The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, February 01, 1878, Page 91, Image 11

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    February.
THE WEST SHORE
91
GLUE AND ITS PREPARATION.
A good article of glue is one of the most
important articles in tlie whole round of wood
workers' materials. Tins subject was lately
fully discussed in Tht Hub, and therefrom we
draw points of leading importance. In the
selection of glue, the testing of it, so as to form
some estimate of its adhesive qualities, is a
matter of tirst importance. All glue in the
cake is subject to be influenced by the moistness
or dryness of the atmosphere, Incoming soft in
damp weather and crisp in dry weather, but
ditferent kinds are ditlerently affected and
hence it is better to purchase in dry weather.
as that which is then soft is not of as good
TO SILVER CLASS.
Prepare two solutions, says the Jncrltr find
SilvermUk I, Argentic uitrate is dissolved in
distilled water and ammonia added to the aolu
tion, till the precipitate first thrown dow u is
almost entirely redissolved. The solution is
filtered and diluted so that 100 00. contains one
gramme of argentic nitrate, i Two grammes
of argentic nitrate are dissolved in a little dis
tilled water and poured Into a liter of boiling
distilled water; LQ8 grammes of Rochclle salt
is added and the mixture boiled fur a short
time, till the precipitate contained in it become
gray; it is then filtered hot.
ihe glass having tutu thoroughly cleaned
quality a. that which i. cri a,l It ibjofl b. ; uh fa fiSr, 'iZi Usth"XtE
i water, is to be placed in a clean class or porce
lain vessel, the side to be silvered Winn placed
borne in mind also, when purchasing, that the
most transparent is generally the best. It is
always advisable, before purchasing, to submit
to experiment a sample oi tlie article On WOO,
To do this, take a cake of glue, place it in a
pan and cover it with water, when, after some
hours, it it le good glue, it will swell but not
dissolve, while, if bad, it will partly if Dot
wholly dissolve in the water. Another test is
tills. After Lciug dtWOifM by means ut heat,
that nine is best which seems most cohesive or
which is capable of being drawn out into thin
filaments or strings and does not drop from tlie
brush or gluo stick as water or oil would, but
rather extends itself in threads as it falls from
the brush or stick, and if the glue possesses the
requisite properties, this will always he fount!
tojhe the case.
The preparation of glue is very simple. It is
first broken up in small particles SOU put in ft
veBsel, covered with odd water and left to soak
for a numlwr of hours, the length of time
required for soaking being generally governed
by the strength of the glue, the strongest glue
taking the longest time. After being soaked
until it all swells and becomes solt and gela
tinous (avoid oversoaking, it is then placed
upon the tire to cook, being kept stirred until
it is thoroughly dissolved and appears stringy,
as we stated above. It is then ready for use;
but in factories where a large quantity is cm
ployed, it is then poured out in a large flat pan
and left to cool, and the workman, when desir
ing it for use, cuts of! the required quantity and
heats it. I would remark here that it is a had
habit for workmen to allow the glue jiot to
remain on the stove after they are done using it,
as a very prolonged heat will destroy the
adhesive qualities of the glue.
As a novelty in the way of preparing glue,
the pulverized article has recently been intro
duced to the trade. It seems that the pulver
ized clue is recommended for its convenience,
being more, quickly prepared for use than that
which is in cakes, the latter requiring several
hours to soak, whereas the pulverized can be
soaked just as thoroughly in a few minutes;
and this is a great advantage, particularly in
warm weather, when gluo put to soak is often
liable to spoil. Again, if a workman's cooked
glue runs out, he can in a short time prepare
more from the pulverized, anil this is often a
great convenience, as every workman Knows,
especially when iiuitting time is near at hand.
