The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, July 01, 1877, Page 205, Image 17

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A correspondent of the Rural Pm writes to
that paper as follows: A short time ago we re
ecived the (tth volume of the above-named
work, containing about W)0 pages. The paper
and the printing are all that could be desired,
which, added to the strong binding, make it the
best got-np herddiook we overbad the pleasure
of handling either English or American. So
far as we have had time to examine the work,
we find it comparatively but not entirely free
from errors; but as the present volume contains
an errata for errors discovered in former vol
umes, so may we expect the errors of the pres.
ent volume to be corrected by the same plan
hereafter. We have to tind one or two fault
with tliL Work OtM being iu the rather extraor
dinary large ml-lnuh, which contains the ped
igrees of no less than 185 bulla, a lair propor-
Muuu, tucm, UUWSVOT. DUng ancestors 01 00 Wl
entered further on in the work. Probably
there is no one in this Suite who makes more
use of the Herd-bonk than we do ourselves, and
in tracing out pedigrees in this work we have
often overlooked pedigrees (afterwards diacov
end to be in the atttlrnda), by expecting to tind
all the bulls alphabetically arranged, and thus
be able to tind a pedigree without the trouble of
referring to the index.
One of the beat rules governing this work is
that all pedigrees must trace to imported stock,
in all their lines. Another is, that no female
can be recorded till she has produced a living
calf, excepting as produce under her dam, fol
lowing the rules of the English Herd-book in
this respect; and very properly, we think, as in
the produce under dam ib given date when
calved, color, Bire of calf and breeder's name.
We are sorry to see that the last rule is not
trictly adhered to, for we tind no less than M
COWl without auy produce recorded under them,
the real produce being explained away by such
notes as "Regular breeder." "Has hud calves''
in One case, "Has had six calves." "Produce
dead." "Calf died," and so on. Now wo con
tend that such pedigrees do no good in a herd
hook, any further than to Hay who bred and who
owns Biich and such a cow. If they are Im
ported cows their pedigrees, with produce, will
in due time appear in the English Herd-liook,
and if they are cows that have been bred in this
country, their produce, even if dead, should be
put in the usual form under the dam the real
object of which is to show what calves a cow
has had and when, for future reference. Our
object, however, in writing this, is not to find
fault, but rather to help to make the work
better known to those of our California breed
ers who may not have seen or appreciated the
work in its true light.
The idea of getting up such a work first origi
nated, we believe, with the late . A. Alexan
der, but the undertaking not being oerried out
in his day, was afterwards put into shape by
his brother! the present proprietor of the Wood
hum estates, assisted by H. Brans, who still
continues its able and careful editor. From
the preface of the first volume we make the fol
lowing extracts, which explain the object of
starting such a work.
" Hai'W long felt the (.Tint (rant u the snort Horn
breeder! of America, ..f wnue inicr record, or limi t k,
wherein lbs pedigrees of ill puredwed Bbort Bonn. nufht
Oe recorded for preeerraUon, which m the mm Him
bouMftrc, the known pedigree of eudi ani
mal catered in it, I have undertaken t mnotjr thin want.
siiuuid. however, another rolamt or
the work he uil.listiod and other breeder!
wisli ui rcifiaitT the pnlij;rwn i( their herds, I shall In
elail In have their eo-ocniliiu, under rules, miiiifittt to
make Uu work oomplete within itself."
"Complete within itself." Herein lies the
great value of such a work to American breed
ers, in enabling them to trace out the pedigree
of each animal to its very foundation, so far as
is I'uown, from all sources whatever.
Now, in order to give some slight idea of the
labor of such an undertaking nnd the work
involved in tracing out a pedigree to its foun
dation to those who are unitiated in such
work --we will take, for example, the well
known bull, M Belvedere (1,706), who is
recorded as au ancestor, of course, in the tirst
volume of the work, and in whose pedigree
there are 1 1 sires, all of whose pedigrees are
entered in full in the same work.
Now these 1 1 sin's' pedigrees contain .r0 other
sires, all of whose pedigrees must 13 examined
and recorded, with all their sires, grandsires
and so on to the Bttd of the chapter, as one
might say, before the work can be called 'com
plete within itself," Of course, many of the
mills in the Baine pedigree trace to the same
foundation, as in the case of " Belvedere," who
bad the noted hull, " Waterloo, 1 for his hire
and "Young Wynyard " for his graudaire.
-Now the dam of the last-named hull was
" Princess," from whom also was descended the
two former bulls through her grandaughter,
" Angelina," who was the dam of " Waterloo
and the granddam of " ltelvedere," so that Mow
" Princess," or the bottom of the pedigree, as
it it called, is the same in all the ancestors.
