June. THE AVEST SHORE. 177 MAKING SOAP. Most people In the country prefer home-made snap. 1 icy have the fat necessary in the shape Ol refuse lanl tallow, bacon, skins, etc., ami the potash of soda can DOW be easily obtained for OH with much less labor than was formerly re anind when the potash had to W extracted from the pile of wood-ashes at home. Where wood is used for fuel this ia yet done If oue has no liomc.ma.le lye, bay c'nustie soda -you can get it at any apothecary's if nowhere else-Olid use it in this way: For bud soap take cue POttnd of caustic soda, three pounds of fat, nr live or HIV ii,. i;n. i- nf .i . i I 11 re ""im.il ) NMI lai, alio. three gallons of water; put all together in a kettle over the lire and boll, adding three or four handfuls of salt lielore the boiling is quite liniahed: from two to thr... i,..,,,- :ii 1 necessary. The experienced soap-boiler will know by its appearance when it has boiled enough. The novice will soon leant Where cauBtic soda cannot lie obtained get coiumon washing or sal-soda, and by the addi tiou of lime make it caustic, after the following plan, which is the one generally- in use at the present, and which makes an excellent soap: lake six pounds of washing soda and three jwunda of fresh, unslacked lime; place together in any water-tight vessel an iron kettle is best and pour on two gallons of boiling water; stir occasionally until the lime is slacked and the soda dissolved, then allow it to settle, 'lake the clean lye from the top and jKmr it on the fat of which three pounds common scrapings are to be taken and commence boiling! then add another gallon of water to the settlings of the oda and lime, stirring a before. This lye is then to be added to the other while boiling; ash) throw in about six single handfuls of salt about half an hour before it is done boiling. Boil two hours. Without the salt either of these methods will make a semi-soft soap; but for a real soft soap juttash must lie used. This you can buy for the punHise; or, if you prefer, extract from wood ashes by simply mixing a little fresh lime with thera and pouring on water. An old band or tub will do to hold them, if there is a hole in the bottom for the liquid to drain out. The ash-hoppers fonnerly used for this puqiose are yet standing alongside of some outhouses on many farms, hut Bcldom used now. For toilet purposes a soap made with a vege table oil is to be preferred eastile, palm, or co coa rather than those highly iierftuned, but which are aoinutimes mode from tliu most im pure materials. If iierfumed soap i- wanted the common soap alsive can Ik; melted, and iier fume of any desired kind can be added; but it will be rather strong for delicate skins, and cos tile is much to I- preferred. Soap-making need no longer lie dreaded by the women to whose lot it falls, as, by the methods we have given, as well as other similar ones, all the soap needed in a family for six months can le easily made in a single day. It is sometimes said that the boine-niade soap costs more than it could be bought for. Per haps it does, but then yon have the satisfaction of knowing from what it is made. Kau de Coum.sk as an Anesthetic. At a recent meeting of the Nice Society of Medicine, Dr. Hugues presented some observations upon the enawthetlc Inflneaoe of Kau do Cologne, which he had recently noticed. I none instance, that of a young lady altlicted w ith tulcreular consumption, and with whom injections of mor phine and the use of chloral had failed to pro duce the desired repose, a friend suggested a trial of Kau de Cologne, which she had already used witli success in similar circumstances on some twenty different occasions. An Immedi ate experiment w as made, by placing a handker chief well moistened with cologne under the nostrils of the invalid, who, in the space of seven minutes, sank into a profound slumler. The same experiment Mas repeated in other cases, with excellent results. St'OAK Makinu. On the subject of sugar making, the Ipswich ObterWf writes: ".Mr. Kastes, of Heeuleigh, has made a most astound ng discovery in sugar making, lie claimed to be able to crystallize the whole of the juice and leave no molasses. He tested his discovery at Dart's mill, near Itrislianc and the result was astonishing. He experimented on Chigaeca rattoon juice marking 10 IScaume, ami from l,!HK) gallons was produced l',-100 pounds of beautiful white sugar, equal to the retincd of Vcngarie, and not a pint of molasses! It was finished in vacuum jians, and came out with only a little moisture, which the centrifugal soon removed. This is assuredly the precursor of a revolution in sugar making, and the magnitude ol its importance is tremendous." FoiuK-diviNii Food in Bramub Brown bre.nl, oatmeal and fruits are all torcv-giviug, hut to a less extent than fats, yet sufficiently so hr the requirements of the season, and those penone much who have very muscular work to 00 may use more freely