5 VOL. 1-No. 6. PORTLAND, OREGON, JANUARY, 1870. i rim aknto, ti n iN.iiuoi'iia.iocBan J. H. LYON, CHIEF ENGINEER P. P. D. ForthbWbktRhorb. '. REMARKS ABOUT. OREGON. BV DAVID NKW90HE. ". There are many tilings of vital importance to persons emigrating to Oregon which they do not or cannot suf ficient know before coming here. In the first place, there u really but little correctly known abroad of this State, I have a pretty fair chance to know this from the multitude of leuers which I receive from persons in "the .-States" and from questions propounded to me by immi grants on their arrival amongst us. :,.. ; There is another matter of serious detriment to our country here. Many persons soar into the re- , gions of fancy, draw upon their fertile imagina . ' lions, and give sketches and descrintions nf flu. " '' ' egon highly wrought. They represent Oregon as paradise, and most of us as angels. Others ; come here with inflated ideas of acquiring quick fortunes, whether they have capital or brains to begin with or not. Some, again, suppose that if they can only reach here O K, they tan look for and c.Tpcct more from us than, in fact, we ' can bestow.' It is true that, to persons in actual distress, there are none kinder, more feeling and generous than the Oregonians. But in the com mon affairs of busi-ncss each one is expected to " paddle his own canoe." Again, the geotrranhv and tonoeraiiliv of thin Slate seem to be but little known abroad! If persons will examine the map of the United Slates, they will see that Oregon contains 96,250 square miles, or 61,000,000 acres of land. If this surface was, like Illinois, section bv sec lion, rich, level land, then there could be a great many farms made upon it. But we must consider thai it is greatly uivcrsihed. Yv e have valleys, little hills, big hills, and cloud-capped, snow-capped mountains; sage plains, some barrens, some canons (pronounced "kanyons ), and some gravel lands that are of not much account Amin we have vast grassy plains in Eastern Oregon, good for sheep, cattle and horses, but a vert- large portion of it not ,uncu lor larming. 1 et, in mining, stock-raising, fruit raising and gardening a hundred thousand rsons could r live well in Eastern Oregon by industry and proper econ omy. It is true that the very best portions of Oregon for extensive farming are in the great Willamette valley timber and prairies alternate and present much of the appearance of the fine sections of Illinois. Here, farming can be done to profit and on a large scale. But it is true that all the available farm lands, and much of the farm lands for timber, have been taken up. The two valley railroad grants from Congress includes a large amount of lands on both sides of them in alternate sections. But before these grants were made ncarlv all the good lands were taken up under the old Donaiion Act of Sept. 27, 1850. The first principal settlement here was made by the Methodist missionaries in Salem in 1834. From that point the settlements have radiated till all the good sites are taken up. Immigrants have come to me here and wished me to show them farm lands, with good limber and prairie ad joining, near the railroad or the Willamette river, vacant and ready to be taken up at Congress price; and if I could not comply with their requests, they would become dis pleased. Upon the maps at the land offices much of the lands in Oregon arc yet vacant. True; but this surface comprises our mountain lands, covered with tall timber, and in their bowels lie gold, silver, copper, lead. iron. cinnabar, marble, limestone and gypsum. Water-power abounds everywhere in all these mountain districts. There are yet some lands in such districts that might be utilized for grain, fruits and gardens. But as we ascend in altitude we coin into colder regions. It is more in altitude than in latitude that the cold predominates. From the point where these lines are penned I sec, first, the earth covered wilh a carpet of green and some hardy flowers in bloom; next, the fo&j; lulls, covered with snow three inches deep; and next, the tarthest settlements up the western slope of the Cascades, covered with anow two feet deep only twentv-fivc uiilee oft. And on the sum mit of the lofty Cascades ihc Sierras of Oregon Mount -1," J 1 WilKlaBrrW!l's?"js 'If .UIHftr-JfmMHiiy MASONIC TBHTLE, PORTLAND. Hood, monarch of mountains, whose top is covered wilh eternal snows, rears its head in majestic grandeur, 1 2,600 feet above the bosom of the Pacific Ocean. Upon the western slope of the Coast Mountains, and along the ocean for over 100 miles, are large boundaries of timber and brush lands, very rich, well watered and productive ; healthy, and cajable of being utilized in many ways. The timber is excellent; vast coal mines abound; there are oyster, salmon and cod fisheries; and upon the marsh or tide lands fine wild grasses for hay and grazing. Now, we see that the most valuable, and in every way the most desirable portions of the rural districts of Oregon are taken up, and now owned by the pioneers of this coast Persona, therefore, coming now must go back into interior districts and endure the privations and toils of pioneer life, or buy second-hand land. And here let me remark that all original land titles here are good. We have no Sanish grants and contested land titles. The United States have been, or are now, the sole, origi nal proprietors of lands here. Buyers of second-hand lands can trace up titles, and can see from the records whether there be mortgages, liens or any local incum brances upon any lands in question. Taken altogether, there is a great diversity of ways and means by which persons can acquire comfortable livings here and enjoy it well. Really, the resources of Oregon arc almost bonndless. It would require a book of 500 quarto pages to go into minute details of all our diversified resources. Hut the paramount object should be with all persons here now or coming here, to follow some honest calling for a living. I know of no section of the United Slates where frugal, industrious persons can live easier or beuer than they can live here. But loafers, gamblers, pickpockets, drunkards, and idlers generally, we have no use for, nor will we wel come or show countenance to them. Lands in the farming districts of Oregon can be had at very low rates. Persons of means can do belter to buy improved or unimproved lands f.n the settlements VIEW ON THE WALLA WALLA RIVER, W. T. where towns, mills, schools, navigation, railroads, good markets and good society abound, than to pass to the districts not having these advantages. In the south western counties of Oregon ast coal fields, limber, fish eries, gold, silver, Iron, copper, marble and cinnabar abound. A very large amount of vacant lands are there, subject to homestead or pre-emption claims. We have only about one person to every 400 acres of land In our State, . Our fisheries are an endless source of wealth; and all the great valleys of Western Oregon and Washington . Territory are underlaid with a thick vein of superior coal. Discoveries constantly being made prove this assertion. The great source of wealth here, but little appreciated as yet, are our immense bodicm 01 nr, spruce, cedar and pine timber. Our water-powers are a wonder to all discerning per sona. Capital and brains are needed to ulillzc them, and erect factories, machine shoiw, foun dries, fisheries, ship yards, rolling mills, nail factories, woollen mills, etc., and to push ow commerce to foreign lands. One evening the subject of noses and their cliaracleristici was under consideration, and the discussion assumed an earnest aspect. In the midst of it. Will P , whose nose was not e-. ' actly Roman in structure, said, "I wonder what makes my nose so flat at lis end " Sticking It in other folk's business 1" promptly replied Charley T The discussion closed for thai evening. Coleridge was acknowledged to be a bad rider. One day, riding through a street, he was accosted by would-be-wit: "I say, do you know what happened to Balaam i" Came the answer sharp and quick: " The same as hap pened to me. An ass spoke to him I" "The tailor makes the man?" emphatically declared k village philosopher. " No, Sir," replied a by-stander, " It is dress lliat makes the man." " Then what does the tailor make )" " Well, perliaps from ten to fifteen dollars profit on a suit." is w odp nuovr tuna witlud oimm.