In consequence of the very large number of
ancestors to Ik- recorded, we find that nntof the
638 hulls In the lirst volume, less than SO were
bred in America, and all the cows in With the
nrat and second volumes were either bred or
owned in Kentucky, whilst amongst the 1 ul s of
the Utter volume there are comparatively few
original entries, the greater part being the jed
igrees of ancestors, taken from the American or
Knglish herd-books most from the latter
This leing the case, the cost of recording in
the first few volumes was rather expensive to
those who made use of the work. The charge
for each edigree was 91; ancestors, not already
the honk, 50 cents each.
In the fourth volume, if werememVr rightly,
the charge for ancestors was reduces! to twenty
hve cent each, and for the tifth volume it was
wnouncwl that only ancestors then living would
'hargedfor, and with the circular giving notice
i; r the issuance of the sixth volume comes the
nnal announcement of -pedigrees one dollar
h, ancestors free. It will be seen that it is
now no more expensive to record in this book
than in the American Herd Book, for those
ho hsve cattle eligible for entry therein, the
inexorable rule being that pedigrees must trace
;n all their lines to imparted dams.
e have already said that the tirst and second
volumes contained original entries only of the
pedigrees of animals bred or owned in Kentucky.
In the third volume, however, we tind herds
owned m several other States represented in the
-. owt,c IIUt Wmg oeniuu nana in
,V1 lllC)D artJ 8t.v,iru, nBrua iron,
the Baden farm bard, whose owner, we presume,
ju J u 1 " appertaining to
Miort Horns and their pedigrees. In the fourth
volume we tind entries from the herds of Messrs.
. UKa8, 11 K'nersmi, Chat, Clark and the
estate of I boa, S. Page, and we hope hereafter to
see the work patronized by others of our State
who have Short Horns eligible for entry accord
ing to the rules governing the work, hoping that
it will prove to all other MDtoriben interest
ing and instructive in pedigree matters, as it
has ever ban to a California breeder
I The following remarks are extracted from
paper by Hark Comitook, watch appeared in
WaUac' Monthly, Many breeders have plana
to start with, but either forget them at the crit
ieal moment, or change them so often that their
selections point to no clearly defined method.
This is nearly always the experience of the nov
ice. He is educated onlv bv rminn
gains his knowledge only by the misUkea he
1111111 uas mane M the start. Hence we find
mmm mtii tew onmne snunaiaand a
large number of ordinary ones that it would lie
uesiranie to dispose ot could a purchaser le
found, but which are generally held because the
owners dislike to face the necessary sacrifice.
The tirst loss is generally the beat in such cases,
and the fact is coming to be generally under
stood with the present depression in the selling
value of even choice nnimals. Where the lack
of means dictates selections, it would not ap
pear so strange that animals wanting in some es
sential qualities for breeding should lie chanced
in the hope that the dclieionoy may Iw counter
balanced by other superior featured, ami over
come in a proper cross; but with ample means
ot command, many young breeders make their
purchases at random, completely squandering
their advantages. Sooner or later most of them
better their condition by selling out entirely,
or weeding out their stock ami re-purehasing.
The writer has noticed, in au extended
observation of some years past, that frequently
the poorest beginners have afterwards become
breeders of excellent judgment Experience
is an expensive but very effectual teacher, pro
vided the recipient of the lesson is capable of
learning. But there is now and then a clear
bttsinOM mind that takes up this subject of
breeding nnd makes a study of it before vent
uring to put its deductions into practice. Such
men determine what thev want before thev Imv
at all, ami then keep their aims clearly in mind
while selecting. They go straight by their
chart at tirst, and usually accomplish some
thing to show for it. They do not all follow
the same path nor do they all aim to accomplish
precisely the aame object; but flaring thought
far enough to create nn idea which they hope to
imitate, it generally poOseeOM luffloient merit
to be of value when approximated! nnd hence
they succeed as breeders.
It is frequently asserted that there is no
definable way of breeding that will bring suc
cess, and the whole intern is one ofenanoe,
great results coming when least expected, and
disappointment following the moat logically con
ceived plans. There is a greater measure of
nutli in this claim than even the most ardent
enthusiast on the subject can set aside, if the
object sought lie profit In the investment, and
no other aim in the breeding problem than the
lwre question of trotting speed and bottom.
