The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, June 01, 1877, Page 185, Image 13

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Order anil cleanliness in machine shops and
manufactories may be advocated for higher rea
sons, and yet none is more convincing than the
method which shows the economic side of the
question. A writer in the Polfttchnk rVi w
lias some lharp points to make on this subject
and we quota as follows: A workshop, how
ever small, however few the number of hands,
is never too small to have a system; want of
syBtem is the cause of great waste of time ami
material, besides constant worry and discontent
Step inside this building of fair demensions,
whose front is covered witli big lettered signs,
bowing that it i devoted to the production of
all kinds of machinery.
What do We find! The floor covered with
litter, heaps of cuttings under ever lathe or ma
chine, under every bench; on tho floor new and
old material of all kinds have been thrown in
almost inextricable confusion; the machinery is
encrusted with oil and dirt, except just those
parts that meet the hand in working, and the
speed cones and pulleys polished by the run
ning belts, showing what might be and is not.
The cutting tools, the bolts and plates, and
othlT gear used in these machines. He around
their bases; a new strata seems to lie fast clos
ing over some of them. Overhead is heard the
harsh grating of some loose pulley; the Mts
have been thrown off others by some sensitive
workman, who cannot liear the unpleasant noise
in such cases; the lelts dangle from the Bhafts.
the running shaft keening a stretch on them and
wearing them all the time. About 30 men
are employed iit these works, yet there is no one
whose social duty it is to look after the tools,
to replace or repair them when lost or broken.
A man has to drill a three-. piurter inch hole
in a piece of plate; the time actually required
WOUld he about live or ten minutes if good order
were kept on this case. The man commences
by making a tour of the shop, for there are
some drills lying around this machine, and some
around that, and there is no OM pttUt where
every drill not in use is sure to he found. His
search is not crowned with immediate success;
a three-quarter clearing drill (Kl-lliths) is the
nearest he can procure; he has set his callers
and taken the size of it; he proceeds to grind it
to three-quarters; having reduced it to the size,
he liuds it will not clear itself so high as he
wishes; however, at last, hy more grinding, he
is utitued with it, and is ready to commence -time
lost, 10 minutes. He is hardly
through drilling, when up comes a man looking
for the thrce-ipiarter clearing drill he was using
"2" minutes ago; he, finding it has been altered,
takes it to the smith, and waits to have it llat
te nod out, which, with the re-grinding, makes
a further loss of SO minutes total loss, forty
minutes on the drilling of a three-quarter hole,
for which the lmss could scarcely charge more
than 10 cents.
Another has a brass to plane; no tool for brass
seems to he visible; he has probably trodden it
down too deep in the thick red dust of the floor
ing to lie distinguishable. However, he soon
grinds oil' the top of a tool for cutting wrought
iron; that is easy enough but when that tool is
wanted utiu to work in the material it u
made for, l-llith of an inch must be ground off
its facets to restore the origimd angle -waste of
nine ami steel.
II a workman ihould hepped to drop a small
pin, washer or key, he makes another, because
among the debris around he knows it is as much
lost as though when it fell the earth had gaped
to receive it.
A Paris letter in the llostoii AdmUm thus
describes Toimuasi's invention, which is ex
pected to etfect a revolution in the methods of
ocean telegraphy: The transatlantic cable re
quires the use of very feeble currents, as the
only means of avoiding combustion or oxidation
of the wires, and this feebleness of current ne
cessitates the use of a compass, placed perpen
dicularly in a dark room opposite a blackboard,
upon which a strong ray of light iemiitH the
operator to follow the movements of the needle
and take down the dispatches as they arrive.
Not only is this system fatiguing and slow, but
it leaves the sender and receiver of a dispatch
quite at the mercy of the telegraph oiierator,
whose slightest inattention may result in an
error ovei which there is no control. Constant
accidents of this kind have abundantly proved
the necessity of some new improvement, which
leads us to hope the Marquis Tommasi's inven
tion will le a source of universal satisfaction.