Always use the glue hot and if possible warm
the nieces of wood to be mined together. If
the wood is cold, it will so chill the glue that a
good and permanent joint is impossible. After
the gluo is applied, the woods, if the shape
allows, should ne tightly clamped together and
left for several hours till thoroughly dry. A
cabinet maker's two-inch or three-inch mallea
ble clamp, or larger wooden clamps, are very
useful lor tins purpose, i nere are many am
cles the amateur will make, such M light brack
eta, card baskets, etc., the various parts of
whieli eanmit be damned together. I hev can.
however, be bound toccther by means of cords.
with wedges inserted to tighten the cords, and
after the glue has set, strengthened with tine
screws. Use tlie giue rauier inui, appiy ii win
a brush ami avoid getting on tin much.
W wilt add two further suggestions in thl
connection, namely, in applying glue, where
Um nart is end lrain. first fill the pores of the
wood with thin glue and let dry, then clean off
aim gnie m hw jomi. mtu o.ios ..
a job has been (polled by reason of neglecting
on flit thai cod main in this manner. Next, in
addiug ater to glue, it is best to give the glue
a boil before using again, so that it may be
evenly and thoroughly mixed.
CURIOUS CATS.
As they closed up their baby shows iu New
York city a graud cat show followed, ami we
know our young readers will he pleaded to read
of the queer pusseys. About 100 cats lie curled
up in the darkest comers of their cages, and
blink their green eyes sleepily at the visitors.
They are so amiable or so well-fed that they
will not allow themselves to Ik- poked up to any
feline demonstrations. There are black cats,
whitooatp, piebald cats, graycats, Maltese eats,
tortoise-shell cats; cats with one eye blue and
one eye red, or one eye green and one eye gold-
A FOOD FOR INFANTS.
Suitable food fur infants which are deprived
of their natural pabulum is an important matter
and has received the attention of the most em
inent physicians. The Ocrmau chemist 1. icing
deviled a soup or pap for this purjiose, being
led to the task from the fact that one of his
grandchildren could not lie nursed by its
mother. The Mowing is l.iebig's rO&ips and
his description of the ingredients employed:
Half an ounce of wheatcu meal, half an ounco
of malt Hour, and seven and a half grains of
bicarbonate of potash, are well had. mured first
with one another, ami aitcrwards with an ounce
uppermost. Equal quantities of the two solu
tions are then to be mixed and poured in, so as
to cover the glass. This should lie done while
the glass is still wet with distilled water. In
about an hour the silvering will be completed.
Then pour off the exhausted liquid, carefully
remove the glass, wash ui Umi water, ruli oil
silver deposited where not required, allow to
dry and varnish silver side with any thin
varnish which does not contract much in dry
ing. The time required for the o(cration de
pends on the temperature. If the solution lie
warmed to alnnit :tll C, the silver is deposited
in a few minutes, but it is wafer to use them
cold. The Intldea of test-tubes, buths, etc., are
silvered by putting the solutions into them, PO
second vessel being then required. Throughout
the whole operation the most scrupulous clean
liness is me graii'i essential.
en, and a cat Ivoru without a tail. Hut they are nf water, and lastly with five ounces of milk.
nil timet and dimiitied. There are no garden The mix tun- is then heated with constant stir
00n0trta.no Ohlmney.ton serenades, no lacks rig. over a very gentle tire, until ,t begin, to
are arched, and no fur tlies
quiescent ami of normal sue.
........ tlkUftltkl M J -J
Their tails iW . ftom the Rrt, ftpd its contents ftl stirred for
five minutes; these are then heated
There is a black cat that has never beat) 1 wid removed, when a i
thickening o
known to refute milk. Another, born in Ger
many, is double-toed and web-footed, l'edia
S. Fletcher -leek, gray creature, thai c
t
I curs; last iy, the whole is brought to a Isul.
: After the separation of the bran from the milk
, through a line sieve the sun p is Natty for Uftft
o liciti it Meal, r-or tins ordinary new meal
is chosen, in.t the finest or the tirst shot meal.
PKrnoLEi M IN FiiANi K.-The French irovern.
mcnt is verv shrewd in its aetlnM MurardTnn tin.
sliipmeut of petroleum to its shores. In order
to encourage iloincstic manufacture, a heavy
inilHirt tax was levied some time ago upon re
fined nil, while the crude petroleum is per
mitted to pass Into the country free of duty.