The most successful breeders in thin country
produce hOO many blanks to their number of
prizes to keep thu balance sheet right, unless
the blanks possess a value independently of the
question of speed; and with the blanks in the
ratio in which they amicar on many stud farms,
it is a question whether their dismal b note
matter of far greater moment in a tiusiieial sense
than that of the prizes. It is the common ex
perience of breeding on auv considerable scale,
that after a few years' trial it is found desirable
to reduce the mares in number to the few for
which a direct nick has bean found, inddifpOOO
of the others, no matter with what care and judg
ment they were originally selected. This has
bean the experienoo at Thorn dala, stony Ford,
and other noted establishments--must coutinue
to he so. Therefore every point which tends to
produoe a foal aalabli for other purposes than
Peed, that can he compassed without sacriticiiig
the chances of that most valuable element,
should receive due business consideration in se
lecting breeding animals, in order that the pro
duce may yet bring the breeder out without
Vai.i'E of the Eitalypti'h, We learn from
the M'trorofoyiatl Nhijuuh that, at the Easter
reunion at the Sorltoiine, some information was
given by Dr. de Pietra Santra, a delegate from
the CI histological Society of Algiers, as to the
results of nn investigation made in Algeria to
ascertain the inqmrtance and value of the
Euriily4u OfootJfjM iii relation to public health.
It aiq-cars that rejiorts were received from BO
localities where the aggregate In i of blue
gum trees is nearly l,UUU,(l()U, and from these
rejsirts the following conclusions have been
drawn: 1. that the
eucalyptus possesses sanitary influence; tor 2,
wherever it has been On titrated intermittent
fever has considerably decreased both m intens
ity and in frequency; and 8, marshy and uncul
tivated lands bare thni been rendered healthy
and quite transformed . Similar results have
lieen obtained in Corsica, where it is computed
that in the present year there will lie upwards
of WXI.000 plants of eucalyptus in full growth.
To Remove Rist To extract rust fmm
steel, immerse tile article to tie cleaned in a
solution of one-half ounce cyanide of potassium
to a wine glass full of water until the rust and
dirt disapear. Hum clean by meaue of a tooth
brush with a paste comtiosed of cyanide of
Citassium, castile soap, whitening, and water,
sen of this recie must remember that cyanide
of potassium is a must virulent poison.
Our alfalfa growers who find their plants
hugged to death by the ursiue dodder parasite,
are sometimes at a loss to determine whence
comes the grievous pest Our English cousins
tind it very destructive to their clover tields,
and they have apparently concluded that the
seed which they import is pretty freely dod
dered. On this subject, Messrs. Carter, seeds
men of London, write in their newly ranted
catalogue: "We have devoted considerable
atteution to this important subject, and last
spring conducted the following experiment;
Having obtained a quantity of dodder seed
mm a dirty sample of foreign broad red clover
(and it is only in the foreign plovers that dod
der abounds, only to be detected by a keen pro
fessional eye wo sowed it afterwards, trans
planting the Meshy threads amongst a Utch of
machine-cleaned seeds, ami the process of the
destruction of the crop was soon completed."
It may not le generally known that dodder
does not show itself in the tirst stages of growth
of the clover crop, ami very many fields, con
sidered to be splendid leas in the autumn, are
spaadily choked and destroyed the following
" This detestable post waits for the clover plant
to develop into luxuriance, and then winding
its web like loaflooi tendrils around the base of
the stem (into which it inserts its mots and
saps away the very life of the clover), it winds
round and round the upper portion of the plant
... c.i.i imwvj in. i uu mm oi uomicr
are sometimes conveyed into the land, and
either from being biiried too deep to induce
germination, or from the fact that the growing
crop is not sufficiently congenial to the habit of
the dodder, the latter remains dormant only too
surely to develop itself when the land is again
cropped with clover."
It seems all important that alfalfa growers
should put in nothing but clean seed. This
toot they can determine by examining what
they buy with a magnifying glass, after tirst
acquainting themselves with the appearanos of
the dodder seed. We have no doubt that in
most cases it will be found economical to buy
the 1est samples of seed which are offered, as it
is In low priced bulks that the weeds are most
frequently found in quantities seriously inimical
to good fanning. Of all the weeds in clover,
the clover dodder is the most serious snantv.
inasmuch that when mice infested with this
est, a more or less destruction of the crop is
From the pages of a recent issue of the A M
enn J wrier nwl Sihvrtmitlt we collect the fol
lowing hints of practice:
Silver alloys No. I. Silver, II ounces, two
pennyweights; copper, IN pennyweights. No.
2. Silver, one ounce; copper, one penny weight,
1. grains. No. ;i. Silver, one ounce; copjicr,
live penny weights. A solder for the nhove Is .
follows: Silver, If) pennyweights; copjier, 12
gHwuwi Miunsi wirec pennyweights, W grains.
