The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, March 01, 1878, Page 104, Image 8

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    104
THE WEST SHORE
March.
PHILOSOPHY of SPONTANEOUS OOM
BUSTION.
Mr. Chu. W. Vincent, in the Journal of tin
Society of Art, ha a long MHT on spontaneous
combustion in factories, ships, etc. From it
we make tho tollowing extracts concerning tlie
philosophy of spontaneous combustion, which
deserves tliu most careful consideration from all
manufacturers:
Strictly speaking, there is DO such phenoni
enon as spontaneous combustion. The iutlam
ination 01 various organic aul inorganic sub
stances without the immediate contact of any
i 'mi.-. I matter, which lias in veil rise to the
term, is nevertheless, as certainly the result of
some direct act or acts which can lie accurately
traced, as is the firing ol a lueifer match when
Btruck OH I rough surface.
It need uot be a matter of surprise that
bodies containing so much bound-up heat as do
the vegetable libers of all kinds, more particu
larly hay, cotton, etc., coal of all kinds, oily
rags, greasy sawdust, varnish rags used by
painters uud polUhus, the waste at railway
lamp stores, et :., should be particularly liable
to take lire when stored in hulk.
Spontaneous combustion of these substances
can only take plan when they are so packed
that small increments of heat may be to rod up.
If they are freely exposed to the air, the heat
evolving action which goes on with it maybe
increased rapidly; but, as when the hand is
waved in mobile air, the infinitesimal blows arc
free to rebound and icact over so large a space
that their effect is dissipated. Hut when their
striking space is limited they act like the struck
air inclosed in the lire syringe, their heat mo
tioii is iutensitied by concentration, and ulti
mately throws the whole moss into such coin
motion that the moving power of thu molecules
is manifested as light as well as heat,
Hut there must he n beginning to this heat
motion. Oiled rags and bodies of that kind
derive the initial movement from the oxidation
of the oil. Perfectly dry vegetable lilier at or
dinary temiieratures oxidizes extremely slow; it
is practically indestructible by atmospheric oxi
dation. Mummy cloths jiossess inucli strength
after tlie lapse of two or three thousand years.
Oils, however, are formed at the expense of
still larger amount of heat than vegetable liber;
the elements comprising them are combined
much more loosely, and they are, consequently,
ready to form more stable compounds, and re
lease their hound-up heat on very slender prov
ocation. Oils absorb oxygen with great avid
ity, becoming viscid, apd in case of drying oils,
solid. In doing this they give out heat, which
is due partly to the condensation of the oxy
gen, and partly to the carbon and hydrogen of
the oil having, by combination with the gas,
lost part of their energy; in. fact, they have
been partially burnt.
A FREAK OP NATURE.
This liixi IMfura was found Novtinbcr 37th,
upon the line of the narrow go age railroad now
being constructed between San .lose and Banta
Clara, at l,ns Gatos, Santa Clara county, Cali
fornia, near the foothills of Santa Cruz moun
tains, it is 38 inches long, of uncertain age,
but perhaps only a few mouths old, since full
grow u snakes attain a length of from six to seven
feet. Its ground color is a dingy, yellowish
white, with it dorsal row of chestnut-brown
spots, nearly square and 70 in number, from the
point where the two necks separate, extending
its full length. Tli" two heads tod necks ere
entirely separated for nearly an inch. Koth
heads and necks appear r:. r and entirely
symmetrical m every way. Kach head lias two
g.Hxl eyes, equally large and full. It can shoot
nut each forked tbttgUO together or otic by one.
The two perfect mouths iqien into one throat.
Kuril throat is equally flexible and the move
ment of each head is perfectly easy and natural.
