June. THE WEST SHORE. 185 SYSTEM AND CLEANLINESS IN MA CHINE SHOPS. Order anil cleanliness in machine shops and manufactories may be advocated for higher rea sons, and yet none is more convincing than the method which shows the economic side of the question. A writer in the Polfttchnk rVi w lias some lharp points to make on this subject and we quota as follows: A workshop, how ever small, however few the number of hands, is never too small to have a system; want of syBtem is the cause of great waste of time ami material, besides constant worry and discontent Step inside this building of fair demensions, whose front is covered witli big lettered signs, bowing that it i devoted to the production of all kinds of machinery. What do We find! The floor covered with litter, heaps of cuttings under ever lathe or ma chine, under every bench; on tho floor new and old material of all kinds have been thrown in almost inextricable confusion; the machinery is encrusted with oil and dirt, except just those parts that meet the hand in working, and the speed cones and pulleys polished by the run ning belts, showing what might be and is not. The cutting tools, the bolts and plates, and othlT gear used in these machines. He around their bases; a new strata seems to lie fast clos ing over some of them. Overhead is heard the harsh grating of some loose pulley; the Mts have been thrown off others by some sensitive workman, who cannot liear the unpleasant noise in such cases; the lelts dangle from the Bhafts. the running shaft keening a stretch on them and wearing them all the time. About 30 men are employed iit these works, yet there is no one whose social duty it is to look after the tools, to replace or repair them when lost or broken. A man has to drill a three-. piurter inch hole in a piece of plate; the time actually required WOUld he about live or ten minutes if good order were kept on this case. The man commences by making a tour of the shop, for there are some drills lying around this machine, and some around that, and there is no OM pttUt where every drill not in use is sure to he found. His search is not crowned with immediate success; a three-quarter clearing drill (Kl-lliths) is the nearest he can procure; he has set his callers and taken the size of it; he proceeds to grind it to three-quarters; having reduced it to the size, he liuds it will not clear itself so high as he wishes; however, at last, hy more grinding, he is utitued with it, and is ready to commence -time lost, 10 minutes. He is hardly through drilling, when up comes a man looking for the thrce-ipiarter clearing drill he was using "2" minutes ago; he, finding it has been altered, takes it to the smith, and waits to have it llat te nod out, which, with the re-grinding, makes a further loss of SO minutes total loss, forty minutes on the drilling of a three-quarter hole, for which the lmss could scarcely charge more than 10 cents. Another has a brass to plane; no tool for brass seems to he visible; he has probably trodden it down too deep in the thick red dust of the floor ing to lie distinguishable. However, he soon grinds oil' the top of a tool for cutting wrought iron; that is easy enough but when that tool is wanted utiu to work in the material it u made for, l-llith of an inch must be ground off its facets to restore the origimd angle -waste of nine ami steel. II a workman ihould hepped to drop a small pin, washer or key, he makes another, because among the debris around he knows it is as much lost as though when it fell the earth had gaped to receive it. IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENT IN NUB MARINE TELEGRAPHY. A Paris letter in the llostoii AdmUm thus describes Toimuasi's invention, which is ex pected to etfect a revolution in the methods of ocean telegraphy: The transatlantic cable re quires the use of very feeble currents, as the only means of avoiding combustion or oxidation of the wires, and this feebleness of current ne cessitates the use of a compass, placed perpen dicularly in a dark room opposite a blackboard, upon which a strong ray of light iemiitH the operator to follow the movements of the needle and take down the dispatches as they arrive. Not only is this system fatiguing and slow, but it leaves the sender and receiver of a dispatch quite at the mercy of the telegraph oiierator, whose slightest inattention may result in an error ovei which there is no control. Constant accidents of this kind have abundantly proved the necessity of some new improvement, which leads us to hope the Marquis Tommasi's inven tion will le a source of universal satisfaction. The present cables, wires and batteries can lie employed, and the current be reduced to one tilth fta present force; the dark roomll done away with, and every guarantee and security of control given, as the dispatches