Surer snider, for enameling Silver, 14 pen
nyweights; ooppar, eight pennyweights.
Quicksilver solder -Silver, one ounce; pin.
brass, II) pennyweights; liar tin, two pennr
Common silver, for chains - Silver, six ounces;
copper, four ounces.
A bright gold tinge may be given to silver
by steeping for a suitable length of time in a
weak solution ot sulphuric acid water, strongly
impregnated with iron rust.
rOlluing tortolsesholl nud ivory Putty imiw
der (oxide of tin) will put a beautiful pollsU on
ivory, and Would possibly do for tortouMebell
Apply the putty powder on a piece of ftannal
with water or methylated spirits and el DOW
grease, and limsh oil' with drv howder.
As Uekeifttng is replacing silvering in certain
eases, so mere are cases wiiere mckeluing may
be itself replaced for many articles of small
vnlue. The inauiiiulation is verv hi no. I..
Coarse, rasped, or granulated BUM la boiled for
some time in a mixture of three jiarts, by
weight, of sal ammoniac and 10 of water, The
) 't II I'-'t ;.II1 M IIT. ) UK i ilii in.- !
The deposit is silvery liriglit, and resists me
Obanioa action as well lis a coating of nickel.
This process OaO be recommended for goods that
are meant for second coating of some other
metal, since auy other is easily deposited iikiii
A gold lac, remarkable for its great hardne
and Is-aiitii'ul color, on Ik-hil' analvzed bv ll
R. Kayser, Nuremberg, gave as it constituent
picric acid and Ixiraeic scid. Til wee hull a clear
slicllac solution was mixed with picric acid and
half percent, of crystal I i iced bnnmaaaU. ssuA
being previously dissolved in alcohol, ami the
leBiiumK MM pVBHBMSJ ail WO aUVSllUgi'S ol til'
former one.
Reclamation ok Land in China. There is
no country in the world where u little money
appropriated in reclaiming valuable laud will do
so much a in China, Mr. Cnthank think 1
that an outlay of 8I,00,WHJ, in draining the
" ' "J me oraixi eanai m i Hlr.w river,
would reclaim rice lands to the value of Kill,
i si. mm J he Chinese do not dredge their
canal, but build the lnks higher as the sedi
ment in the bottom raises the Water, and the
consequence is the surface of the water is in
many places 15 or '.0 feat above the laud on
either side. The canal is WHI miles long, and
from 7.r to lotl feet wide. The depth, accord
ing to .Mr. L'ntliank's measurements, vanes
from , Ui "M feet
The htrrKRR!irr.-"Vhat will you give me
or una uo-iKin, sir
"Mv bov." tint loan .!! "vu .t
"Yes, sir! Ho very fat ! Indeml he were!
If ever dog were fleshy, he were that"
"Well then, my son, I'm sorry, for the fur of
such fst dogs is valueless."
Thereat the boy eielaimod, "Now thst I do
ncdJ that dag, b wasn't M blamed fat after
all !" Srrttmtr or July.
Or. Asa Gray writes to the American Journal
t)f Stirnct ami Art a brief communication to
descrilve a peculiar structure which ifr.iarrhka
CaliforHka exhibits in germination, and to call
for observations upon other species, at the time
of germination, in the hope of thereby extend
ing our present Imperfect knowledge of this
enus of big-nmted CiiriiWuViirc.r of our Pacific
coast. For the extraordinary peonUaftty in
question, lieing one which, in other cases, is
Known to exhibit itsel! m certain svics of a
genus (as in Attmom and Hrli&iniwi). and not
iu others, so it may in the present genua giro
aid in distinguishing the live species which have
been characterized upon more or less incomplete
or seantv materials.
uter reriewiui the nofntl in the known his
tory of the plant, as recorded by other olieerv
ers, Dr. Crav writes as follows: The M. ili.
fhrafCd had been raised in the botanio ganlen of
narvani nivci'sm manv vears aco, Imt I hail
seen the termination: and we were nnvnr
able to bring the plant into blossom, as it in-
anamy aiea U0WU to the ground scon after
making a moderate growth. On gat minuting
some fresh seeds early this spring, 1 was some
what surprised to tind that they came up in the
manner of benna, Instead of remaining hypo
gii'ous, as from the great thickness of the coty
ledous would have been expected, the body of
the seed ill its lit 11 h.m raHe.l well out of the
soil upon What seemed to lie a well developed
ruuicie, iiKc tnai oi r.rniuocrii.itt.. It the coty
ledons had expanded, though remaining ileshy,
in the manlier of 'Ausri ., the dill'erenco lo
tween this nud KcAiHOcytill, with cotyledons
tmly foliaOBOUl in germination, would be much
less than had been BUDDCeed. I waited lomrto
see if this w ould occur; I also waited in vain for
the exjH'eted development of the plumule from
between tin- bases of the ileshy cotyledons.
