The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, February 01, 1877, Page 119, Image 11

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    February.
THE WEST SHORE
119
COOLIE DOS AS SHEKP DRIVERS.
An interesting trial of collies at work be
tween 30 ami 30 entries having beeu matle -re-cently
took place at Alexandra park, and Is
reported at length in the Standard and other
lndon papers. Pem, half a mile apart were
employed. The dog, standing with his master
at the empty one, was directed by word toward
the other, in winch were three sheep (faun from
the hills), and these were unpenned as the dog
approached, and Itad to be driven and penned
within the hurdles half a mile off. The man
and dog walked together along the racecourse
until the sheen were righted, when ho gave a
sign or a word to his four-footed comtianion
and the intelligent brute at once started off at a
.gallop, and sought first to drive the sheep down
the hill toward his master. When lie had suc
ceeded in doing this the man walked toward the
pen, and the doe drove thr them liter him un
HI tiiey were near enough to co-oilerato in getting
the sheep inside. Twenty minutes was the
maximum tinio allowed, the prizes being won
by those which succeeded in penning their sheep
to the shortest time, Wnfli those which failed to
pen within the allotted time were disqualified
It was not difficult to discover that dogs and
sheep were working under great disadvantages,
and animals which have, no doubt, a well de'
served reputation on their own hills failed to
distinguish themselves under totally novel con
ditions, though enough was demonstrated to
make it apparent that these collie trials are
likely to become a very interesting annual per
formance. Though a space of ground was
marked off by ropes and stakes, which were re
spected by the spectators, the Bheep felt under
no restrictions, and the poor collie, therefore,
that had been used to the clear view of a Welsh
hillside, with no human being hut his master
within miles of him, had to dodge his charges
among visitors and round plantations, which
frequently hid them altogether. The ahcep
were many of them very wild and ran like deer,
their disincliunti.in to proceed in the direction
of the pen being increased from the main Mock
lieiug in full view, and thus stimulating the nat
ural ovine tendency to rejoin companions.
lu several cases, on the dog Hearing the three
sheep, the nimble and independent wethers scat
tered and galloped iu different directions out of
sight, when the collie, after an honest attempt
to bring them together, Beemed to conclude that
it was hoicleBs to complete the task in 10 min
utes, so he philosophically dropped it altogether
and trotted back to his master. Some of the
triads of wethers behaved in a manner more in
accordance with the gregarious traditions of
their race, and when in addition to hanging
together they happened to start in the right
direction down hill, the first portion of the
dog's work was easily and speedily done. The
marvelous Bagacity of the breed was seen when
the sheep were near the pen and tho dog had to
overcome they '' ad. disinclination to enter.
Not only didt..o jfniial in this position obey
every sign and word of his master, hut he would
exercise what might almost lo called his own
reason and discretion in the mode of carrying
out his master's wishes, iu a fashion that was
astonishing.
Success, however, depended altogether on the
behavior of the three particular sheep. One
famous dog, named Handy, which won the
Champion prize two years running in Wales,
was very unfortunate in this respect. He sue-
"www gening mem to tlio jcii in splendid
style, but nothing could induce the sheep to
enter. They broke away a score of times, and
after a display of ability worthy of his high rep
utation, poor Handy failed to accomplish the
task within the 20 minutes. The most success
ful performance was that by a slut named
Moddie, belonging to .Mr. John Thomas, of
ivuo. ravoreti m tract aide wethers, she IU0
eueded iu a little over four minutes. A famous
dog named Iloy did the work iu Beven and a
half minutes. Another called Laddie took nine
minutes, and two others, I'entre ami Tweed,
minutes each. 1 here were 1!) entries for tho
iiu-agi'il stakes, and these were tested.
SECOND BRIDGE BKTWKRN NEW
YORK AND BROOKLYN.
The projectors of this promised bridge over
the East river, Iwtween New York and Krook-
y at nth street, by way of BladtwelTl island,
have, says the Scirntijic Amtrimn in respoiiBe to
the invitation sent out, recieved ten serrate
designs and estimates from as mauy engineers
(Iround will bo broken as soon as a plan shall
be decided upon. The preliminary sjcoifieatioiis
call for an approach on the New York side of
4. MO feet, i.ooo feet of which it to he is form
of a tunnel extending from Fourth to Lexing
ton avenues. From the end of the tunnel, an
iron siiicrstnicture, curving to the center of
the blooks between Tbth and 77th streets, and
thence direct, leds to the river. From t lie pier
on the brink of the river, BUokweUs island
will be reached by a single span of 7,14
feet An iron structure 700 feet long will
then lead over Blackwell's inland, ami the
cnannei oetween tne island and the lng
island shore will lie spanned by a single
arch of 618 feet. The shore approach on tne
1 ong mum Ml win Ih; It VWJ net in length.