arrive prMed as well from Euro to America as from New York to Washington. The whole system de pends upon the extreme sensibility and obodi enceof the magnet needle, which, forming iwrt of a condenser, is perfectly under the control of the manipulator, who can direct the needle from right to left or from left to right A magnetied regulator placed alsive the needle recalls it automatically to it normal direction after each shock. On each side of the needle is placed a flexible line steel blade, which it touches when itself moved by the electric shock, and this movement is again commit iiicatod to a second battery of anv amount of force necea aary for printing the dispatehe received. These second batteries are placed at both extremities of the line, and serve not only to print the dis patches hut to control the ojierator'a exactness, and as they are indejiendent of the cable their power can in no maimer injure the cable wires. BREAKING HORSES EOR THE MARKET. The New York Farmers' flub has continued to listen to the addresses on the horse ouestion delivered by gentlemeu who were invited to the task by the club. We propose to take a few paragraphs bom the address of H, G. Criekmore, of the New York World, He said: "Breeding for profit" is a subject to which I think every fanner in the United States should give most careful and thoughtful attention, more especially that class owning or working a farm for which is required the lalnir of four, six or eight horses, half of which should be mares. in the little travel I have had during the hist few years, I have often noticed that verv farmers possess tine-looking, big-bodied mares', many pernaps a trine coarse to critical eyes, but not one of which could not, with a little care and some judgment, be made to produce a good percentage on the capital united in her with out any great loss ul tune as lar as nanfiilnsaa m concerned. Tho natural tendency of the wealthv rWs,s of our large cities' since the war h is 'been for show ami display in horses ami equipages. The light skeleton wagon is rapidly giving way to the heavy phietoni and dog-earts for gentlemen and to stylish carriages ami coupes for ladies. Already we have a four-in-hand club, one mem ber of which followed the English style of driving a public route, nearly the whole sum mer season, with a fair promise that he willilo the same this rammer, with more or less oppo sition from others anxious to shine in the same sphere. Now, while these may le luxuries that our fore-fathers would scarcely think con- Jt-RAwiir Faisa. Ir. Herr ahowa in a re cent publication that along the aborca of the Amoor, in Siberia, U the finest development known of Juraaaic plants, amounting to 8.1 spe cie. Like thoae from Yorkahire and Spitiber geo, the conifers, 1 1 ria . ud tropical forma predominate. Of existing forma we recognise Arpimium, Thyrjeri and Jtu-Ljui. continental governments may eventually bo compiled to look to us for the same material of war is uot unlikely, although, as a whole, they are at the present time better supplied with horses than England, having given due atten tion to the subject of breeding horses some years ago. Having thus endeavored to show that there is a market for our horses, the next is to show how the market can lie supplied, and in this re spect I must crave your attention for a moment and travel directly from the subject matter of this paper, As a turf renter it has long seemed to me that nearly all the State and county agricultural societies have been some what neglectful of their true interests, and in stead of encouraging the breeding of useful an nuals in their immediate district by ofFering en couraging premiums for young stock, IuimmI mares and stallions, they have offered a few cheap medale with little or no attention or ac oommouation to exhibitors or the exhibited. At the same time thev have paid t.w much at tention to the trotting ot a lot of worthless geldings, which for any real use were not worth their shoes. Instead of risking so much money on "exhibitions of speed," the societies should buy a half or quarter Hainbletouian stallion, or a thoroughbred stallion the get of Uxington, Australian, or in fact any well-bred stallion poeeeoairig bone and substance, with go.nl trot ting action if a trotter a horse with intelligence that would at once win the eye. ami if neces sary pass the inspection by a German or Rus sian government inspector. Any association adopting such a course, with the" presumption that the horse would Ihi in the hands of an honest, capable man devoted to his business, Would in a few years Introduce a new source of THE PIT0HKB PLANT. ducive to a republican form of government, it is a state of affairs that every farmer possessing the means should assist all in his power, for it not only means horsellcsh, but it means an increased