After the lapse of about a fortnight, the plum
ule in all three of my uenniuatiiiL' lilautlets
came aepantaly out of the soil of the pot
That It, the plumule came forth from thabaae
of what appeared to be an elongated radicle (of
iwii or inrec inches in length); mui hlow this
the thickening of the root, which acquires enor
mous dimensions in old plants, had already
commenced. A large amount of the nourishing
matter stored in the cotyledons had lieen car
ried down to the root and used in its growth as
well as that of the plumule. The latter came
from a cleft at the very base of the seeming rad
icle, which otherwise apin-ared to W solid. Rut
on cutting it acrocs toward the bfsMthll was
found to Ih tubular; and later, when more spent
and beginning to wither, this stalk w as separ-
able from above downward into two parts.
This, therefore, is a case in which long pet
ioles to the cotyledons (of which there is no ap
paaraUOe in the seed), connate into one Ixnly ,
are developed and greatly lengthened in place
of the radicle, which is thus simulated. It is
the same as in Drlyhinium h ml intuit of Califor
nia and some other species; only in that genus
the cotyledons expand and become foliaeeoua,
Botaniete on the Pacific coast are earnestly
requested to examine the germination of nil the
BiM-cies of ienuWAAO, and to compare with
them the descriptions which are hero given.
At least three species should lie met with near
San Francisco, and in ncighlmriiig part of Cal
ifornia, Aaoordingto the character assigned
by Mr. Watson m the "BotfUTt of California,"
.1. CaUfbmiea should be known by its obovoid
seeds, nl less than au inch iu length, w ith a
small httnm at the narrow base; .1. Munth, by
it numerous seeds Imrinntully imposed in a
large fruit (of four inches in length I, each seed
roundish nnd depressed, flattened an inch in
diameter and nliout half as thick, w ith a prom
inent lateral bUum, .1. mttrirnt-i, by it nearly
naked fruit only an inch in diameter, contain seeds .if half an inch in
diameter. Jf. OrejMRa, which is known to oo
cur from the Columbia river to the north of
California, aiqw-ars to have seeds renciuhliug
those of M, aVorOA, but rather smaller; huttlmy
are not well known. The remaining one, M.
OmdaUiimuU, of Guadalupe island, oirbiwer
California, is much out of ordinary reach, unless
it should Ik- found in the southern art of thu
State. Mature fruits and seeds of all-5uso-cies
are much desired.
The system of parcbmeiitnig juipcr is now ap
plied to cotton, and according to the Ayr
mat promises a very imjxirtaut result. I.
Parch man tad cotton a a sulwtitute for wool.
The raw cotton, well cleaned, is left for 24
hours in a solution of one part concentrated sul
phuric acid, one part of xulpbate of glycerine,
and three parte water, at a temperature of lio'
F. It is then wrung lietween glass rollers until
the test neper gone no longer red. After dry
ing the blu rs will ! found to have acquired
most of the qualities of sheep's wool, and for
using this cotton for spuming, weaving, or dye
ing, it ha only to U wrapjied (Ix-aUili into?) ill
felt. When Inline are made exclusively with
the transformed material, and linally have Iwen
ainiualied iu the usual way by milk, amiuouia,
oil, and bine, the fabric cannot be distinguished
from genuine WOoUu gsls, except by the smell
given off in burning them, sines the Unified
cotton smells just like the natural one. The
sii-r prOpertioB airqiiired by the OOttOU thniiigh
this pr.K-esi justify the exNM:tatiou that it will
supersede all the ingredieiiU hitherto used for
producing hslf woolen good. CotUui arcn
meatad as a subtitut for linen. Cotton yarns
w hich have len steeped for 24 hours in a mix
ture of two parts concentrated sulphuric acid,
and three part water at gjU 1 f, , then pressed
and lined ss aUve, and will not only have ac
quired every protwrty of m.. yra, but it is
also stronger and 1. - corruptible than the lat
ter. 'Hie difference in once, esjcially in line
nuuds rs such as used lor cambrics, being very
considerable, the prcess would also prove com
mercially successful iu this branch of industry.
It is reported that grow ing crojisin Kunjdo
not promise as well as a short time ago. Iu the
Kaat the Turk haa turnel the Russian advanoa
i i Asia, and meu the Russian ouset in Kurups
with considerable vigor.