force-giving foods in hot Weather than those whose uboc is sedentary and light. From experiments which we have well tried, over and over again, however, we are Mtisfied that even farmers, in the hottest days t' summer, who are obliged to work in the barret! held can do more work, suffer less w ith heat, and incur less risk of sunstroke by follow ing the mles we have laid down, than by using hhihlv carbonized diet of oils and fats. Jfr. tfoaVwai DURABILITY OF TIMBER The durability of timber isfnlmost incredible. The following are a few examples for illustra tion, selected for the Railway trom vari ous sources, and vouched for by scientific men. The piles of a bridge built by Trajan, after having Ken driven more than 1,600 vears, were found to U- petrified four inches, the rest of the wooa ueing m its ordinary condition. The elm piles under the piers of London bridge have been in use more than 700 vears, and are not yet materially decayed. Beneath the foundation of Savoy place, Lon don, oak, elm, beech ami chestnut piles and planks were found in a state of perfect preser vation, after having Wen there for 660 years. While taking down the old walls of Tun bridge castle, Rent, there was found iu the middle of a thick stone wall a timber curb, which had been enclosed for 700 years. Borne timber of in old bridge wo discovered while digging for the foundations of a bouse at Dtt3C ark, Windsor, which nnvi-jut reoarda incline us to believe were placed there prior to the year 1806. The durability of tiuilter out of ground is even greater still. The roof off the basilica of St. Paul, at Rome, was framed m the year BIO, and now, after more than 1,00) years, it is still sound, and the original cypress-wood doors of the same building, after being in use more than (Kill years, were, when replaced by others of brass, perfectly free from rot or decay, the Wood retaining its original odor. The timber dome of St. Mark, at Venice, is still good, though more than BM years old. The roof of the Jac obin convent, at Paris, which is of tir, was ex ecuted more than 4o0 years ago. The age of our country's settlement does not enable us to refer to examples of like antiquity) but no good reason appears to exist why timber may not he as durable in America as in Europe, -Many old white-pine cornices here exist, whicji, having leen kept properly painted, have been exposed to the storms of more than ISO years. The wood is still sound, and the arrises are as good as -when they were made; while freestone, in the same neighborhood, has decayed badly in less than .10 years. What is an RxurxaKB? At the lost meeting of the Knghsh Society of Kligilieeni the Presi- .lent, Mr. Vaughn Pendred, stated In bis ad. dress that in the highest lenae of the term an engineer is a man who cannot only invent or de vise but execute; in a sulwnliary sense every man who can construct is an engineer. Booh an admirable dcliniti savs the Mining Jour nal, can offend in e, for it will include not only the Tclfurds, but the Stovcnsons, and the builders of such elegant bridges as that w Inch recently doubled up In lermany, but also the entire maiiufae luring population of the world, from Sir Joseph Whitworth to the itin erant tinker: it will account, too, for the free dom with which the title of engineer is assumed by men of all classes and jsisscssing various de grees of knowledge, and should have the effect of largely increasing the uumlicr of membere of that useful society of which Mr. Pendred is the able representative. Admitting tbatevery man who can construct is an engineer, there will tut less difficulty in accepting the President's grati fying assurance that the whole army of engi DUO n, civil and mechanical, has operated from the earliest nges to the present moment in the achievement of a great work, no less a work than the civilization of mankind, and that he is enunciating a great truth in declaring that engineers have done more to raise men to the high level which they now occupy than even the philosopher or the statesman; that engi neers are Me great civilizers of mankind, and that nearly all that is good, or pleasant, or worth having iii modern Uie -.happy engineera results from their lalors. Comnnra rod axd Strkl, Dry Wat, In eases where it is desired to give a stout coating BOppar. brass or bronze to wrought or caat Iron goods, and a uniform thickness is not weutia, a iu flic lent quantity of the metal is -t to melt in a crucible. Its upjier surface re ceive! a layer of (iaudoiti's Hus, a mixture of cryolite and phosphoric acid, and the article, heated to the temperature of the lth, is placed i" it If the article is heavy, it will be well t" heat it gradually and thoroughly, both to avoid um-qual expansion and to obviate the danger of the coating peeling off in conaequeii. c at unequal contraction. Kkttles. The old notion that a three-legged tea-kettle boils soonest, is correct, because the 'tga conduct heat more rapidly than the plain urface alone. SlffaCLAB FORaUnoRR, Thfl character of the led-rock at and near Point Bar. on Trinity ri ver, is very different from the genera run of river mines. In a ci n. raJ wav 'Iron nlaces ai the lied-rock, unless they are regular channels or crevices, pay n-ttliiii.