.1.0 feet),
.lablochkoff lamps will be established at points
where the passing is most frequent. 1m Mon
ilm. Klhtho-Chmii'ai. Action Unimxh I'm
"ml In a series of about AO experimenU, each
of which continued for several hours, ami du
ring whioh pressures of 100, 200, 300, etc, at
ii'iapheree were maintained, A. Bouvet found
the following laws: I. The decomposition of
water by a current is independent of its pres
sure. 2. The quantity of electricity necessary
to decompose a given weight of water ia setuu
bly the same, whatever may be the pressure.
The laws are in perfect aocordance with the
mechanical theory of beat
TBI tsthmits rtv DARfJEN 0AKAL
The old problem of a canal cutting the
Isthmus of Uarion is now assuming new life
through the persistent inquiry of the French.
The results attained by the last body of French
engineers sent out to study tho feasibility of
the canal have been published. Their report is
being followed up by French writers who take
up the resultant benetita of the canal and adorn
them with rosy colors. The latest of these views
is that of the Kronomulr Fro mi This
journal has been figuring the sailing time be
tween different commercial centers, which
court the Chinese trade, and the commits
tions sro found to bo vastly in favor of our
Kastcrn seaboard over Kngland. Our Fastem
merchants anil manufacturers are pushing their
Kngliah competitors dose to tho wall in many
porta of the world, and thoy will make haste to
avail themselves of any advantages which they
may find in assailing the eastern coast of Asia
with their merchandise.
The French journal, to which we have alluded,
gives statistics showing the setual differences
111 distances and time lietwecu voyages from the
English channel to Pacific and Chinese ports,
ana from New York to the same poiuta. The
advantages are in favor of the latter, being to
San Frauuisoo, Callao, Valparaiso sod Sandwich
Islands, four snd a half days, or from .'IJ , to
H" and 8' days, or 7, to Shanghai. If an
isthmus canal be opened, the difference fur sail
ing vessels would be 24 days, or from XI to
M from New York to the four places named,
ami 22) days, or 28, to Shanghai. Tho aver
age gain to New York veasuls would be 2,000
milos, or 10 dsys over Kuglish and French com
petitors. Attention is then called to the in
creased use of steamers since the upehiiig of the
Sues ceual. The same result would follow by
the isthmus route. The difference then in favor
of New York for steamers, which is now very
.....II ulluli ..,,1 1., .., U
n.o...., h ... .....j ,,,
to '&, would, with the canal, lie, to San rrau
cisco, 12 out of 29 days, 41 .; Callao, 12 out of
21, or 87; Valparaiso, 12 out of 27, or M fc
the Sandwich Islands, 12 out of 3A, or 34,. aa
advantage of 44 on the average for New York,
simply doubling the commercial advantages to
the United States with the Pacific.
It will be greatly to tho glory of the French
engineers and capitalists if they succeed at
Hum n, where so many commercial Miwers, in
cluding our own governmeut, have ciplnred
and turned hack in dismay. Although, n
should dislike, ou general principles, to see any
foreign nation win control of any artery of Ma,
meroe which will he so iniHirtant to this
country as the isthmus canal, still if ths pro
ject goes much longer by defsult by our inao
tivitv, their can In nu cause for complaint.
Perhaps it would he as well to hsve tho French
own the canal as any other foreign iwsr, and
so long ss ws get the commerc ial Innelit, per'
haps we can afford to let the Frem h raise the
money and reap the glory.
Ikon sMi Siui on. Some time ago there was
taken from the ground, we forget iu what locality,
a metallic ingot having the look of iron, liut,
notwithstanding lU long contact with im.iature,
showing no trace of osiilatioii. Prof J. law
renoe Smith, who lately analysed It, lound it
to be a sillicide of iron, containing 17 of
sdlicide. This compound is so inalterable that
it will remain without change 111 nitric acid of
I 40 density, or in bromine. Hydrochloric acid
affects it somewhat The history of the ingot
is not known, but it thought to owe Its je
lata to son aootdeol in the manufacture of
iron M. iHuibree, oommeoUng on NhlM
French Academy, staled that, notwithstanding
vary snort, it had wit betm found poeeibisto
incorporate mora than sight per mot uf allien
with iron. M. Haani Claire IhrvUla wsa struck
with the aiialogy of the product la qoeelw to
the silhcide of mangaaose prodaosd some years
ago by M. Bruannr. WmwwiiV C'icwuerr,.