The present cables, wires and batteries can lie
employed, and the current be reduced to one
tilth fta present force; the dark roomll done
away with, and every guarantee and security of
control given, as the dispatches arrive prMed
as well from Euro to America as from New
York to Washington. The whole system de
pends upon the extreme sensibility and obodi
enceof the magnet needle, which, forming iwrt
of a condenser, is perfectly under the control of
the manipulator, who can direct the needle
from right to left or from left to right A
magnetied regulator placed alsive the needle
recalls it automatically to it normal direction
after each shock. On each side of the needle is
placed a flexible line steel blade, which it
touches when itself moved by the electric shock,
and this movement is again commit iiicatod to a
second battery of anv amount of force necea
aary for printing the dispatehe received. These
second batteries are placed at both extremities
of the line, and serve not only to print the dis
patches hut to control the ojierator'a exactness,
and as they are indejiendent of the cable their
power can in no maimer injure the cable wires.
The New York Farmers' flub has continued to
listen to the addresses on the horse ouestion
delivered by gentlemeu who were invited to
the task by the club. We propose to take a
few paragraphs bom the address of H, G.
Criekmore, of the New York World, He said:
"Breeding for profit" is a subject to which I
think every fanner in the United States should
give most careful and thoughtful attention, more
especially that class owning or working a farm
for which is required the lalnir of four, six or
eight horses, half of which should be mares.
in the little travel I have had during the hist
few years, I have often noticed that verv
farmers possess tine-looking, big-bodied mares',
many pernaps a trine coarse to critical eyes, but
not one of which could not, with a little care
and some judgment, be made to produce a good
percentage on the capital united in her with
out any great loss ul tune as lar as nanfiilnsaa m
Tho natural tendency of the wealthv rWs,s
of our large cities' since the war h is 'been for
show ami display in horses ami equipages. The
light skeleton wagon is rapidly giving way to
the heavy phietoni and dog-earts for gentlemen
and to stylish carriages ami coupes for ladies.
Already we have a four-in-hand club, one mem
ber of which followed the English style of
driving a public route, nearly the whole sum
mer season, with a fair promise that he willilo
the same this rammer, with more or less oppo
sition from others anxious to shine in the same
sphere. Now, while these may le luxuries
that our fore-fathers would scarcely think con-
Jt-RAwiir Faisa. Ir. Herr ahowa in a re
cent publication that along the aborca of the
Amoor, in Siberia, U the finest development
known of Juraaaic plants, amounting to 8.1 spe
cie. Like thoae from Yorkahire and Spitiber
geo, the conifers, 1 1 ria . ud tropical forma
predominate. Of existing forma we recognise
Arpimium, Thyrjeri and Jtu-Ljui.
continental governments may eventually bo
compiled to look to us for the same material of
war is uot unlikely, although, as a whole, they
are at the present time better supplied with
horses than England, having given due atten
tion to the subject of breeding horses some
years ago.
Having thus endeavored to show that there
is a market for our horses, the next is to show
how the market can lie supplied, and in this re
spect I must crave your attention for a moment
and travel directly from the subject matter of
this paper, As a turf renter it has long
seemed to me that nearly all the State and
county agricultural societies have been some
what neglectful of their true interests, and in
stead of encouraging the breeding of useful an
nuals in their immediate district by ofFering en
couraging premiums for young stock, IuimmI
mares and stallions, they have offered a few
cheap medale with little or no attention or ac
oommouation to exhibitors or the exhibited.
At the same time thev have paid t.w much at
tention to the trotting ot a lot of worthless
geldings, which for any real use were not worth
their shoes. Instead of risking so much money
on "exhibitions of speed," the societies should
buy a half or quarter Hainbletouian stallion, or
a thoroughbred stallion the get of Uxington,
Australian, or in fact any well-bred stallion
poeeeoairig bone and substance, with trot
ting action if a trotter a horse with intelligence
that would at once win the eye. ami if neces
sary pass the inspection by a German or Rus
sian government inspector. Any association
adopting such a course, with the" presumption
that the horse would Ihi in the hands of an
honest, capable man devoted to his business,
Would in a few years Introduce a new source of
ducive to a republican form of government, it is
a state of affairs that every farmer possessing
the means should assist all in his power, for it
not only means horsellcsh, but it means an
increased demand for hay, oats, corn and other
products of the earth.
Of course, this is no defense of the system
from a political standpoint. All such ariito
cratic notions mean, of course, a centralisation
of money, to the advantage of the rich and to
the injury of the oor. But that the fact exists
there cauta no denial, ami that it will continue
to exist to the end of time is nearly as certain.
Consequently, it ltehoovca those in a poaitioa to
benefit by such ideas to make the most of the
fashion by raising horaea lit for the work, and
he who excels will be the one to make the most
money by it
Another feature of this breeding interest
should not lie overlooked, and that is the chances
this country affords for lieing the basis of
supplies for Eurojiean government, to obtain
horaea ootli lor cavalry ami artillery pnqmses.