In consequence, oil refineries have sprung on
through the whole of r rain e, and the export
of crude petroleum to that country has increased
womieriiilly tluring tlie past six months. I liree
years ago the shipments to Antwerp were
greater than to any foreign port, but at present
the French have lamly the advantage in tin
raw product, and the orders for this fall anil
the coming winter manufacture in that country
are of extraordinary quantities. Spain, Portu
gal and Italy an- purchasing largely of the
French rclined article, which is sahl to cost
them less than the American n lined oil. The
expenses of labor are less ami French chemists
claim to nave discovered cheap modes ol dcodor
i .i nit and purify inn the oil unknown to our re
finers. It niav soon become a serious question
to the large r liners iu this country whether
the increasing shipments of French refined kj
trolenm to the southern countries of Kurope
will not largely reduce the demand tor then
manufactures ami materially alleet their busi
u.--. l hey should and we iimiht not thcy
will - avail themselves of all the new discoveries
for improving the diameter of the oil and les
sening the expense. We understand that one
has already iu use a new mode of condensing
the vapors, disjieusing with the old-fashioned
worm, and that the oil has baao improved ut a
diminished cost.
ld.iv ti hidc-:ui.l-Mvik uml when in iwi-Ii
L.-.'hh Mn lUn Am mm Hi mmim mm a m which is richer in starch than the whole meal.
In-t 8,000 that the cat can talk iu hfl own Mftlk Barley matt can easily lK procured
language. nrewor. in normally, or rattier in
A black Danish cat, with ft melancbolv air. is Munich, the malt is so much dried that the
called Hamlet. Although 17 years of age, I ch of many grains nppi ars tube half-roasted.
Mainlel looks as it lie Were yel good lor any i iwi vuiimvjv.. ium m kh it
number of rats behind the arras. Another to tlio latter a taste of bread, w hieh is not un.
black fellow Has born and lives without teeth. PWMM-I usually the malt contains an adimx-
The card attached declan-s that he eats like a ' "f ,llrt' ,,f w'k which must lH
monkey and drinkl tea like an old maid. Jacob P" "llt Wit" tlu' MJ a" "rdinary eolTee
Pnlmao is white and gray, and verv intelligent. answers for preparing the malt flour, the
Formerly Jacob belonged to the Brooklyn tire tatter most likewise ba Mparatad by means of
department, and rode to all the tires on an en- 11 ''air sieve, not too hue. from the chaff. Malt
gine. Being now 1.1 years old. he has retired prepared from barley is to be preferred to that
from active service. Close by is Ralph, a rc
foruicd tramp, that wan found iu a hatchway a
year ago,
and that has since then Won a re
Iroio oats, wheat, or rye.
Carbonate of Potash, For the preparation Ott
the solution the ordinary alkali sail, carlMuiaa
ipeeted mcmlwr of the museum. The nautical dOpnmtl of the pharmacies, answers very well;
. ... -. . .. . .. ............ .,i Hi.. 4r.i ... It: ...
KxruuiATios in TBI Isihan- Seas.- Meas
ures are afoot, timAtkMHM says) for supple
menting the researches of the Ohaungtr ftxpe
dition by a series of deep-sea dredgiligs in the
Indian seas. These seas were purposely
omitteil from the scope of the Chatitmitr in
vestigation, as it was then boptd that the estab
lishment of a marine surveying agency would
enable the Indian government to carry on deep
sea dredging and sounding poWlMftJ with coast
ssmswiBtf. Hut allhouith the Ihike of Argyll
warmly approved of the object, it has hitherto
been impossible to do anything, owing to the
want of a good steamer and all necessary equip
ment. A new steamer is now being built in
India, and an othcer of the toast Hurvey I'e
nartmeiit. I.icut. Jamil. R. N, has been coin
missioned to see after the fittings and dredging
appliances in Kngland. It is ioptd that 0MT
ntinns inav le startcl next cold season I187S1
79), proliably, in the first iustonce, in the Hey
ot Ikngal.