The two heads can bo placed closely side by
side, or one above the otuer or even crossed or
spread widely apart at will, as is shown in the
tiguro engraved.
pBOTRcnxa MvTAiua Sonnou. The treat
incut of metallic surfaces so as to render them
less susceptibly to atmospheric and other in
QuenOM capable of tuTecUng them, has recently
bein receiving thu attention of Mr. George
I lower, of St. Net ts, Hunts., and he has found
that be can attain the desired end by forming a
protective libn or coating upon the surface of
metallic objects by the employment of air or of
oxygen, or of a mixture of them at an elevated
temperature. The metallic objects or metallic
surfaces which it is intended to mibmit to the
protecting process are either subjected to heat
in a retort chamber or other apparatus which is
capable of Ix-ing heated externally, and also of
being wholly or artially closed, and to such
retort chamber or apparatus a tube or tuU's is
or are adapted, in order that air or oxygen, or
mixtures ol the same, mav lie allowed to tas
over, in, and among the objects contained
therein at any deeired pressure; or, instead of
causing the apparatus to be heated externally,
he employ n a heated current of air or of oxygen,
or of an oxidizing agent composed of mixtures
of tlie same, heated to such an extent as that
the objects contained in the apparatus shall be
come oxidized, and thus boOOtM coated with a
protective tihu or covering: or the apparatus
containing the objects to Ik- treated may be
heated externally, and the before-mentioned
oxidnuug agents W admitted at the ordinary
temperature of the atmosphere. The tempera
ture which he has found to give the beet results
ranges from a dull to bright-red heat, whether
the object be heated by the external appli
cation of heat, or by the internal application of
the heated oxidising agent. The process it
eoullj applicable to all kinds ot iron and steel,
and to anv combination of them. The 0p0f0j'
tion u continued until a protwtive tiliu or cov
ering of the d cm red t link liens shall have leen
formed, and upon the objects being then allowed
hi cool they are ready lor useful application in
the arte
Siuhk Ti;;r u l'l'Kirv or Ciii.onotou.
The I'lnladelphia JbTerffctJ i'unr. states that
Or. tejMfikt. of Slnuhurg, give the following
wimple method of testing the purity of choloro
form: " liumerte a mall piee of thiu white
blotting -11" r mtu tlu' chloroform, and then 1st
it dry in the air."
GETTING; MARRIED.
The Rev. Mathew Hale Smith in a recent
lecture on "Our Young Married People," after
quoting various portions of the bible to show
that conjugal love is inculcated in every portion
of it, went on to speak of the relations be
tween husband and wife. If the husband de
mands revereuco from his wife he must in re
turn treut her with the respect due her and
make her feel that the reBpect and reverence is
mutual. Many ladies make a bargain with tile
minister before they are married that the word
obey shall be omitted from the services. The
omission makes no difference. The bible says
distinctly that the wife must obey her hus
band, ami the laws both of .God and nature de
mand a proper obedience to a husband's wishes.
When a young couple get married they know
really nothing uloiit one another in molt in
stances and have to become acquainted with
each others character and qualities after they
are united. They cannot learn these things lie
fore, beOMtte courtship is full of deceptions.
Tlie nUU deceives tho woman and the woman
deceives the man, but in most cases tlie woman
gets the best of the man. Young people are in
too great haste to get married, ami nine-tenths
of the marriages turn out badly because the
courtship and engagement are too brief. After
marriage, men are too often in the habit of
leaving the family ull'airs and the bringing up
of the children entirely to the mother, thinking
they have done their entire duty in earning the
money to support them. Many men know
nothing of their own children, of their associa
tions and habits of life. They take no peine to
study their characters, and in some eases
hardly know them when they see them. One
man in New York was in the habit of going to
his business on Monday morning and not re
turning until Saturday night, when his wife
would nave the children properly drcBsed, and
would bring them into the parlor and introduce
them to their father. The great conflict as to
who shall be bead of the house is a subject that
is agitating the whole world, and is the cause
of most family quarrels. In true marriage
there should be no such coutlict; both should
be willing to give way ami to make mutual
concessions. It is a terrible blow to a mother
BOYS' SMOKING.
Whatever may be said for or against the mod
erate use of tobacco by adults, sayB the Glasgow
77mm, there cannot be any question about its
prejudicial effect on unformed constitutions.
