The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, October 01, 1876, Page 23, Image 3

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Concluded Viiit 4a ,0
lfl-itf-o. Cflin nrnhnhlu u
T i .t 1 J "F "lc
ground with a stone pick, and raised a
small crop, as prices ruled low, and the
export demand was limited. In the
course of time Noah "became a hus
bandman, planted a vineyard," and ex
perimented a little in the wine business.
Abraham was "very rich in cattle,"
while Lot had "flocks and herds and
tents." Jacob gave his brother Esau
S80 head of cattle, and had plenty left.
When Elisha was sought by Elijah to
receive the mantle of the prophet, he
was found plowing with twelve yoke
of oxen. He was probably dragging a
tree-top over the ground to loosen up
the surface.
So far as history enlightens us, Chal.
dca, Egypt, and China were the first
countries where wheat and barley were
raised to any extent, and their agricul
tural implements were very rude. On
the rich bottom of the Nile, after each
annual overflow which left the land
covered with muck, it was only neces
sary to scatter the. seen nn.1 tnr !
- , , -".il Ull IUC
hops to trend it in. Tim flt .1 :..
tion of a plow we have, is by Hcsiod
u uu.vv consisting 01 a snare, handles,
and beam, and used in Greece about
1000 years before Christ. The Greeks
are said to have got their knowledge
Of agriculture from Fo-vtit o,l
had what they called very fine horses,
tunic mm swine. 1 nc soil was mainly
tilled hv n m nn.l Un i-.n..
owners looked with contempt upon
...uu.v. win. owuii-u ins occupation.
Thev hnrl a feur .i,...l I
J I , ""' Winers,
chief of whom was Xcnophon but a
wiiiii.ii on parenment, which
the Commoners couldn't read, and few
of the land-owners would, couldn't be
expected to exert much influence in
advancing the interests of agriculture.
The Greeks cared more for building
cities than for cultivating the soil. The
Romans, however, seemed to take
more pride in fnrining. To be en
gaged in cultivating the land was con
sidered fl hii'h hnnnr nmnn tUn aU:i
ity, especially after Cincinnati!! was
ll-J C iL.- .t .
luiii-u Hum me piow to pass through
fields Of blood to trinm.-.hnl knnn
Rome had many agricultural writers;
v,iuo, uie orator, naa many encomiums
bestowed upon him for having written
a book on farming. In his book he
said: "Our ancestors regarded it as a
grand point of husbandry, not to have
too much land in one farm, for they
considered that more profit came from
holding little, and tilling it well." Vir
gil also said : "The farmer may praise
large estates, but let him cultivate a
small one." Varro, another agricul
tural writer of note, says: "Nature has
shown two paths which lead to a
knowledge of farming, experience and
imitation. Farmers hitherto by experi
ments have established many maxims,
and their posterity generally imitates
them, but we ought not only to imitate
others, but make experiments ourselves;
not directed by chance but by reeason."
Pliny, in recommending the planting
of trees to protect the fields from high
winds, says: "Men should plant while
young, and not build till their fields are
planted, and even then, they should
take time to consider, and not be in too
great haste." To give an idea of the
views of men in that age, wo quote
what Columella says of the points of a
good milch cows. "A tall make, long,
with a very large belly, very broad
head, eyes black and open, horns grace
ful, smoothc and black, cars hairy, jaws
straight, dewlap and tail very large,
hoofs and legs moderate." The same
writer gives the following directions
for the treatment of work oxen : "Af
ter oxen get through plowing, and
come home heated and tired, they must
have a little wine poured down their
throats, and after being fed a little, led
out to drink, and if they will not drink,
the boy must make them."
The Roman was limited by law to
the possession of only about six acres
of land, and he spent two days in plow
ing three-quarters of an acre. What
the average yield was we have no
means of knowing, but Pliny says that
oo stalks of wheat, all grown from
one seed were 6cnt to the emperor Au
gustus, and at another time 340 from
one seed were sent to the emperor
Nero, trom Byzantium in Africa, ac
companied by the statement that, "the
soil, when dry, was so stift" that the
strongest oxen could not plow it, but
after rain, I have seen it opened by
share, drawn by a wretched ass on the
one side, and an old woman on the oth
er." That soil was like some of the
Soil of Oreo-nn Vint iI.a .
--to , nn. H.-.U11 was even
poorer than a team in Arkansas since
Ilia un. T J . . . . .
whs uown mere not long
ago, and a friend told me about seeing
a disgusted immigrant moving back to
Red River from Texas. He had a two
wheel cart with raw hide tire. The
vehicle contained p. frii. . ...1.
or corn n i f i . .
u i T ., ' rlt" uacon, ana an
old bed-quilt, lie had lost an ox 011
- n.j, iw iiuu improvised a yoke,
With an advantntre a
, & 1 winciiuur
l w"8 Avork,g Kmst the steer,
..... .. uure-ioot wire, who carried
the babe, nmhett at tU k:.,.l j
1 1 r . u tllu Bate
and shouted, "git," when passing a
mud hole. fv fri.n,lc!,l l,f. ...l...