The Lu k TnjNOtm--The If aWaVWafW
i , HuiUrr, alluding to the pnqwsition to creel
two toleacopes with the Lick fund, one a great
refractor of the lamest possible sire, the object
glass at least 40 inches in diameter; the other a
reflecting telescope, of which the mirror should
be at least four feet in diameter, adapted to use
two kinds of mirrors, one a speculum metal
rpnWtiir. and the other a silvered glass reflector.
eaye: "We ore conlident that if this plan is
realised, startling discoveries are in store. Cal
ifornia, with its monster tlecois-i, aided by
iu clear sky and otherwise favorable situation
for astronomical rwaeorch, will undoubtedly take
the lead in discoveries, of which those of the
moons of Man, made with what is now the
Than spa n en it or Ikon Hkatkw to Rkpnk-hm.
- It has Wen attirmed by 1". Secchi, of Home,
that iron heated red is transparent to light
This is denied by M. (Jovi, of Turin, who, iu a
Dftoar to the fraaoh Academy, an nported by
Xitirt, descnlwi some experiments on the
subject, and bIiows how one may be deceived iu
studying the phenomena. If a mixture of
borax and carlxuiate ot soda te fused in a thin
platinum crucible raised to a red heat, there
will Ih seen on the exterior of the vessel the
form of the liquid mass with all its accidents of
rapidly varying form, indicated by a zone of
less brightness than the upper portion of the
metallic surface. At first sight it is natural to
infer a transparency for light of the heated plat
inum, but (M. Uvi points out) the ease is
really one id transparency for radianthcat; that
is to say, a phenomenon connected with the
jio.nl conductivity of platinum. The liquid,
liberating carbonic acid, is less hot than the
Otmcible, and is constantly borrowing heat from
it it is inevitable, men, that at every i :.'
where the liquid touches the metal, the latter
relatively cooled, should appear less luminous
than iu the neighboring region. M. tinvi
gives some other examples of the phenomenon
cat is called "sailor." He is of the tortoise
shell variety, ami although only four years old,
hascrosscd the ocean Id tunes, ite hasa Hoarse
cry which sounds like "avast thcie. Ho looks
as if he were profane, nud he rolls across his
cage as if be had on his sea legs. "Mother
l'nss," an emaciated black and white tabby, is
17 years old, and the mother of 1 7-t kittens.
Her possible grandchildren even the Lightning
Calculator cannot compute, "doe" is a per-I
forming cat, that sits in a cage with some
canary birds. His master nulls him out of the
Cagi by the nap of the neck, and then "Joe,"
with a protesting mew, touches off a cannon J
without blinking. Then the canaries lie on
their backs on the top of a pole, and shake
their little claws in the air. They, likewilB,
touch oil' a cannon, retire to the cage mi a tight
rope. Teca recently came from Cairo, Egypt,
but has already picked up a few Knglish words
like "scat" nud "milk." It weighs just four
ounces. Nigger will be over from Jersey City.
lie weighs 111 pounds.
THE OH WORKS.
The ice manufacturing machinery is being put
iu placo in two large buildings on the east sulu
of the large reservoir of the water company
the dividu. In one of the building! is already
in place a loilcr and the foundation of the en
gine which is to drive the machinery is ftbmt
completed. Adjoining tbUbotttl ami engine
house is a larger building, iu which is licing set
up the ice-making apparatus. Among this the
most noticeable object is a t ml- of heavy sheet
iron :t0 feat long, K b et wide and 4 feet deep. Iu
two ounces of the salt are dissolved in l( of
water. If spring water bf used, there is gen
crally ft precipitate of some carbonate of lime:
after an hour the ituid ltooonios quite clear and
bright. The carbonate of potash must not le
greasy or damp. The bicarbonate of Ktash is
the ordinary crystallized salt.