Horses have recently fccn shi plied from Canada
to England for domestic purposes. They found
a ready sale, and were much admired; and no
longer ago than last autumn that distinguiahed
young statesman and turtite, lrd Itoaelwry,
said in my presence that he thought the ilomca
tie horses of the United State were amonif the
let that he haul ever seen, and that he thought j
cvcniuaiiv mere wouio tie a great demand lor
them. Thia muat lie taken in connection with
the fact that he waa one of the original mover
for the investigation aa to the deterioration of
horaea in Oreat Britain, and wrote the report
made to the Houae of Irda on the subject 1
know him to be an admirer of the product and
induatriea of the United State, and that the
country hfJ in him a friend who will not heai
tate a moment to call the government a atten
tion to the market of the United State, abould
England ever need horeetleah for her cavalry,
artillery ur tranaportation corp. That the
wealth to their tnemben. instead of their marcs.
as is now often the case, drooping worthless
uwm mm uiussu pm-tunning neiuicr soapc nor
strength, and often inheriting diseases rendering
wem ai live years oiiioiuy lit to drag out a miser
able existence in a brick yard. Such an assoeia.
tion would accomplish at least one object for
wnicn u was orgajuaaa not only would the
members of the association Isnclit by the services
of their atallion, but new interests would spring
up in the vicinity. Every breeder Would natural
ly endeavor to sliow the ls-t atock, ami in course,
of time "horse fairs" would Income one of otir
most interesting spring and autumn holidays.
Buyers would be attracted to the iieighlmrhoods
that excelled in any ajieeial breeds. Some
counties WOttld excel in carriage horses; others
In eadilli hiaeee One would bttwfai famous
for it chest nuts; another for bays, blocks or
grays-, as Lincolnshire in England is famous for
its roans.
reseiitation of the Pacific coast representative of
me of th' most interesting IsiUnieal families,
and one which haa of late year attracted much
attention from the foremoat scientist of the
-...i.t, U.HIUJ, i ... ,r i,i . .,r iiiwi-caung
plant. The one in question is the torliii'jtonia
CfaWWllfaa, or pitcher plant, a native of damp
sxt along the Sierra and I aacadc range, some
Shasta. It haa little lauty to recommend it,
but it singular pitcher ahaiwd leaves and the
use to which they are rut are a atudy. They
are perfect rly-trapa, secreting tint a honey
which lure the insects, then lined with hair
jsiinting downwards, winch prevent their climb
ing out and in the lower portion filled with
water which complete their destruction.
Whether the plant digest and drawa nourish
ment from them is yet an undecided question.
In the course of a lecture on gold, delivered
before the Kranklin Institute, as reported by
the Secretary. Mr. A. E. .Ir f
the ,W Department of the Mint in I'hiladel-
pina, gave an account of some experiments ho
had made, with a view of ascertaining how thin
a lihn of gold was necessary to produce a tine
gold color.
The plan adopted was aa follows: Prom a
sheet ot OOpper rolled down to a thickness of
o-liHUltlis of an inch he cut a strip two and one
half by tour niches. This strip, containing 'JO
square inches of surface, after Wing carefully
Cleaned and burnished, waa weighed on a deli
cate assav balance. Sufficient gold to produce a
tine gold color was then delimited mi it !
means of the battery; the strip was then dried
without rubbing, and re-weighed, ami found to
have gamed l-lltth of a grain, thus showing
that one grain of gold can, by this method, lie
made to .-over JO0 square inches, as comparer
i.i square inches by beating.
Hy calculation, based on the weight of a cubic
ah of lilire L'ohl. the thickness, .if tin. ilamal.
led film Wai ascertained to be I -WO. 400th of
an inch, as against I -967, 600th for the beaten
An examination under the m ic roson showed
the film to be continuous ami not ilcnonited in
spots, the whole surface presenting the appear-
... u ... UHI, guiu,
Not liemg satisfied, however, with this proof,
ami desiring to examine the film by transmitted
Hoi, -ur. wiuernriuge lias since tried several
methods for separating the film from the copper,
and the following one has proved entirely suc
cessful. The gold plating was removed from
onu side of the copper strip, and by immersing
mhui pieces in weak nitric aci.t, tor several
days, the OOpper was entirely dissolved, leaving
the fUmi of gold intact, floating on the surface
of the liquid. These were collected on strilis of
glass, to which they adhered on drying. When
viewed with transmitted light with the micro
8Coie, it was seen to Ik' of the eharncteristiu
bright green color, and very transparent View
ing it hy means ot reflected light it true gold
color is seen.