...-..n..mlu,mi,i -men
vou don't lire Tm XT c: 11 . .
he; "that kentry may do for a poor
man, but it won't near do for me."
That fellow. I aft
' " .V...11VU, nuin-
aged somehow to get to Oregon, but
i v .v. 1 ul, me ext steamer, swearing
that "this kentrv hnH heen mnr. .
gcrated nor Texas." Like all travel
ers, however, he n.l.lo.l en...iL:
his stock of knowledge in visiting new
countries. While here, he learned the
vims 01 Diue ointment, and "toted two
boxes" back to Arkansas."
Before the fall of the Roman Empire
the land limit.ntmn Iniiru.n o . 1-.1
, " u Hllll-lHllU
that a man could own as high as ,00
acres. Then niri-.A..W....A -:.ii.. "2
u(lllullulG laimuy IC11
into dlsrennte. (nf it .-- i
1 1 t.uiieu on
mainly by serfs, and beggardly vas-
.-. i neii tnc swarms ot northern
barbarians nu-pni m-nr e..i 1?..
rope, the only place where they were
partially checked was in Spain, a coun
try held hv the Snr.. i : 1
j j ...v u...HVvii9,iuiuiui invau-
ers from the East, and coming from the
well waIIa-a.! l.l. t. .
......vim iiiuus ui oyna, rersia
and Kc-vnt tlim. ....
toi-., iiiiuuiiiicu a sys
tem of irrigation called the Southern
ojraiuiu 01 Agriculture, 111 distinction
from the Northern Krcrniv, f n :
........ i xsiulllllv.
Ihey built aqueducts, reservoirs, and
canals, at an immense cost, and by this
means produced such enormous crops,
that, according to Gibbon, they in-
v.vnvu ..iv milium icvenue 01 their
country to $30,000,000, surpassing the
revenues of all Christian monarchs. I
have seen just such a system of agricul
ture carried on in Chili, where the
ground is merely stirred two inches
(leen. Willi a Klnnlr A -I J
to a point, and drawn by a yoke of oxen
nun u buck i.isiieu to tnc norns and at
tached tO a DOle Whirh Mri'f.e
beam. Enough loose dirt i irnt in
cover the seed, which is then thrown
on the ground and bushed in, when the
water is let on. With such tillage, the
crops year after year are enormous.
Much nf thr ftnil in tn r
t w fe.v, . "at; w
Santiago is exactly such land as that on
whirh wn nrn stnn.Unn . Uri.:i..: C
,K, , mil; in ouil-
tiairn. T nii! n vr.rv inl1Knn..i u ni-
O-i V ....vmwui Ul.ull.ll
traveler, who didn't seem to think
iiiucii 01 uie country. "vhyr Baid
he. "Ihev hnvo nn n!1 nnik:nn
but rocks." I was amazed at his eve
sight, but said : Have you visited the
market in KniilifitrnP 11AU Vn-.n lir-11
did you ever see 111 any country such
vast quantities and superior quality of
grain and vegetables? "No, I believe I
na..r .11.1 " rn t T .V . ...
u,u- i vu, sum 1, u rocKs will
nroditre Ihnt. rnrlra ie AnA..u
... , 1 wt biiuiivu null
forme. He laughed and said: "there
"iutuniig in mm wmcn 1 nail not
thourrht nf. Krnu lh .mi nf -II tl.:-
was water, the best and cheapest ma
nure in ine worm, and worth more
than all vour rlri. nlnuin VVI.A
the streams that go dashing down your
iiiuuiiiuiu sines arc utuizcu as they were
in SiViin. unit ns llio.r aM 1.. r1!.:!: il.
value of your land will be increased
iiuin mu iu iie luiu.
In (iront Iti-.i:.. nO..P tl. C
... um.uiii, Ulll llV .JUAUIIS
invaded the country and wrested it
c . t i I. p : t ...
Hum me nanus 01 tne Romans at the
end of 400 years of occupation, during
which, agriculture was in a wretched
rnmlilinn. it tv.ic i Ir-.- 1
baxons attempted to raise anything but
n nuie w neat, parley anu oats. 1 he
results of labor were too uncertain and
insecure, to oflcr encouragement to la-
uur, w nere me laws gave no adequate
security to life or nronertv. The ran.
pic subsisted mainly by hunting and
by kecpiiH' swine, which fattened ev
ery vear on the mast of the hcarh nml
oak. Besides, thev kept a ereat many
cattle, about one-fifth of which perished
every winter for want of food and
shelter, while frequently a miserable
murrain swept olT a much larger num.
vi. ganiL-ii cruu ui euinic vcgeia
bles were cultivated, and neither corn,
nor potatoes, nor cahbages, nor turnips,
were known in England till after the
beginning of the sixteenth century.