Iu order to avoid the rather troublesome
Weighing of thO flour, WW may observe that A
heaped tahlcsiioouful of wheatcu meal weighs
nearly half an ounce; a heaped tablwpoontulul
malt Hour, Wiped Off ftt one halt With a curd,
likewise weighs half an ounce. For measuring
the solution of potash an ordinary thimble an
swers; this when Riled holds nearly three gram
mes (ftfi grains, 'J M cubic centimeters) nf solu
tion of potash.
j For the milk and (he water .WO ounces are
weighed in an ordinary tumbler, then live
ounces of water, and the hlgtttaftt which both
quantities of fluid stand are marked on the out
side of the glass by attaching pieces uf paper.
When the IO0p is prepared it is sweet as milk,
and the further addition of sugar it. unnecessary;
it posseted double the concentration of woman's
milk, and can, which is not unimportant for
sucklings, be given in the nursing bottle. If it
has liecn heated to the Polling poiut.lt keeps
good or M hours; if this has not been done it
turns sour and coagulates like milk; if the ad
dition of potash Ihi uegb eteil, it cannot, iu gen
eral, 1. 1- heated t the Isiiling (mint without
coagulating, In the nboeAOC of the potash the
soup is ditlicult of digestion like ordinary milk-
Il-
TllR Hook or don 1 call the book of Job,
apart frmu all theories about it, one of the
S rainiest things ever written with a pen. One
els. Indeed, as if it were not Hebrew such a
DOOM universality, rUOerant from noble patriot-
this will Iki placed the pans iu which the ice , inin or soctaraiiiatn, reigns in it. A noble
will he made, These pans arc of galvanized
iron and are 1411 in number.
Among these pans circulates flic brine,
iioii.congealahlc Hind, which, by its eoblm
turns tlie water iu tlie pans into ice,
Ibnd .ni's- into the tank Iroiu a
book! All men's bookl It is our first, oldest
statement of the never-ending problem, man's
destiny and (iod's ways with him hereon this
earth. And all in such free, (lowing outlines;
Tins cold graud lit it simplicity, ami its epic melody.
il t if pipe ami lepoHciii n c ileinenl. I hero is the see-
soinewhat resembling thu worm of a still, and log eye, the mildy lendanding heart. Ho
from the tank passes luu:k into inn worm or coil '' ' 'r aj ; irno eyi'togm ami vision mr an
uiled
EsuRAVKli CiLars. Very few chemical agents
act on glans, the principal one being lluorhydnc
acid, winch is employed for engraving. Its ac
tion is, however, very rapid, and its use so don
gerous that sjiecial precautious must Im taken
Auoiner ami a saier way oi engraving glass
than that wiin tins acui, the Jturitr gives as
follows: A coat of engraving varnish is put on
the glass with a pencil. 'I he varnish, winch
g.ies by the name ot "riurence, is one oi tlm
best It is heated iu a varnish nt and linseed
oil and mastic in dmjis are added iu equal tor
tious. Mix and pass through a cloth. Keep in
closely stoppered bottles. The varnish is
spread so as to leave the jiarts to lie engraved
uncovered, that the drawings may )su traced
with a metallic point A aste of tluate of lime
in powder and concentrated sulphuric acid is
put on in a thin layer. This paste acts slowly
on the gloss wherever it is not protected by
the varnish. It is left for two or three hours.
The glass is theu cleaned tint with water and
afterward with alcohol.
Skin IMskaso. We read in our medical ex
changes reviews of a new elementary treatise on
diseaaea of the skin fur the uses of students and
practitioners, by Henry i. IMIard, A. M., M
II , Frufeasor of Dermatology, I'mversity of the
City of New York, etc. We have In.1 known
1'rof. FifTonl as a twwt patient, diligent and
thoroughly scientific investigator in this un
tMirtant sin-cult v "f medical work, and M are
hug rrfrrrT'r u world, r' "r1 'u .'" TiL"11 uk" h',h rk'
of pipe. Ily means of a pump it is kept
slantly circulating through the lank ami
tube.