This will give in all a total length of 10,532 feet,
or nearly two miles. A single track tramway
will run across the bridge. There will be, iu
addition to the main approaches, km auxiliary
ones, one from Avenue A ou the New York
side and the other from Vernon avenue, Long
Island City. The sjtaiu are to be 13.1 feet above
mean tide water. Double passenger elevators
are 10 i placed at tlie piers on each side.
Tomatoes Pkbskrvkd in Watkk. Choose
tine ripe tomatoes free from sjots of bruises,
save M. Baxin, in Iam .Vonit, wipe them care
fully with flannel and place them in a large
mouthed vase, until the vessel is full to within
an inch and a half of the top. IW on clear
filtered water nntil the tomatoes are just
covered, and then paste a sheet of paer over
the mouth of the jar. It is aheolutely necessary
that the tomatoes be free from any spot or
bruise whatever, and care must he taken to
remove from the water any which in course of
time show signs of injur)-.
IMPRESSIONS OF FRUITS.
Nurserymen and penologists who wish to re
tain an accurate knowledge of tho forms and ap
pearances of the numerous sorts of fruits un
der cultivation, find it importaut to preserve
outlines showing their size and figure. It has
been a common way to make these outlines by
first cutting the fruit through fthe center from
the stem to apex, laying the flat side on paper,
and then with a line pointed pencil to trace the
outline carefully in contact with the halved
fruit. This is somewhat troublesome and not
very accurate, and we have accordingly adopted
a simpler and more perfect mode, which .10
years testing has proved all that can lw desired
I he mode is simply the following:
First cut the fruit aecuraMv thrmi,,!. ft..
AN ENUIJSH BEE SHOW.
We read in the Ayrieullunil Kconomist of an
exhibition of "bees, their produce, hives and
btfl furniture," which was held at the Alexandra
Palace, the show being arranged iu the large
hall, and LI long tables or stalls being covered
with the exhibits. Tho idea of bee-keeping in
the mind of the ordinary city dweller appears
to le that it is something practiced by the poor
cottagers to help out their small incomes. But
iu America, (iermany and Spain, there are "bee
fanners," whoso acres are covered with hives.
The general idea of a hive is that it is a straw
cap, something like a dish cover in shape, only
round; that the bees make their honey therein,
and that the poor cottager subsequently, to ap-
uroprwse WW sweets, stilles tlio industrious
ter, wim a snarp. tmn-Hndod knife, -plittin ' insects which have swarmed there. Such
5! !L 1W:2,,ktini an, l'Iit-j no doubt, the actual state of the case at
BOS UH Item, fly a little practice this is done time; but such an idea is very far from the t
one
Z.Jij i iiTTi, tT . 111 8 f " now a days. Tho straw hive has become a
with nt i !a!nlbrHtOUy ll'i! Uly! ,rMt fir"2T " h WWflh "
si o 1 A& Ztf ium' U: W'!,Mh th mk Tr;lturo is tv&xxM ft thermometer! the
should be applied more heavily. Then press ! twos are dealt with as valuable property, not
he whole face on a sheet of thick unsized or stitled recklessly, but "manipulated1' by the
Wotting paper, taking care that every part ''apiarian,11 and the honey Nm5ved without the
comes in contact with it. and pressing the stem loss of a single bee, ami without the least dam
down firmly. Then remove it, and a perfect age to the "comb" which it costs the insect so
outline .will bo left. Ihenimsture of the fruit much labor to mike, Au exhibition of this kind
wm uimie tne urn on its cut 100, and soft, practically shows all this, and one logins to
OR
THE BRBO-BIRD,
listinct impression will Imj made, much rosem.
bling a neatly shaded picture, if carefully done.
A little practice will enable any one possessing
a moderate share of skill to make very satisfac
tory iinnrciuiiiiiN
Pears which are ripe and melting will have
too much water ou the cut surface, u ideas it is
nrsi partly aimiru-.i w itli a mi mlv. nie.v ,if rut.
ton, or with blotting paper, twfnre the mk is ap-
puni, nu hh in.ui picture may lice.l somo ilry
nig by the same ineaiis.
A good sized book of blotting pajtcr prepared
by the hook-binder may tie used for the impres
sions of all fruits which can lie cut through tho
center; and such a book, with it yearly addi
tions, will become a volume of much value for
reierence. -Lountrt fitntteman.