Even ns lnt no r ti .1. .
vriT L 'iviiry tne
v HI, in the beginning of the seven
teenth century, Queen Catherine had
to send to Flanders, or Holland, for
salad to supply her table. Now you
would like to know how these people
lived. We find in an old book called
the "Treasurie of Ancient and Modern
Times." mlhlivhf") in tkA 4-..II
ing description of one of their feasts:
"The mcate served into the Table
WaS alwflipo. in rrmnt rk.. Ullj
. , to""-" v.u,i"vib, lllldl
with pease and Bacon, Gammons of
Ugc ncais, roongc salted, great
Dieces Hpnf. hnt.t.l :.u i.
tage about them, boy led Muttton,vcalc
and other grnssc food, almost in everv
ordinary family; and they gorged in
these victuals, so long as they could
cram any more into their bellies. Af-
terWnrils thev hrmirrht nll Xf
, J ""fa'.i uii wliici niuaies,
answerable to the former, but roasted
anu lumen oitentimcs with unsavory
lard, but it would go for Pigs and
Hares. After this Second Service had
stood awhile on the Table well nccrc
to r.0 effect, then came in more daintv
Meatc of Foulcs, as Mallard, Wilil
Ducks, Ring Doves, Young Pigeons,
Partridges, Quails, Plovers, Wood
cocks, Turtle, and others of like kindc,
which arc carried away like the Second
Service, almost never toucht for they
(good men) had tilled their stomachs
with the first course of mcates, feeding
hungrily on them, and drinking Sower
.I'!....., -....I. L.'.... r ..
...v,., .-.uvii us oummcr juarrclh, so
they left the best and daintiest mcates
indeed for their varlcts and base ser
vants to feede on." That reminds me
of livin? in West TniiiaG.. nnr.ri.. .n
years ago meat, meat, nearly all meat.
j....; u, vvuiuies we nau sweet
cake that I cnuld t.-ilr. t un...i ..1
squeeze enough lard out of it to crease
A nnlr nT I A.... I. I.I . W
p..n ui uuuis, wur neaitn, nowever,
was carefully looked after in the Spring,
when, for six weeks we were put upon
hogs' jowls, turnip greens, and Sassa
fras tea the Sassafras to work the poi
son of the pork out of the blood.
The first writer on Agriculture in
Fl,.i ..... c: a.i. "... u.. 1
..8....iit n,iB on Aiiiiiuny ruzner
bert, who published a "Bokc of Hus-
.u..v, ..i ij. 11c siyieu nimscii
a larmcr ot 40 years standing." What
imnitu uuuiu i.iriiiiug m 40 years
Was. "A hushnm!" rnnnnl lti..mA I... UI
corn without cattclle, nor bv his cat-
IaIIa ...111 . ... I I J .
iv.iw wiiuuui corn, anu snepc, in myne
OUinioil. is thl mnct r.rrtntAl.lA A-H..II..
I T - jj.w.iL.iiriLn, VAlllklll
that any man can have." Then came
,,v,,uH ubbui, w iiu cnugiiicncu tne
Sllicnnfl nn nrrrifiilli.rA llt. It
. 111 -1 ivc llllll-
dred Points of Good Husbandry." A
wiiueu 111 uoggcrci verse, ami
which was ftniin-ht .iA.. A...I ...... I
until it was so worn out, that in print
ing a seconu edition, the publisher
fontul it .i;n;A..if n ci- -
.... copy
whole enough to print from. Now,
this great light on agriculture was so
much like mnnv wY,i nAin a' .
deal now-a-days, that it may be of in-
i" iw ins weignt as given oy
Fuller. He is described as "success
ively a musician, shoolmnstcr, serving
man, husbandman, grazier, poet, more
skilled in all than thriving in any vo
cation, lie traded at large in oxen,
sheen, d.'iirina. nml irrnin nf a!1 L:.ln t
no profit. Whether he bought or sold,
11c iusi, iiuu wncn a renter nc impover
ished himself, unit novAr nnrinl.n.l u:
landlord." No wonder that farmers
who followed him arc described as in a
nlnut ilpnlnrnhl" rnmlilinn n.l
half of the time on the point of slarva-
nun. iiiocuuanuaiiKCSysteillol things
nrevailed. nml nvn nu Inin na mf.ii
Lord Karnes said "Our draught hor
ses arc niiscraiiie creatures, without" wui u..u Blillll-iy
able to support their own weight, and
A I.. A ..I 1. I .1
" """Kni on ny 2 norscs,
lhf riiliri in lli l.i..h .....I L..l
m fact enormous masses ol accumulated
carin mat couiu not admit ol cross plow
ing or cultivation, shallow plowing
universal, ribbing, by which half of the
land was left untitled, a general prac
lice over the greater part of Scotland,
a continual struggle between corn and
wceus ior superiority, tnc roller almost
linltniiwil. nn hfirrnwitwr
and the seed sown into roiifh uneven
ground, where half of it was buried.
