The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, January 01, 1878, Page 76, Image 12

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    76
THE WEST SHORE
Jan
uary.
THE GEOLOGICAL WORK OF HAYDEN
SURVEY FOR THE PAST SUMMER,
Tho necessity of a careful examination of the
various geological formations in tlie Held, and a
review, by a practical paleontologist, of the vari
ous districts that have from year to year been
surveyed by the different geologists of this ami
other surveys, has bun long felt. Such a work,
indeed, was imperatively necessary, before a
consistent and comprehensive claudication of
the formations could he established. This
duty was assigned to Dr. C. A. White, the pa
leontologist of thin survey; and he took the
field at the beginning of the past season and
continued his labors until it clo.se. The special
duty with which he was charged was to pursue
such lines of travel as would enable him to
make critical examination of the geological for
mations In succession as they are expoied to
view on Itoth m'drn of the RooltV mountain
i haiii and also on both sides of the I'iuta chain;
to collect and study the fossils of these forma
tions in such detail as to settle, as far as possi
ble, the questions of the natural and proper
vertical limits of the formations, their geograph
ical range, their correlation with each other,
and to define the paleoiitological characteristics
of each.
He ban panned his researches with such sue-
ess during the put season, as to demonstrate
the necessity of continuing this class of investi
gations by Virion! lines of travel, across what
is generally known as the great Rooky mount
nin region; especially those portions of it that
it received careful investigation, yielding some
of the most important results of the season's
work. Crossing the ground lietueen the two
rivers named, to White River Indian Agency;
thence down White river valley about 100
miles; thence to (ireen river, crossing it at the
southern base of the Uinta mountains, making
many detours on the way, he reviewed the ge
ology of the region which he had surveyed dur
ing the previous season. This review brought
out not only the important paleoiitological facts
lieforc referred to, but it also added materially
to the elucidation of the geological structure of
the region which lies between the eastern end
of the Uinta mountain range on the west and
the 1'ark range on the east.
Beyond (ireen river he pursued his travels
westward, studying the mesozoic and cenozoic
strata that Hank the Uinta range upon its south
side, and making comparisons of both their
lithological and paleoiitological characteristics.
In this way he traversed the whole length of
the Uinta range; crossing at its junction with
the Wasatch range over into the valley of (ireat
sail Lull iiecrossing MM WftUtGn, to the
north side of the Uinta range, he mntinwd
Ins examination of the cretaceous and tertiary
strata into and entirely across the great (ireen
river basin, leaving the Held at the close of the
HMOn at EUwUn'l station on the Union 1'acilic
railroad.
A general statement of the results of the sea
son's work have been given in a previous para
graph, hut the following additional luminary
will make the statement somewhat clearer, be
ing made after the route of the season's travel
lias been indicated. The formation of later meso
zoic and earlier senoxolo ages, especially those
to which Dr. White, In former publications, 1ms
applied the provisional designation of "post
erotaceou" have received particular attention.
The extensive explorations of Dr. Hayden in
former years, and the paleoiitological iuvestiga-
of the region which lies adjacent to the south'
em base of the Uinta mountain range, and
which ii traversed by Lake Fork and the Dan
Chesne river, not only the Uinta group but both
the tJreen river, and Bridger groups also, are
well developed, each possessing all its peculiar
and usual characteristics as seen at the typical
localities in the great I ireen river basin, north
of the Uinta mountains. This added to the
known existence of Bridger strata in White
river valley, and the extensive area occupied by
the (.Ireen river group, between White and
Grand rivers, has added very largely to our
knowledge of the southward extension of those
formation!:.
In all t lie comparative examinations of the
formations or groups of strata that have just
been indicated, he has paid special attention to
their boundaries, or planes of dt-markation;
crossing and reerossing them wherever opportu
nity offered, noting carefully every change of
both lithological and paleoiitological characters.
While he has been able to recognize with satis
factory clearness the three principal groups of
cretaceous strata, namely, the Dakota, Colorado
and For hills, on both siduofthe Rocky and
Uinta mountains respectively, they evidently
constitute an unbroken series, so far as their
origin by continuous sedementatlon is con
cerned. While each of the groups possesses its
own peculiar paleoiitological characteristics, it
is also true that certain species puss beyond the
recognized boundaries of each 'within the series.