-; the pav lirt hotoMcml ing Mow the level of the surrounding rock, but continuing along iu the gravel at thatlevel. At and near Point liar, the reverse is the case, the liest and richest pay having lccn always found in deep depressions of the bed-rock. On Point liar itsell some tour or live of those ileep places have been found, filled with big bowloen and blue L'ravd. rich in uobl. The decti nlaces are from thirty to a hundred yards long, fifteen to tuirty yanis in width ami t a varying dcptli. One in the river, a short distance Mow the old etore and garden, was twenty feet deeper than en waier in the channel, ami lookcil like a long, deep bole in the led-roek, as in fact it was. Hughes k Wallaoe have found two such de. preaeiona in their claim opposite Qardeo liar, one mile below, both of which proepoul well; and so far as worked have aid welt. It is the only place along the river that we know ol, whore anything like a "pothole" payi anything below the level of the surrounding rock. Trini ty Journal. I.akk St i'KUioR Sun- ( 'anai. The troubles of this unfortunate corjsiration do not seem to Im entirely ended vet. The sale of the canal, its franchises, lands, etc., was made under fore closure proceedings on the llth of May. The property, says the Detroit Pod, was bra in by trustees fair alxiut $877,000 (a sum not sufficient t pay the preferred I Hinds in full), who pro ceeded to organize anew company, to whom it waa transferred. All parties of record consent ing thereto, the sale waa confirmed by Judge Hmwn - u rat days sime. At tin- time of the sale a representative of some of the New York landholders was on the ground and tiled with the master making the sale a written protest against the proceeding, alleging that there waa a ring, a conspiracy; that an apeal waa pend ing, that the sale had lieen insufficiently adver tised, and that capitalist! stood ready to Iwy the prtqierty in due time at something like ita value. This protaat waa ignored, and this pro tectant came before Judge Swayne and asked that the confirmation of the sale lie act aside. There waa much talk about fraud, ringa, extra ordinary haate in continuing the rejNirt of sale, etc. Judge Swayne took the matter under ad-vtaemeut. THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY. We have heard but little lately of this great enterprise to which the Dominion of Can ada is committed, hut some interesting informa tion as to the progress and position ol the rail way is afforded iu a report just issued by Mr. Bradford Fleming, the chief engineer "of the undertaking. The surveys or examinations made by Mr. Sandford Fleming and his asso ciates have not all been of the same ehatacter, Out they have varied according to circum stances. They may be subdivided under six heads: First, explorations; secondly, explora tory surveys; thirdly, revised surveys; fourthly, trial locations; fifthly, Location surveys: and sixthly, revised bn-atious. At the commence- ment of the eurrey, all the sources of wfonna tion open to inquiry with regard to the passes through the Rooky mountains were consulted; and after careful examination, it appeared that two paatea known as the Howie and the Yellow Head possessed advantages which, taken in con junction wuli the approaches to them, called for further examination. It was evident that the obetaolee which btervened between the passes and the coast of llritish Columbia were of a serious character, and that the selection of the pass through the main Rooky mountain range depended on the discovery of a practica ble line oeross the whole mountain re gion. After various examinations, the Yellow Head iass waa preferentially selected, and it was found that it was jMissible to reach the coast by the course mid outlet of the rivers Thompson and Fraser, the line terminating at an excellent harlor on Itnrrard inlet. It was ascertained that ortious of the route through the Rooky mountain region would beeipenaive, but that the engineering features w Inch govern the cost of working a railway and transporting goods promised to le much more favorable on the Canadian line than on the American route. Ten routes have been Opened lor consideration by Mr. Sandford Fleming and his assistants. 