Mr. Onterbridge has continued his exori
incuts, and, by the same processes, has succeed
ed in producing continuous films, which he da
tcriuincd to lie only the l-'J,70S,t;0Jth of an
Inch in thickness, or IO.oS4 times thinner than
an ordinary sheet of printing paper, or 80 times
less than a single Dndttlaiu f green light
The weight of gold covering 'JO square inches is,
in this easy, ;t,Vl,lHKHhs of a gram; one grain
Is-mg mfflolent to cover nearly lour square
feet of oopper.
mens. The following hints on this subject in the
Kwiliih ittcbanie lire clear and practical, and on
some points the best that we remember to have
seen :
Small plants should have the roots; mid, if
possible, obtain a specimen of each at different
seasons the young plant, in Bower, and when
the Med or Irnit in marly rie. Get a quire of
good tluck blotting-paper and a oouple of large
boards and paper 00 which to mount your s'c
imetta, Let the boards Ihi about the same sii
as the blotting-paper, Demy paior of good
quality is the best liae for noun ting. Arrange
your plants batwaea the sheets of Uo4tlnfM
per some plants require several thicknesses
and see that the leaves, etc., nre projierlv dis
posed on the paper, as you will lint lie able to
alter then when they am dry. It is a good
plan to interpose a few sheels of card-board, as
It prerente one plant from ipoiling another.
When your drying paper is filled, put the whole
between your hrda and subject to pressure;
take them out every Jl boon, and dry Die pa
per, oorracting any duplaoement as you go on;
when dry they are ready for noting, Don't
glllll or paste them lo the paper, but make short
slits with a iM'i.knif, under the stalks about
one eighth of an inch long. Take a piece of
ianr, as bnad u the allt is long, fold the paper,
and pass it over the stalk and through the hole
at the back, ami gum the emls on the back. I
have seen every I think), method of mounting,
ami this is c. rtainly the neatest and cleanest
Altar tins they must be painted with the fol
lowing preservative solution: Corrosive an Mi
niate, 'JO grams; camphor, 'JO grains; notified
spirit of wine, c m e. This is a deadly
poieoa ami should be bandied rery cautiously.
Each si t should have a neat lals-l hi the
corner stating date and place of collection, ami
name of collector, also general habitat, peeUM
nd generic names, with natural order, etc.
Without these )iart ieulara they will (us a col
lection), be perfeotly valueless,
In A ran -a. News, says M,turr, has lieen
again received at Munich, efteff n loriif tuna
from the African traveler, Dr. Krwin v. liry.
He had safely returned toChat f rom his journey
into the Valley Miln-ro. Me is the first Euro-jH-an
who has visited the hot springs of Sebarlia
ret ami mcii the crocodile-noml. I uti-rtm..
geological ami geoguoatie results, with a collec
tion ul many hitherto unknown i, !.,(-. have
I gained I r this lourilev. It Ws virv
laiim-roiis. owiiil; to the war of tin- Anir unL
the llogar of Tuareg, and the traveler was in
constant risk of attack. The Mhcikh of m
lehi mi he,,. (rj y.ari obi, has lost ln mm. Ji
he is not easily nrointiatod. The munli-rr .f
the Dutch traveler, Alexandrine Tinne, wIksm
unhappy fato eacitod Euroeii syiothy, goes
about freely la Ohai Dr. v. nry will mSm-
or, notwithstanding the danger, to s-nutrato
furthennto the country of the Tuareg, in order
to prosecute his g.-oogical and Ixttanical inuir-
NKW lloKMK-slloK. Mr. Yti of M.....1...
tor, Kngland, has invented a horse-ahoe coin
posed of three thicknesses of cow-hi-le, am
pressed into a steel mold and then subjected to
a chemical preparation. It laaU longer and
weigh only one fourth a much aa the common
hoe; it never aplit the hoof and haa no injun
oua influence on thefoot. It require no calka;
even on asphalt the hone never aliia. It la so
elaatic that the horae a atep is lighter awl aurer.
It adhere so closely to the foot that neither
dust nor water can penetrate between the shoe
aud the hoof.