It is, therefore, of public importance that the
growing disposition among boys to indulge in
"the fragrant weed," even at the cost of nico
tine sickuesB, should meet with every opposi
tion. A Liverpudlian, however, recommends
such very BUtnmary proceedings under this
head, in a letter to a local journal, that one
might well ask whether the cure would not lie
worse than the diaease. Having occasion to
frequently cross the Mersey, he has noticed
that the troopB of schoolboys making the voy
age during the afternoon generally "sneak into
the back of the smoking cabin and at once light
their pipes.!' The simple truth is that the lada
who have once acquired a taste for smoking will
lie sure to gratify it surreptitiously in one way
or another. Hence the necessity of striving by
every means to prevent the formation of the
habit. A great deal might be done in this
direction by parents and schoolmasters if they
convince the boys that the use of tobacco in
early years acts prejudicially on physical
strength. This is a point that comes home to
them at once. Kvery English lad wishes to be
strong, and if it can only be impressed upon
him that smoking will make him a stunted
weakling, he will be mure likely to steer clear
of the habit than if high moral considerations
were brought forward.
These remarks apply with no lesB force to
American youth, whom we see in the streets,
hardly higher than a walking stick, pulling
their brains out with pipes and stubs of cigars.
Weakness will certainly result from such
practices.
A Pi-ail. RlB T lta f lfna;n
peasant there is a period anterior to all tunics,
mantles, and even sheepskins, during which
they lead a kind of mummy life, only, unlike
the Kgyptian, it is the first instead of the last
Btagea of their existence. For the youngest
children are swaddled, and rolled up tight in
bandages, so that they may be conveniently put
A TWO-HKADKD SNAKIO.
to give up her daughter to a stranger, and to 1
find that the infection which she had fostered !
and called out by years of loving care was
iransierred to some man ot whom tlie (laughter
knew nothing.
ADVANCES IN MEDICINAL SC1KNCKS.
In reviewing the medical and surgical prog
ress for the year I877i the London l.nnett Hotel
the foil owing: M. Paul Hert has published an
extensive work on the effect id variations of
pressure on the body, and he shows that the
observed ( Heels of diminished pressure are ex
clusively due to adimiuiitioii in the tension of
the oxygen in the air. ami consequent predispo
sition to asphyxia; while, on the contrary, m
crease of pressure Dp to three atmospheres oc
casions UON active intraorganic changes, and
when the pressure reaches live atmospheres the
oxidizing processes either cease or In come mod'
itied in such n way as to become inconsistent
with the maintenance of life. Guttuiau, Krick-h-r
and Oertiiiauii have demonstrated that the
absorption of oxvl'oii is independent id the me
chanical acts of respiration. Richet lias de
termined that when perfectly froth the castric
juice contains only mineral acids, but that after
standing some tune a kind of fermentation in
set up in which tree organic acid is loruied that
on analysis proved to W lactic acid. It is be
lieved to ie beyond doubt that lactic as well as
butyric and acetic acids are often introduced
either into the stomach or are formed in it as a
product of fermentation.
The most important progress in the depart
ment of itathology is that toward the establish
ment and diffusion of the opinion that minute
organisms are concerned in the progress of acute
infectious discuses. Chaureau has shown that
the horse is jieculiarly receptive of the vaccine
virus, and is capable of reproducing it in re
markable parity tod force.
pAfri Hi o Kim, Paste blacking is made by
mixing powdered booe-bleon with half it's
weight of molasses, and one eighth its weight ot
olive o l, and to this is afterwards added no
eighth of its weight of hydrochloric acid, ami
one-fourth of iU weight of strong Milphunc
acid: the whole is to lie then mixed up w it h
water Into a yielding uute.
I KK.1KKV.M10N OK 1.IMK Jl'll'K. Ullie or
lemon juice may W preserved as follows It rat
the juice, to coagulate all albummoa matters,
and then sweeten with pure glycerine. The
glycerine wdl not oulv retard turgid growths,
but prevent the juice from frwmug wven durm,:
tit tehleet winurm.
away without risk of getting themselves into
mischief or danger. On entering one of their
houses an enthusiastic traveler thinks he has
come npOQ Borne Pagan tribe, having their idols
ano peioo.es, wim mo- neaiis well carved QU1 111(1
the rest of the body left in block. He looks
curiously at one laid Upon a shelf, another hung
to the wall oil a peg, a third swung over one of
the main beams of tlie roof, and rocked by the
mother, who has the cord looped over her foot.