I hiring that part of its journey when it is
(tossing through the worm, the fluid is made in
tensely cold by the gas of a Wry volatile fluid
called chyniogene, which is let UitO the tank in
which thu worm is coiled. This ohytWMMM
has, also, its coded tube or worm. Into which it
retires after it has done its Work alsmt the
ended tulm containing thu uou coiignalaldu lluid
that freeate iba water. In iu eotl or womt it
baOOtnafl a lluid, hut w hen it passes out into the
tank it assumes the form ol a gas, ami in so
doing produces an intense degree ol cold. It is
made to circulate by means of an air pump.
1'he two pumps used aru run by the steam en
gine, now iHiiug set up. The tunk in which the
cliyiuogeiiu is connoiisc'i is circumr iu mtuj, aim
weighs 87,000 poandft.
It is ' j -1 1 that the apparatus will he
reaily to Ik- started up ftbOttt tlie Ut of January.
It is watraute'l to make .u ius oi lee per nay.
In order to do this a batch of pans of water
must le fnicn every live minutes.
The ice at present used by the Ionian .a mines
is brought from the Sierra Nevada mountains,
ami delivered here coats alsuit t'M per ton. It
appears that wheat the supply of uu put up here
was exhausted the ice comoiiiei in the moun
tains raised the price there, and thu railroad
company raised the price of freight; in ndf
defense, therefore, the ice machine was pro
cured. Kioctly what it will coat hern to make
leu with the apratus is not known. Vinjinia
Ridtrpri.
foretaste."
things, material things no lean than spiritual;
the Imrse "hast thou clothed his neck with
thunder?" Such living likenesses wore never
drawn. Sublime sorrow, sublime reconeilationj
oldest choral melody as of the heart of man
kind; so soft and great; as the summer night,
as the world with its seas and stars! There ia
nothing written, 1 think, in the llible or out uf
it, of equal literary tnurit. Thnmt Curyfr.
Tin: BUHftlJrQ Of A OftaWFUli Wirit, What
a blessing to a household m a merry, cheerful
WOW til VM whnse. spirits are not . . 1 1 . r I by
wet days, or little dmapimiutmcuts, or wlUM
mi Ik of human UtftdftMC dot s not sour in the
huiinIiiuo of pnMNirity. Such a woman iu the
darkeat Imiirs brightens the house like a littlu
piece of latualsy weather. Thu magnetism of
lies aild electricitl bllghtllcM of her lHks
and moveiiienU infect every one. The children
go it i schiHil w ith a seusti of somelliiug groat to
Ihi achieved; her husband goes into the world in
a conqueror's spirit. No matter how iuoplu an
noy and worry mm all day, tar oil tier presuuen
shines, and be wln i to himself, "At home I
shall find rest." So day by day she literally
renews his strength and energy, and if you
know a man with a U-aming face, a kind heart
and a proam-rous husimuos, lit nine eases out of
ten you will find he has a witu ol tins kind.
Sn-.AP.in tIN. TimiIA The I'ttttrfhnifxn:
It is not generally known tlut Btee) tools Bprung
hi hardening can lie straightened iu tempering.
Hardened steel, when not enough to change the
odor to straw color or purple, is al-.ut aa plia
blr as annealed steel when cold. Ho pieces
warped in hardeiiiug can, while hot, baatnught
eneo with a hamuisr, or, better, with a screw
pren, without danger of breaking.
Ikitatio hp Mahiii.k According to Hnrr
Karl Roaehan and tlm I'ufiltrhnif Ittritw, caaki
of i' -um or pnnVr ' ! can lie preiartsl to
closely mutate marble, by the application first,
of a coating of thick I Ulnar varnish, giving the
appearance of alabaster, ami utKiti thia, when
dry, a second costing on which crystallised gyp
sum u sprinkled, not t . finely ground. Tun
procedure ib in imitation of uature, for alabaa
ter is compiled of very tine crystals of Bulpliate
of calcium, and Carrara marble of somewhat
Larger crystals of carbonate of lime, which re
tWta light and glitter similar to crystallutad
sugar; the same effect ia produced by the crys
tola of gypauin.