Ths question ss to how life is affected by the
different colors of the sieetnim haa at various
times engaged attention, and plant lifs has
apparently been more studied In this respect
than animal. Two distinct series of researches
lately deaorilwd to the French Academy seem
to afford some fresh insight into the matter, snd
it is interesting to eniiqiare them together,
One series, by M. Bert, was on plants; the
other, by M. Yung, ou the eggs of certain
animals. M. Bert kept plants within a glass
trough inelosure, containing au alcoholic solu.
tion of ehloroiihyl (very frequently reoswsd),
and csposnl them thus in a good diffusa light
The solution, which waa very weak, and in a
very thin layer, intercepted little more than the
characteristic region of the red In the spectrum.
This excluded part then, waa proved to he the
iudiaieueable jtart of white light for the plsnta
immediately ceased to grow, and before long
died. It ia in this rod region aa M. Tlmirigsali
has lately shownl tbst the greatest reduction ol
carlsinie acid takea place. If red raya are kept
from the leaf the iilaut can no longer increase
its weight, it ia reduced to oonaiiming reserves
previously accumulated, eshausla itself, and
This of the spectrum, however, though
necessary, Is not sufficient Behind red glass
plant- may 110 duubt llvu long, but they get
excessively elongated and slander, and then
leaves become narrow and little colored. This
is owing to the slajeliee of the blue violet rays.
Thus each region of the -p. . triim "nutalns parts
that plsy an active mlr in the life nf planta.
Now turn to animals. M Yung has espsrC
mrnted during three yesrs on the effect nf dlf
(urent sielrsl colors on the development of the
eggs of frogs (tho common frog snd the edible
Irogl, ol trout sun ol fresh wster snails It
waa found that violet light favored the devalop
inent very remarkably , blue light ...00 a nest
ill this respe, t, and la followed by yellow light
and white light Iwhlch two gave nearly similar
effects). Ou the other hand, red snd green sp
pear to lie positively injurious, lor It waa lound
impossible to get complete development of the
egga 111 these colors. Ilsrkneas does not prevent
development, but contrary to what some hsve
sflirined, retards it. Tadioloe nf the same sise,
and subjected to the same physical condttiuna
previous to eisninent, died mora quickly of
inanition when deprived of food In violet and
blue raya than in the others l,nmlim 7'ims
F.rrwr 0J Fi rs ran u ok YauttANi.r,
(i now ill. I luring last summer, I'aateur, a,
cording to ComaVs ,siwms, mad, anine interest
lllg aiieriineule on the r (feet of i , etriclly on
vegetable and froit growths Ou Ilia 4th ol
August, he en. I.N,, . I some vine Beta III hot I. Is. hermetically sealed. The gratm ripened
als.ut October lllth. I. rapes that had ripened
in the open air fermented In boa lb in m hours,
in a temperature varying between 2.1' and .Hi
(77 to M I 1. bat thi that rlpennd under
glsaa remained unchanged. This result, which
hail I-en predicted by Pasteur, lends strong
confirmation to hia views. Again, on July "HI.,
W77, M Cadi planted three kernels of maite
under each of two taatl glsaaas. The weight aj
the kernels, the kind ul earth, snd the quanta,
of wster supplied dally, were equalised aa nearly
aa possible. On August 1st, ths kernels sprouted
I luring two daya the growth waa nearly the same
under both glasses, flu the third day the plants
in eleotrlssn air began to develop nwifs rapidly
than the other. On August Intl., ths following
measurements were taken, from Iks base of the
stalk to the tstremily of the upper leaves
Plants in alntnesd air, 17 em. (II AO ia ); plants
In ordinary air, H esa. 1 1 15 in. ).
1 iiiniasu, fuf the Hret Mass sines her ad
mission tii the Causa, waa unrepresented la Use
Hones of ItepreaaaUtsvss al the opening of the
special session.