No branch of husbandry less understood
than manure, potatoes generally planted
in 1.-17V KUinn lillt.. a I I.....I...I 1..
and very few farms in Scotland prnpor-
iA-Ai.. ..l.ill I l -l?..1 r'.
lIUiiu,,; u me BKIII Ullll HOIIIiy 01 mC
tenant." Hitriniv the W...nil.
.... fc.v.k ..LIIIUI,
according to Flcta, the highest author
ity We h.lVIV lh IL'Mnn ..IaI.I nf ...u .
j A.-...b jinn ui w ncai
per acre was only six bushels, and 300 1
years later, 57 acres on a farm at Haw-'
sted yielded only 366 bushels, or less
than six bushels and a half to the acre,
and on an average of several years it's
yield was about the same.
During the long dark period that we
have glanced at, the art of soil culture
was carried o as high a point of per
fection as could have been expected,
considering the land was generally
tilled by vassals and slaves who had no
interest in it, ignorant of letters, and li
able at any moment to be forced from
the field into invading or resisting arm
ics, and when even the scholars of the
age knew almost nolhing of organic
chemistry, and couldn't tell how and
why manures promoted the growth of
For ages the winds swept over the
plains, and the waters sought the ocean
through the rivers without turning a
mill. Even as late as 1840, Professor
Lcihig astonished the world, and open
ed the way for a new system of agri
culture when he announced, that to
manure an acre of land with 40 pounds
of bone dust, prepared to be intimately
mixed with the soil, by pouring over
them half their weight of sulphuric acid,
diluted with three or four pints of water,
would be sullicicnt to supply three or
four crops of wheat, clover, potatoes,
turnips, etc., with the necessary phos
phates. The discovery of printing, the right
of owning land in fee simple by every
farmer, the inventions ol machinery,
me urns 01 organic chemistry, tne gen
eral diffusion of knowledge, the intro
duction of agricultural fairs, and the
final recognition of woman as an equal
and helpmate, in developing and per
fecting all the appliances that tend to
the progress, honor and glory of the
race, have, within the last hundred
years, made the pages of our history,
being transmitted to posterity, more
luminous than would all the concentra
ted light of a thousand years before.
You goto Coppsllill Cemetery in Bos
ton, where Cotton and Increase Mather
arc buried, and sec the rude tombstones
carved with the same horrible figure
everywhere, meant to represent an an
gel, a deaths hcatl, a witch, or a devil,
nobody knows which; and letters so
roughly chiselled, that what you see of
our fathers' status in art, throws a pall
of darkness over their day, as an age of
intolerance, bigotry, antl cruelty, as it
was. Then visit Mount Auburn Cem
etery, the work of their children. Wit
ness the beautiful meandering walks,
lined with flowers and shade trees ev
erywhere, the cooling fountains of
sparkling water, the polished marble
monuments, with the most exquisite
chiselling, telling who sleeps there, and
surmounted with smiling cherubs, cut
from the finest marble; with linger
pointed heavenwards, to remind you
that the emancipated spirit of the dust
beneath, has gone upwards, and awaits
your coining in the New Jerusalem.
There, you sec in the works of modern
art, written as with letters of gold, the
moral status of New England as she is
to-day, among her rocks and barren
hills, the freest, most intelligent, enter- .
prising and liberal people on earth.
The discovery of printing, steam and
the telegraph, advanced the race more
in a hundred years than it hud done a
thousand years before. The discover
ies that arc yet to be made, by genius,
that is slill agonizing to enter the inner
vestibule of the Arcana of Nature, will
no doubt eclipse all that have been
made. I! so, it is beyond our power to
estimate the character of posterity a
hundred years hence. At the next
Centennial Fair our children's children
will be curious to know what manner
of ptoplc assembled here in 1876, and
what we had on exhibition, They will
know, for the records will ho handed
down to them, and their President and
Orator will probably read over the
opening address of President Watson,
and perhaps mine, to sec how people
thought and talked in those days.
Through the dim vista of an inter
vening hundred years, we can get but
little belter outline of what thev will
then be, than we get of what people
were a thousand years ago. But wc
do know that the line of march which
a swarming humanity has taken up,
leans onwards, and upwards, anil wc
believe it will still go 011 till "Peace,
and good will to man," will be written
over every gate-way Hallelujah I be
wafted on every breeze, and Glory I
sung in every dark valley and corner of
the world.
Bend Hie Wnn-Kuoai lo frianili 10 Ilia Ext.