demand for hay, oats, corn and other products of the earth. Of course, this is no defense of the system from a political standpoint. All such ariito cratic notions mean, of course, a centralisation of money, to the advantage of the rich and to the injury of the oor. But that the fact exists there cauta no denial, ami that it will continue to exist to the end of time is nearly as certain. Consequently, it ltehoovca those in a poaitioa to benefit by such ideas to make the most of the fashion by raising horaea lit for the work, and he who excels will be the one to make the most money by it Another feature of this breeding interest should not lie overlooked, and that is the chances this country affords for lieing the basis of supplies for Eurojiean government, to obtain horaea ootli lor cavalry ami artillery pnqmses. Horses have recently fccn shi plied from Canada to England for domestic purposes. They found a ready sale, and were much admired; and no longer ago than last autumn that distinguiahed young statesman and turtite, lrd Itoaelwry, said in my presence that he thought the ilomca tie horses of the United State were amonif the let that he haul ever seen, and that he thought j cvcniuaiiv mere wouio tie a great demand lor them. Thia muat lie taken in connection with the fact that he waa one of the original mover for the investigation aa to the deterioration of horaea in Oreat Britain, and wrote the report made to the Houae of Irda on the subject 1 know him to be an admirer of the product and induatriea of the United State, and that the country hfJ in him a friend who will not heai tate a moment to call the government a atten tion to the market of the United State, abould England ever need horeetleah for her cavalry, artillery ur tranaportation corp. That the wealth to their tnemben. instead of their marcs. as is now often the case, drooping worthless uwm mm uiussu pm-tunning neiuicr soapc nor strength, and often inheriting diseases rendering wem ai live years oiiioiuy lit to drag out a miser able existence in a brick yard. Such an assoeia. tion would accomplish at least one object for wnicn u was orgajuaaa not only would the members of the association Isnclit by the services of their atallion, but new interests would spring up in the vicinity. Every breeder Would natural ly endeavor to sliow the ls-t atock, ami in course, of time "horse fairs" would Income one of otir most interesting spring and autumn holidays. Buyers would be attracted to the iieighlmrhoods that excelled in any ajieeial breeds. Some counties WOttld excel in carriage horses; others In eadilli hiaeee One would bttwfai famous for it chest nuts; another for bays, blocks or grays-, as Lincolnshire in England is famous for its roans. THE P1TGHKB PLANT. reseiitation of the Pacific coast representative of me of th' most interesting IsiUnieal families, and one which haa of late year attracted much attention from the foremoat scientist of the -...i.t, U.HIUJ, i ... ,r i,i . .,r iiiwi-caung plant. The one in question is the torliii'jtonia CfaWWllfaa, or pitcher plant, a native of damp sxt along the Sierra and I aacadc range, some Shasta. It haa little lauty to recommend it, but it singular pitcher ahaiwd leaves and the use to which they are rut are a atudy. They are perfect rly-trapa, secreting tint a honey which lure the insects, then lined with hair jsiinting downwards, winch prevent their climb ing out and in the lower portion filled with water which complete their destruction. Whether the plant digest and drawa nourish ment from them is yet an undecided question. TRANSPARENT GOLD, In the course of a lecture on gold, delivered before the Kranklin Institute, as reported by the Secretary. Mr. A. E. Oiiturhri.to.. .Ir f the ,W Department of the Mint in I'hiladel- pina, gave an account of some experiments ho had made, with a view of ascertaining how thin a lihn of gold was necessary to produce a tine gold color. The plan adopted was aa follows: Prom a sheet ot OOpper rolled down to a thickness of o-liHUltlis of an inch he cut a strip two and one half by tour niches. This strip, containing 'JO square inches of surface, after Wing carefully Cleaned and burnished, waa weighed on a deli cate assav balance. Sufficient gold to produce a tine gold color was then delimited mi it ! means of the battery; the strip was then dried without rubbing, and re-weighed, ami found to have gamed l-lltth of a grain, thus showing that one grain of gold can, by this method, lie made to .