"Why, that is a child!" cries the astonished
traveler, with o feeling similar to that experi
enced on treading upon a toad which was BUp
poood to be a stone. "Why, w hat else should
it he?" answered the mother. Having learned
so much in so short a time, the inquisitive trav
eler wishes to inform himself about the habits
of the creature; but Ins ouriodty being some
what damped bj the extreme dirt of the little
ligure, he iiiiiiires of the parent when it is
washed. "Washed!" shrieked the terrified
mother, "washed! what, wash a child You
would kill it. A Journey Ihtt Aorta.
V.wiAHLK Mot Til Wakiikh. The English
periodical, Ik ntal Scisnc?, commends the follow
ing recipes: A wash to harden the gums.
lake otiedialf pint Jamaica spirits, oue-hulf tea
sjsHiuf ul each of powdered alum and saltpeter,
pulverised, and one ounce of pulverized inyrrh;
mix. A favorite wash. Take salts of UrUr.
one half ounce; honey, four ounces; alcohol,
tWO ounce; water, 10 ounces; oil (d winter
green and oil of roses, sutlicient to flavor. For
unhealthy gums. Unhealthy gums are very
common. A lotion made from the following
recipes will lie found valuable in restoring them
to a healthy condition: Carbolic acid. 90 dnqw;
spirits of wine, two drachms; distilled water,
six ounces. Use lirst a soft toothbrush with
water, after which pour on a second toothbrush,
slightly dunned, a little of the above lotion.
After using this for a short time the gums
bceotne less tender and the imparity of the
breath, which La omimonlv caused by bad teeth,
will be removed. A fine tooth paste. The fob
lowing U aba from Dmtal 8ekm: Take red
coral, throe ounces; cuttletidi bone, one ounce;
dUalphtde Of quinine, one-half drachm; mix.
Triturate to a very tine powder, add honey
"white," four ounces, and a few drow of otto
of roses, or BCTOU, dissolved ill rectitied spirits,
three thud drachm, and Wat tho whole toe
pacta, A little powdered myrrh, one to three
drachnw, is sometimes added.
Iris proponed to print a new edition of the
New Testament ami portion of the llible in
the M pong we lauguage.
THE MINISTER AT THE TEA-TABLR
The other evening the ltev. Mr. FbiUcta
sat down at the tea-table with a very though
ful air, and attended to the wants of his brood
in a very abstracted manner. Presently
looked at his wife and said:
"The Apostle Paul"
"Got an awful lump ou the head 'safternooo'
broke in the pastor's eldeBt son, "playing hue.
ball. Bat flew out of the striker's hands ui
I was umpire, and cracked me right over tt
ear, an' dropped me. Hurt? Golly!" wkjISI
lad shook his head in dismal but exurenU
pantomime as he tenderly rubbed a lump B
looked like a billiard ball with hair ouit Tb!
pastor gravely paused for the interruption ui
resumed:
"The Apostle Paul "
"Saw Mrs. O'Ghemminie down at Giwb
baum's this afternoon," said hie eldest daughter
addressing her mother. "She had ou the nni
old everlasting black Bilk, made over with
vest of tileul L'reen silk, coat-tail hiwnf m
teni, OTerakut made with diagonal folde n
front, edged with deep fringe; yellow itnv
hat with black velvet facing inside the brin
and pale blue llowors. She's gringtoChbM?
The good minister waited patiently, audtiwo.
in tones just a shade louder than before uii-
"The Apostle Paul"
"Went in iwinunin' last night with Hwy
claimed his youngest sou; "cut my foot a
cannot wear a shoe; and please- can't I i
at home to-morrow?"