'I hese routes terminate on the coast of the main laud at seven distinct barbon, but they all con verge on Yellow Head Pass. The line has been "located" witli sufficient accuracy to admit of the construction of an overland telegraph. Up ward! of 1, (KM) men have been employed iu the surveys directed by Mr. Fleming, and the routes explored amount in the aggregate to nearly 40, 000 miles. Of th is aggregate, eleven thousand live hundred miles were laboriously measured yard by yard, through mountain, prairie, and foreat, with spirit level, chain, and the usual appli ances. Mr. Fleming is obliged to admit that, aiinougn seerai routes uie available troiu the Uocky mountains to the I 'aei lie coast, it e.innot lie claimed for any one oi them that it is free iroin constructive .litliculties. I DKKI' Mininu Siiafix IN Kl'HOl'K. Twenty yiars ago the deepest mining abaft in the world reached only about L'.IKH) feet Mow the surface. The very deeitcst, we Mievc. was a nielalliler- : oils mine iu Hanover, which baa been carried down to the depth of 2.900 feet The deopcet oriendicular sliait to-day is the Adalbert shaft , in a silver-lead mine iu Prizibram, iu Bohemia, : which has reached a depth of :i,lS0 feet. The attainment of that depth was made the ooce siou of a three-days' festival, and still forth- I noticed by the striking oil' of a large number of coinnioniorative silver medals of the value of a Norm each. There is no record of the begin ning ot work on this mine, although its written llistorv foes back to I.V'7. tJiiitn re. tie mi elegant commemorative volume has Ih-cii writ ten ami printed, winch is most interest in-; V those who have a taste for either the MtoafTtiea i or antiquities of mining industry. There are two other localities, however, where a greater oi no lias oecll reached i . . at the AiiaiDOn sliatt, hut nut in a lierpcmhciilar hue. The I are: first, the Kocksalt DOre-hole. in ar Span iKrg, nut far from Iterbn, w Inch, a I. w y- .n-. ago, had lcen lM.red to a depth of J.I7-'i fi-et aeoond, the coal mine of Vivien Itemus, u Belgium. Where the miners, by shaft ilnklmr. together with boring, have reached a depth of ILrM'J feet. Turning fnmi these two mines, no shaft, in unbroken, iHrjcmlicnlar line, has oh yei exceeoeti uie ilepth ol S.'JMMeet poisons ix WHITE RUBBER. We have lately alluded to the dangerous qualities iu thin substance. The subject is worth further description and we quota from the Manntactuitr ud HniLUr iu bdlows; Hub. bet is at present largely adulterated so as to make it cheaper, The overshoes and Umta made of this material are adulterated with tiuely-ground burned potter's clay, of which it can stand as much as Im per cent, without los ing its fitness for the purpose. The adultera tion is harmless, only the material is not so strong, and the shoes or Units, instead of last ing several seasons, as the old-fashioned little or non-adulterated material, scarcely but olio season, as they tear very easily and holes soon wear iu them. While the pure rubber is stronger than the beat leather, the adulterated robber is ION strong than the Wont leather. ltiibbcr hose and sheet rubber am osiodle adulterated with aoapatone. This gives a lighter color to tlie material, while the burnt clay adulteration leaves it dark-colored, which is preferred for shoes. Hut some adulterations are hurtful, being poisonous in their nature. Such is the adulteration with .ine-white, w hich makes the rubber very light-colored, and is used in the rnhltcr for nursing-1 ottlos and ,........ l.ijn. L1M aiNWW BUW pOlSOlllllg n tile system are searcelv less alamtttia than lead poisoning. Sometime ago a little child in 1 1 uiwjuvMiM oieu noiii uuni ing a paper collar, which, like many paper collars, was prepared with inc-while; and cases arc now on record where children have Weenie sick from keeping rubber toys in their mouths. So many eases ilf rom the w hile nipples ot Iiuisiiil'- Pliis.Kliss on Till BnOOKLTR BftlDOft The work of laying two of the four great eahles of the Brooklyn bridge is now in progress. The steel billets out of which the wire of these cables U manufactured, says the Amtrkan llannflte- hirer, are from the Works of Messrs. Aii.b'i-on . raaaavant, of ntteburg, ami. as delivered, are drawn to a fourth inch in thickliess. The work of preparing the wire from these billets is done at a man u factory 141 Brooklyn, Befon lK'ing galvani.etl this win- measures llu-HKf) ol an inch iu diameter. IMorc lieiiig m'tit to the bridge it is galvanized ami receives two coats (if oil, increasing the diameter to from hM-HMH) to 17:1-1000, weighing in coils of from MM to 1,'JIIO feet, not less than fill toumk On the anchorage the wire receives another coat of oil, and is wound on to drums in lengths of about 10 miles, the wires being spin ed, and from them is paid out and brought to the New York anchorage by means of the camera. The cables, of which there will be four, when com plete will consist of HI brands of MO win s each. It is thought that one strand for each cable can lie completed in one month, at which rate it will take nineteen mouths to finish the cables. The cables will measure ahmil .M inches in diameter, and weigh some MM ton's each, Thr Watkh Rot tkh num Oanoaoo to Kiw York. Krie canal-men have reduowl their eharge four cei,u jer bushel on corn fnun Bmfwo to New York I the lake veaaela are car rying from