Thestratigraphical plane of demarkation be
tween the Fox bills, the uppermost of the un
doubted cretaceous groups and the Lannie
group, the so-called post-cretaceous, is equally
obscure; but the two groups are paleontologi
cally very distinct, inasmuch as the former is
of marine origin, while the latter, ho far as is
now known, contains only brackish water and
fresh water invertebrate forms. He reports a
similar obscurity or absence of a stratigraphical
THE ABUSE OF ATHLETICS.
wisely
We notice that English journals r
HtuiuouuMiw wiv .....mv.u y uuseu) eier.
wujvu i.m..b.0v ui waling matches in
public halls, etc. Mich feats of pedestriauism
and other similar extravagances in athletics are
unnatural, and cannot fail to be more or less in.
jurioUS, especially to those w ho have not been
prepared for them by a long course of ''train
ing' Certain "professional" pedestrians and
gymnasts may perhaps attempt these perform,
ancu with comparative impunity; or if not, the
world can well pardon the fools for shorte'nini'
their useless or worse than useless career. In.
deed, the sooner they kill themselves the better"
for their example is pernicious in the extreme'
Other people, who, but for the cheap notoriety
gained by these muscular idiots, and the silly
ambition to win similar "laurels" for them,
selves, would never think of attempting such
preposterous feats, arc carried away with the
mania, and snrl'er irreparable injury to health.
We have been sorry, saya the Journal of
ChmUtty, to sec the newspaper piiln"ip nf Mis
Bertha von Hillem's pedestrian achievement
She is held up as an example of what women
may do if they will, and is encouraged to go on
t. more extraordinary exploits in tho same line
Now there can lie no question that American,
women do not walk enough, hi that respect
they arc far behind their English siBters, who
think nothing of a walk of five or ten miles
and who may often he seen doing their 15 or 20
miles a day in the Scotch highlands or in
Switzerland. There is no better exercise than
such tramps" in the open air; they are whole
some alike for the body and for the mind and
it is a pity that Yankee girls donotreadily'take
to them. But a treadmill round of so many
miles in so many hours, in a public hall, with a
crowd of idle gazers betting on the result as on
lillllHiK OVEi; THE HlYEli DNIEl'KlI, AT KIEFF
have Wen surveyed, as well as those in which
surveys are in progress.
Among other important results, he has shown
the identity of the lignitic series of strata east
of the lloeky mountains in Colorado, with the
Fort Union group of tho Upper Missouri river;
and also its identity with the great Lanunls
group of the Crecn river basin and other yun
UOnS of the region west of the Uocky uioiltains.
He also liuds the plane of dcuuirkatioii be
tween any of the mesosoio and oenoaoic groups,
from the Dakota to the Bridger Inclusive, to u
sithsr vary obscure or indeflnablsi showing that)
whatever catastrophul or secular changes took
place elsewhere during all that time, sedimen
tation was iirohahly continuous in what is now
that part of the continent, from the earliest to
the latest of tho epochs just named. Other re
sults and further details of the season's work
will appear in the following paragraphs.
The general course of travel pursued by Dr.
White during the season WSJ as follows, not In
cluding the numerous detours, meandering!
and side trips, which the work necessitated;
i tnttitt log at t Ihsyenns he )ourneyed southward,
traversing in various directions a portion of the
ureal plains which lie immediately adjacent to
the eastern lase of the llocky mountains in
t 'olorado. The most easterly point thus reached
was some 00 Utiles east of the lc of the mount
ains, and the mont southerly point aUmt W
mile BOUth of Denver. Koturniug to Denver
to renew Ins outlit, he crowed the Uovky mount
ains by way of Boulder pass through Middle
Bark. After making certain comparative exam
inations of the mSSOSok and coiwoic formations
in Middle I'ark. he proceeded westward to the
headwaters of the amps river, following that
stream down to the western foothills of the
I'ark range of mountain. Here resuming Ins
comparative examinations of the moaoioio and
Of uoioio strata, he passed down to the valley of
the Yatupa as far as Yampa mountain, one of
those peculiar and remarkable upthnists of pa
taOfOBO rooks through mssonolc strata. In all
this are, as well as that between tho Yatupa
and White rivers, the 1 -amnio group reaches a
ery great ami characteristic development; and
ICHA1N
turns of the late Mr. Meek, pointed strongly to
the equivalency of the Fort Union beds of tho
upper Missouri river, with the lignitic forma
tion as it exists along the lae of the Bocky
mountains in Colorado ; and also to the cuuivu
leucy of the latter with the Bitter creek series,
west of the Kooky mountains. The investiga
tions of this year have fully continued these
views by the discovery not merely of one or
two doubtful species common to the strata of
each of these regions, but by an identical inol
IttSCan fauna ranging through the whole BcrieB
in each of the regions named.