The pastor informed his son that he m:Bt
stay away from the river, and then resumed
vopie. ne sum:
"The Apostle Paul ,i "
"My teacher is an awful liar," shouted the
second mm; "he says the world is as round u
an orange, and it turns round all the time fitter
than a circus man can ride. I guess he hain't
got much sense."
The mother lifted a warning linger toward
the boy and said "sh!" and the father re.
8iime.il.
"The Apostle Paul says "
i foil i into on twice as much as youcaa
chew," broke out the eldest son, reproving the
assault of his little brother ou a piece of cakt.
The pastor's face just showed a trifle of annoy
ance, as ne saui in very nrin, iieei.tea tones.
"The Apostle Paul save "
"There's a 11 y in the butter," shrieked the
youngest hopeful of the family, and a general
laugh followed. When silence was rostoredUM
eldest daughter, with an air of curiosity said:
"Well, but, pi, I really would like to know
what tho Apostle Paul said?"
"Pass me the mustard," said the paitor,
absently.
Then the committee rose and the senate veil
into executive session and boou after adjourned.
aurUHfJKm Jtatrkfije.
A NEW POTATO DISH.
A lady correspondent of the Cultmtlor ujt:
A positively new dish, and one which hsinot
been mentioned in any cook-book or taper, ti
my knowledge, has recently liccti introduced to
our circle of acquaintance. It is delicious, h
expensive, and can be tried by UV onevbohn
the three staple articles, bread, milk and pota
toes at hand. Tho receipt calls for cracien,
out as we wno live near me sinrcs oiien urn
ourselves out of them, it would uot lie strasn
if people living some miles from a grocery Digit
also find themselves out of crackers juatibei
they are most needed. In such case try bred
ennui'- in i-ia, e ot rolled ovster crackers.
Take a dozen raw potatoes and slice thai
VMS) thin; roll n iuiiiM.1 of ,.-t.r cracker), a
break about a pound of bread into tiuo crumb);
have ready a quart of now milk, if you li"ii
the country and have plenty. If you
tho city, and saving milk is an object, you nuj
add a pint of w ater to a pint of milk, and ne
that instead, but of course pure milk will pre-
uuce nio oest rcsuiis, i ut a ict m w
upon the Ixittom of a porcelain pudding
next a layer ot potatoes, a tnlie ot uniwi.'
sprinkle of salt, and a few almost impentf
Lie specks ot pcPImt. with B little ot trie e
next another layor of crumbs, then P0
reserving enough crumbs for the top, ww
may He ornamented, l! you wins. oo, j
verv small niece of tiastrv. Use all the H
ami be careful not to use too much 11
Hake in a good oven 40 minutes or an hour. W
call it scoToed potatoes, and consider it a 4J
particularly adapted for the everyday te W
W0 Had one, However, Willi our rursej . . -Year's
day, and it was preferred by muj
potatoes oooked in the usual manner.
Judgment must be used in reirard to
proper quantity ot milk reqnuea neu
enough milk or water has not been
the next tune a similar dish i" prepcMIJg
may be added to advantage. As the B"i
buy is probably quarter water, it may p
ble that pure, unadulterated country
would le too rich, but the housekeeper
able to regulate this after one or two trt
Muairns as UaErt-L Institctios&--2
Marsh in the Popular Sdenct JfofWB
The old idea of a museum wMashow W' j
modem idea makes its work-shop "
this institution is to hold high rank ui1?
u ... l ...;n .. iw. i miaow w
nun mu I, .'lU h..f..n. am. croud,, I tin
be with the rarest of Nature's fjwepeellj
rather, it will come through the JJ.Vj
rooms in the attic, where the naturali"
microscope or scalpel, has patiently j
i IM'-iViTlr-t h.it n, . to tlie sum "! nuTnv
edem This muom will fail of it P
-J f.:i .: . iWaM I
H-n.il, Kill BVW W .i 1 SM "
tluenco, unless the work-rooms alsive or
.1 .... I iL. kiJ.
vt ...-ti.nl- ui nr..'i, till' c elliru-v
urai ih o ne e ariiuni; me invoi -
own sake, will bring the museum
throughout the world.