Chicago to Ituffalo for two cvtitr, and, adding the elevator charges at the latter place and the insurance, the total unit of send ing a bushel of corn from Chicago to New York is now alciut seven and a half eenta, the rail rate lieing about 10 eenta iwr bushel, last year the canal rate alone waa nine eenta oti corn, which waa a large reduction from former charge. Tiiant uii TUB I'YHKNKfcX A tunnel through the Pyrenees will complete the railroad commu nication between France and Spain by January 1st, 1878. It will aave twelve noun of dili gence ruling. bottles have already occurred, that the use of zinc iu them has been mostly abandoned, Liraav ruooor nippies, or nous, w hen laid ill vineflar. become covered with an Inamataainn of inc acetate, luoneeaae, int.7:t gram of a doll 0.45 gram of zinc oxid was found, (over 60 percent.) in subjecting such rubber objects to a red neat, li'-' per cent, of ashes remained, while the ashes were yellow while hot and ho came white on cooling, which is the character tatifl behavior of zinc oxide, called zine w hite. In another case, in a doll warranted harmless, 58 per cent of aahee waa obtained, mostly all lino oxide. Several chemical journals an' now oalllna at tention to these tacts, and it is to be hoped that it will effeot an amelioration in the consciences of the manufacturers. OroOKRD RalLWAYa, We read Of something abroad which has been hinted at iu our own country. The crooked nature of the railway fromGalati westward parallel with the Danube is a peculiarity w hich there is nothing in tho surface of the laud to account for. A corre spondent nt' .. Ttmu explains that in follow ing out on the map the capricious zigzags which the principal Roumanian railway describes, a circumstance which becomes more complicated in the eyes of the traveler by reason of a DUm ber of curvee of a utility more than queetion- able, one asks himscli the reason of this extra ordinary antipathy (or straight lines, which baa placed under the caution of the Turks an im portant point iu the line of communication no valuable, since it would have been both more direct and safer to have one line run ten good leagues distance in the interior. Here is the singular explanation they give, such aa it is. Tim Roumanian railway waa undertaken by Strouslierg. It was a memorable impudence, to sMak with prudence. One of tho stipula tions of the Contract was that there should lie n Certain subvention ar mile, and this was au oorded befon the line was laid out. The con tractor accordingly lengthened his line with curves to the utmost Jiossible extent. (J it an i ik Railways, a French engineer has proposed to establish tramways with granite tracks in lieu of rails, iu riuislerre. He la ol opinion that this system is far preferable to the ordinary railroads, There already exists a vast network of what are in truth tramways with granite rails, Worked by horse traction, in north ern Italy. Iu tbestreetsof llw principal towns, and sometimes on the roads, tracks of granite are laid in the highway The surtae " these tracks iH-mg flat and perfectly smooth, tho wheels of the vehicles glidV over them with tho least poeaible friction. The conductor of each vclm fe takes care so to guide it that the wheels always remain on the granite. The author of the project maintains that then; is nothing to prevent the granite lines from boUU used by carriages driven by steam power, in like man ner aa though drawn by horses. At the same time it is not promised to d .,, tho train ava. tem on grand. traeks; each carriage will 1st pro- vided with ite own eteam power, will move by iteelf, ami lie guided by means of ., mechanism aneeuuly devised for the purpose, 'alt Mali Oairttr. I. till' Ml W i t tor uiv Bhim EIm im m.. following is Mid to be ft good formula for tho i""!"-" ' ' "- oona rauuvr in i pint of oil of torpentine by the aid ol a water bath, preventing lossi disaolve 15 one, o( purelrees wax, 8 on, of burgundy pitch, and I rat "f gumohlNiuum iu -I pints of oil of tStrpsntUWI llirll mli'iiiM. nl flu. !...( In 1.U..L .. ;.v. pmt t oil of terpentine u a amooth mixture, -y " """" "on now pint of oops varnmh and afterwards pints of limn u itj r iii unniil it Ii.b .,f J mm -t m t. . " ". """ MUM, siirrmg after each aildition, and continuing the stirring UIU is aiioi .i lir some time af terwards. The miitiire must always Iki well stirred up befon any is taken out for 0SS, Thr Irtrrior Bra is Auawta s i... recently publi.hc-1 rejs.rt by Itomlaire on Ida RUaUaOn to the ( Imtts. baSaMM Hi. Li i kL. liulf of I n, Srth Africa, aprOBM of the i oiaaing an Ulterior a.a, the Kngiuh Mrrfan,- b arns that some '2.VIMMI (Nil t,. .'Mi . (BW.OUI) cubic metera of aand would have to lie displaced dirw-tlv. Tlie j.roUble eipeiiae u put at i'l.OIKt.WK) to .'W.dOO.fKMl fram. The water of ttie .Med.terraiieaii would Ihi dejs mb d oti to -il. . t the d. . p. mi,- of the trench, to tho eitentof I IU,UUQ,UUU cubic metera.