BllT Sfoar. Two eminent French chemists,
Fremy and Dehcrain, have conducted a series of
experiments to test the reasons of tho decrease
of richness of sugar teeU grown several years
in snoceseion on the tame soil in France, where
the beet sugar culture is very extensive. They
find two chief causes of the deterioration the
bad selection of stock or variety, and excess of
nitrogenous manures. Thev eonelmfe tht
gillaceous, siliceous and calcareous soil differ
but little in their effects upon the smrar in beeta.
A sterile soil, with no other manure than phos
phate of hme and nitrate of ootash. was able
to produce norma roots weighing from 700 to
800 grammes, (one and one-half to one and
HOB O LINK.
understand that hoes, wheie properly "farmed,"
may yield a considerable profit when one hive
alone, as shown by an exhibitor, can yield I 1 1 lbs.
12 oz. of hoiiev and comb, it,, u-i.:..i. L.
nearly 8, market price. The exhibitors in the
show were numerous, and many of tlio exhibits
" bwu cieveriy atiapted ti their
REED-BIROS, OR BOBOLINK.
Our illustration shows members of tho feath-
rod tribe which MDMre from tho Atlantic shore.
both north ami south, will recognize. It is
known as the "meadow-bird" in bmisiana, the
"reed-bird" in ronnsylvanio, the "rico bimt-
mg in tho Oarolinaa, tho "iMib-o-Iink" in
ftow ork and thence eastward; i. nluav. il.,
same, and yet of very ditlereut characteristics
in the different regions. Kuteiing tlio south
ern portions of the United States, it proceeds
northward iu early spring, flying bv night; hut,
returning in the autumn, it flies "by day. It
reaches Now York by tho middle of .May, hav
ing indicted much injury upon the corn fields of
the South In its journey, but is believed to do
little injury iu the North. At this season it lie
comes so plentiful all over the country as to U
fonnd in riin in every com field and UeftdQW,
their varied plumage ami joyous song every
where attracting the desires of hi rd-catchers,
who capture them in trap-cages, and sell then
for good prices in every city. They aro some
times taken to Kutope, and, iu such eases, the
change iu the hue ami tlio cessation of tho
song of the male, by tho time tho journey is
over, often disaptouits the adventurous shipper.
MiwuMiiu mm; are easily lanieii, nut apoar
cheerful only m spring and parts of the mi minor,
though tho song is never so glad as when tlio
bird is free.
Our illustration calls to mind tho somewhat
vend question of tho value of birds to tho ag
riculturist It is well known that while there
are birds which play havoc with crop of grain
and fruit then are also birds which wage a val
uable warfare upon noxious imuvts. There aro
also bird Which divide their attention between
fruit and insoets and some which seem to Ihj
most fond of eating insects which are known to
Iw bjoefictal It is quite proper that scientific
investigation should Ikj brought to Iniar ipon tho
actions of birds to ascertain their value or WOfth
lessnoss. We loam from a Chicago exchango
that Profeeeor 8. A. Forbes, of Normal, III., has
been engaged in a work of this kind. Ho U
examining the stomachs of the different species
of birds (he has 1,000 stomachs already gathered
ami preserved in alcohol for this purjKise), to
ascertain tho kinds of food on which they live,
Md to gather faels, so an to bo utile to discrimi
nate between birds that are Wuclicial and Midi
that are injurious. In making up his estimates
of the horticultural value of the different spe
eies of birds, lie bases his calculations upon the
following guiding principles:
First. Any bird of which it ia only known
that it feeds upon insects, is to Iw regarded as
beneficial, until facts are discovered to tlio eon
trary. Second. A bird feeding upon ffJflWlWOJJieiU
(liees, wasps, auto, etc) is to that extent
probably injurious. A bud feeding on auto is
to that extent neutral, neither boiiclicial nor
injurious.
Third. A bird feeding upon I.ruulmtrra
I batterfliee and moths) is to that extent probabb
beiHlu ial; if this is a tu-Uujht bin! it is almost
i erteinn su.
Fourth. A bird may bo reckoned beneflelaL
iu bo far as it foods upon caterpillars with two
rows of abdominal prologs.
Fifth. Ho can iufer little or Nothing, at pres
ent, from the nrosonce of tNfttriX (Hies, gnats,
etc.,) in a bints stomach.
Sixth. OoUopkra (beetles), considered in tho
mass, are to lie reckoned injurious. OkMiUda
(tiger beetles), ftrMfti (ground beetles), CW-
tmflli.i.f (tedybirdi), btmuyHda (lire (lies), are
btnenolal. Tw nimhyrvi.r iwXkhuo .hiai,lr.
the tetramerous Iwetlcs, are especially nfn.
rious.