This shows that thestrata just referred to, all
belong to one well marked period of geological
time, to the strata of which Mr. King has ap
plied tho name of "l-aramie group" (Point of
liocks group, of Powell), His investigations
also show that the strata which, in former re
ports by himself and I'rof. Bowel), have Wn
referred to the base of tho Wasatch group, also
belong to the Laramie group, and not to the
Wasatch. He has reached this later conclusion
not merely Weauso there is a similarity of type
in the fossils obtained from the various strata
of the Laramie group with those that were lie
fore in question, but by the s(ocihv identity of
many fossils that range from the base of the
1-aiamic group Up into and through the strata
that were formerly reform! to the base of the
Wasatch. Fnrtheunore, some of these species
are found in the liiraniie strata on both sides
of the Rooky mountains. Thus the vertical
range of sotns of these ipeciss is no leu than
it.tKM foot , and their iiresent known geographi
cal range' more than 1,100 miles.
Besides the recognition of the unity of the
widely distributed members of the formation
of this great geological period; bounded by
those of iindout'ted cretaceous age below and
those id equally undoubted tertiary age above;
his further observations have left eoruparnti veh
icle doubt that the "Laks Beds" of Dr. Hay
den as seen in Middle )ark, the "Browns jurk
group" of Prof. Bowell and the "Uinta
group" of Mr. King alt belong to one and
the same epoch, later than, and distinctly sep
arate from the Bridger group, in that portion
RUSSIA.J
plane of deniarkation between the Laramie and
Wasatch groups, although it is there that the
tinal change from brackish to entirely fresh
waters took place over that great region. Fur
thermore, he finds that while the three principal
groups of the fresh water tertiary series, west of
the Rooky mountains, namely, the Wasatch,
Often river, and Bridger groupe,have each pecu
liar characteristics, and are recognizable with
satisfactory distiiR'tiiessas general divisions, they
really constitute a continuous series of stiata,
not separated by sharply defined planes of de-
: "mw oii.iiigrii.iiicai orpnieonioiog-
1041.
During the process of the Held work as above
indicated, large and very valuable collections of
fossils have been made, all of which will con-
stitute standards of reference in the future
progress of the work, ard quits a large number
of tho sjavies are new to science. These are
now being investigated, and will be published
in the usual paleoiitological reports of the survey.
A KUSS1AN BRIDGE.
The accompanying engraving ii taken from
"Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary."
It represents a chain bridge over the Kiver
Dnieper, at Kieff, Bussia, The structure is a
very massive one, as the engraving shows, and
is a type of this class of bridge. The river in
its course passes through different climates.
The most remarkable bridges are at Smolensk
and Kieff. That at the latter place being the
one shown in the engraving.
a horse-race, is a very different thirptfamlfwe
doubt bether it will stimulate moie sensible
women to moie rsthral iffdtsof 3 edeetrisn
Ism, It is likelv rutliir to nvuikin a discust fcr
all exercises f the kind.
liKSl'KiTAtULlTV or AllRK't LITRE. A clergj'
nian once said to me, "Will fanning ever be
considered more re8poctahlelhan now ? " My
answer was, "No. " Farming is highly honored,
when we consider that from it flows all tho calls
for artisans of every name to supply the real or
imaginary wants of all mankind. Heaven, as a
state, whether it relates to the present or the
hereafter, consists mainly in the beautiful.
Adam was to dress the garden, which meant to
make it look well, and at the same time it
would be useful. How is it to-day? A beau
tiful garden attracts visitors from all the sur
rounding country. No less does an extensive
farm, made Wantiful by the diligent hand; by
the producta of the farm," man and wast survive.
All other callingB arc supported by it; but to
the question, "Is it more respectable than
formerly or will It be!" I answered, "It has
always had the precedence in respectability."
; uw ai;u goon nun in tormer time looked wn
I pleasure and delight on seed time and harvest;
i SO in this age, professional men extol the beau
1 ties of agriculture, and especially ever)' one
; who is looking for a lucrative office from the
jpeopUi will shake a friendly hand with the
honest yoeman, as much as to say, your calling
lis respectable. -Jtobrrt JfiiwftVi, fa X
; Farmer.
Bmso tan am'Stkbi.hv Boiunh. If iron
or steel articles e boiled in the following mix
ture they will take a tine blue tint ! Dissolve
four ounces hyposulphite of sod in one and
one-half pints of water, and then add a solution
of one ounce acetate of lead in one ounce of
water.
Tlti Southern Bacitic railroad has made a re
duction in its land rates, and announces that the
charge on freight from the anchorage to Los
Angeles will be fc!.:) per ton. The rate on
corn m oar-loads, from Loa Angeles to San
r rancisco, has been reduced to 5.50perton,
and on broken lota to $6.25. The aggregate re
duction will amount to about StTof the old
schedule.