-over JO0 square inches, as comparer i.i square inches by beating. Hy calculation, based on the weight of a cubic ah of lilire L'ohl. the thickness, .if tin. ilamal. led film Wai ascertained to be I -WO. 400th of an inch, as against I -967, 600th for the beaten Dim, An examination under the m ic roson showed the film to be continuous ami not ilcnonited in spots, the whole surface presenting the appear- ... u ... UHI, guiu, Not liemg satisfied, however, with this proof, ami desiring to examine the film by transmitted Hoi, -ur. wiuernriuge lias since tried several methods for separating the film from the copper, and the following one has proved entirely suc cessful. The gold plating was removed from onu side of the copper strip, and by immersing mhui pieces in weak nitric aci.t, tor several days, the OOpper was entirely dissolved, leaving the fUmi of gold intact, floating on the surface of the liquid. These were collected on strilis of glass, to which they adhered on drying. When viewed with transmitted light with the micro 8Coie, it was seen to Ik' of the eharncteristiu bright green color, and very transparent View ing it hy means ot reflected light it true gold color is seen. Mr. Onterbridge has continued his exori incuts, and, by the same processes, has succeed ed in producing continuous films, which he da tcriuincd to lie only the l-'J,70S,t;0Jth of an Inch in thickness, or IO.oS4 times thinner than an ordinary sheet of printing paper, or 80 times less than a single Dndttlaiu f green light The weight of gold covering 'JO square inches is, in this easy, ;t,Vl,lHKHhs of a gram; one grain Is-mg mfflolent to cover nearly lour square feet of oopper. How TO PREPARE BOTANICAL speci mens. The following hints on this subject in the Kwiliih ittcbanie lire clear and practical, and on some points the best that we remember to have seen : Small plants should have the roots; mid, if possible, obtain a specimen of each at different seasons the young plant, in Bower, and when the Med or Irnit in marly rie. Get a quire of good tluck blotting-paper and a oouple of large boards and paper 00 which to mount your s'c imetta, Let the boards Ihi about the same sii as the blotting-paper, Demy paior of good quality is the best liae for noun ting. Arrange your plants batwaea the sheets of Uo4tlnfM per some plants require several thicknesses and see that the leaves, etc., nre projierlv dis posed on the paper, as you will lint lie able to alter then when they am dry. It is a good plan to interpose a few sheels of card-board, as It prerente one plant from ipoiling another. When your drying paper is filled, put the whole between your hrda and subject to pressure; take them out every Jl boon, and dry Die pa per, oorracting any duplaoement as you go on; when dry they are ready for noting, Don't glllll or paste them lo the paper, but make short slits with a iM'i.knif, under the stalks about one eighth of an inch long. Take a piece of ianr, as bnad u the allt is long, fold the paper, and pass it over the stalk and through the hole at the back, ami gum the emls on the back. I have seen every I think), method of mounting, ami this is c. rtainly the neatest and cleanest Altar tins they must be painted with the fol lowing preservative solution: Corrosive an Mi niate, 'JO grams; camphor, 'JO grains; notified spirit of wine, c m e. This is a deadly poieoa ami should be bandied rery cautiously. Each si t should have a neat lals-l hi the corner stating date and place of collection, ami name of collector, also general habitat, peeUM nd generic names, with natural order, etc. Without these )iart ieulara they will (us a col lection), be perfeotly valueless, In A ran -a. News, says M,turr, has lieen again received at Munich, efteff n loriif tuna from the African traveler, Dr. Krwin v. liry. He had safely returned toChat f rom his journey into the Valley Miln-ro. Me is the first Euro-jH-an who has visited the hot springs of Sebarlia ret ami mcii the crocodile-noml. I uti-rtm.. geological ami geoguoatie results, with a collec tion ul many hitherto unknown i, !.,(-. have I gained I r this lourilev. It Ws virv laiim-roiis. owiiil; to the war of tin- Anir unL the llogar of Tuareg, and the traveler was in constant risk of attack. The Mhcikh of m lehi mi he,,. (rj y.ari obi, has lost ln mm. Ji he is not easily nrointiatod. The munli-rr .f the Dutch traveler, Alexandrine Tinne, wIksm unhappy fato eacitod Euroeii syiothy, goes about freely la Ohai Dr. v. nry will mSm- or, notwithstanding the danger, to s-nutrato furthennto the country of the Tuareg, in order to prosecute his g.-oogical and Ixttanical inuir- NKW lloKMK-slloK. Mr. Yti of M.....1... tor, Kngland, has invented a horse-ahoe coin posed of three thicknesses of cow-hi-le, am pressed into a steel mold and then subjected to a chemical preparation. It laaU longer and weigh only one fourth a much aa the common hoe; it never aplit the hoof and haa no injun oua influence on thefoot. It require no calka; even on asphalt the hone never aliia. It la so elaatic that the horae a atep is lighter awl aurer. It adhere so closely to the foot that neither dust nor water can penetrate between the shoe aud the hoof.