Sovonth. OWAonierd (cockroactms iwhuVaSa
grasshoppers, etc.) may bo set down as injuri
OU. Many of those species which aro not now
tneoiaite beneflolal would beoome so if their
noreaeo were nniew allied
Eighth. A bird feedimi uihii small r-
(ml (dragon flies, laco wing fhes, may flies, white
ants, etc.) is of suspicious character.
Ninth. Myrfapoaa aro onthowhololienofiuial.
f.'hiloiMMla osiKicially so, wliilu VhUogratili are
neutral.
lentil. Snider ur 1 I mmA VimAm
thoin largely aro t4 be watched. Tho tf
anffkUl (harvostmeii) are especially to Ihi nro-
toctod. ' 1
pponthe ibove classification the stomachs of
the birds are exainim-d ami thur iiniliahle value
or iiiiurv neteiailnsil n L
that hoi For)-,. mMmUUA 1... i.. V '."
Thomas, State Kntpmologlit, eoatemplateMke
islature of huois hala ;.. i - 3S
oi economical science. The objo
small
vtnoiromotioi
ict IS to seenro a
approprwtiuu, Hay fj.000, for the inves-
Wai a mat varus
laruc and tike uothimr so n
othurs like dolls' houses, with two
Ml Boas
f "houses.' some ox
h as dog. kennels;
no Tf
I uae cupiKnis, with foMmg ...-.
and shelves; and some again liko dovecote and
quite as fanciful. Inventions, laft, fur extract
ing honey from the "comb" were also numi-r-
ouny exnimieii, some workwl on cog-wheel
action, being called "express" extractors. The
lurmiure exmi.iUMi was H great variety also.
aim much of it new, but necessary V thoie who
.. iur prom or pleasure. The siiec
miens oj noney, m comb and extracted, were
""l unienus, ami BP tWOM may tie eddM
hiv of bees U Iw seen at work, fievs swann
iug, and so forth. There wssm ...,in... f... n
out oi me as classes into which the show was
divided, and iirues of silver and jr.,ii
certificates and uionev hrum bs ..I i ....i
under, were oftated. There were in ail 24
entries, and the exhibition, which was under
the management of the beekeepers' Association
was well attended and examined with much
interest.
A TALL has I--. ii iuiil tm . I .i
National Te-her.' Aaeociatom. to be held in
three-fourth. pound.,) and containing a large Washington on th. b U asj MeS li
amount of .ug.r H6Z. Kxcass of n.trogen(i. Hubjecte of interest to the mmi JZ
manures injure.1 the formation of suimr. have been rr.n..l Ut
' bavo tieen arrangud for disc
area.
UCSllUll
tigation of tlio food and haliito of tarda with
l.'l.T.Ti, , f. (hr.r f i I, if I I... I
horticulture, also to study tli foo.1 and habits
"wies, wim a viow to ascertain tlio condition
essential to the increase and probation f tj)e
kinds most valuahle for food, and also for the
collection and preparation of Biwciineus of the
injurious and beneficial animals of the State,
mMallf birds, fishes ami insects, to Ihi placed
iu the State House at Springfield, ami also in
the museums of the various State educational
institutions. It is not proixwed to ttay uty
orticors' salaries with the money, but only to iav
the actual OnoaeN the work.
fVV..o. II... . I mi
- ' Illinois we may
Uko a hint for useful scientific work, fur with
the rapid spread of noxious insect iu this State
it seems clear that early precautionary measures
will I wise on the part of our legislators.
Utjmmtiok or HawwiaT.-Sawdust can be
e.,nv.ru,l mu, a ty .ute, and afterward- tale
a sol d, fiexilde, and almost indestructible maas
which when incorporated with animal matter
r.dli-1. and dried, can be used for the most deb
at imiiressioiii mm .ll r... .
I mi ,ir.u. iftc; -t ,
XtXFTi 5f ,lu" "' i ki'"' W
....... .,.,,,,,. u, aUnCMUtlj tlrtmn v.
Iwt the BHft Ir u .1,. .
t hm Mid thruuni, ..i,v, .di MnLd
mmta u, .ettu. Dnta u i,m ,t.
cliiMcnt, .,,,1 , u,, utu,r wlth , rt
u ,,u.ntuy f ,imj ..(rj, rialki u, th.i
UttUlUV. ,),, , Mali ,. ... .. .
Uuw ,1 to dry.
1