The Polk County post. (Independence, Or.) 1918-19??, May 09, 1919, Image 3

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Negotiations of Modern Cove-"
nants That Ended Wars Have
Often Taken Months.
• G re a t Issues Involved in the S ettle­
m ents o f the Last T h ree C enturies
— Keenest M inds of Church
Seek A dvantage.
New York.— The makiDg of treaties
has always been a time-consuming
process since the days when the
feu dal lord or monarch could say to
his beaten foe, accept these terms or
die. Then the limits o f personal force
and ambition were the only curb on
the victor’s demands, with the qons
01 daughtersr or other relatives to be
pawns in the game, execution or mar­
riage sealing the hateful bargain.
But with the development o f states
into something more than the individ­
ual property of kings and emperors,
and the brondening o f international
relations, the resulting clashes of
arms, often lasting fo r years, were
rarely brought to a close except after
negotiations that lasted fo r weeks or
months. Over the documents that set­
tled the religious, political, or terri­
torial questions at Issue, the keenest
minds o f church and state fought for
advantage. Intrigues and secret deals
were a normal Incident o f the battle
o f wits, when more than two countries
were involved in the difficulty.
Many o f the peace treaties o f the
Inst three centuries are the landmarks
o f their period, ending or beginning
an era in which the future develop­
ment o f peoples or nations was defin­
itely determined.
Peace of W estp h alia.
Such a history-making event was
the Peace o f Westphalia (1648), which
ended the Thirty Years’ war— the last
o f the great conflicts between Ct^hol-
iclsm and Protestantism. Beginning
ns n strife between German states, di­
vided on religious lines, it finally in­
volved France, Spain, Sweden, Por­
tugal, the Netherlandsf Switzerland,
and many Italinn states.
In 1641 preliminaries o f peace were
agreed upon nt Hamburg by the al­
ready wearied contestants, but It was
thrpe years before a congress to set­
tle terms was opened and four years
after that when first treaties were
signed at Osnabruck and Munster,
to «n s o f Westphalia. A general and
complete peace was finally signed at
Munster on October 24, 1648.
At Aix-la-Chapelle, on May 2, 1668,
was signed the first treaty, known by
the name o f that town. This wns the
climax o f the struggle between France
and Spain for the possession of the
Spnnish . Netherlands. On the death
o f Philip IV o f Spain, Louis X IV
claimed a large part o f the Nether­
lands in the name of his wife, a
daughter o f Philip.
The Dutch,
alarmed by the French pretensions,
which w ere baclyd by aggressive J
military action, summoned England
and Sweden to her aid and halted the
French advance.
Under the treaty
Louis kept portions o f Flunder^which
his forces had overrun.
The Peace of Ryswick, which was
signed at the Dutch village on the
outskirts o f The Hague In 1697, end­
ed a struggle o f nine years between
France and the Grand Alliance, a term
which ultimately included England,
Holland, Savoy, the H oly Roman em­
pire, Brandenburg. Sweden, Spain,
Saxony and the Palatinate. A con­
gress o f envoys held sessions during
most o f the summer o f 1697 and final­
ly signed a treaty o f pence on Sep­
tember 20. This virtually restored all
territorial matters to the status quo
ante, but the chief result wns to check
the ambitious o f Louis, under whose
rule France had become the first power
on the continent, supplanting Spain.
the years 1713 and 1715 thnt brought
to a close the war o f the Spanish suc­
cession (known in American history
in Its later aspect as Queen Anne’s
w ar). To prevent the union o f Spuln
and France under Bourbon rule, W il­
liam I I I o f England formed another
grand alliance, which included Aus­
tria and several German states, In-
cludirm Prussia.
An armistice was
concluded between France and Hag-
land In 1712, hut It was not until April
13, 1713, that peace wus signed at
Utrecht between France on the one
side and England on the other. Spain
settled with her enemies in the next
two years.
A second treaty o f Aix-la-Chapelle,
signed October 18, 1748, marked tlje
conclusion o f the war o f the Austrian
succession, notable for the long and
successful efTort of Maria Theresa to
keep her throne against a host of
First o f th e ’treaties that vitally af­
fected the future o f North America
was that o f Paris, which ended the
Seven Years’ war. Beginning with a
struggle between Prussia and Austria,
the war spread to the German states,
Russia, France, Sweden, England and
o f peace
were signed on November 3, 1762, but
the definitive treaty was not consum­
mated till February 10, 1763. In the
settlement, which was o f a far-reach­
ing character, France lost Canada and
much of her India possessions to Eng­
land. The latter also established her
supremacy on the seas.
Just 20 years later It wns England’s
fnte to sign a treaty acknowledging the
independence o f her former American
colonies, and simultaneously to make
peace with France and Spain. The
negotiations which ended the Ameri­
can Revolution were under way for
Franklin, Jay, and John
Adams, ns America’s plenipotentiaries,
signed the preliminaries o f peace on
August 30, 1782, but it wns more than
a year later (September 3, 1783) that
the definite treaty was form ally agreed
t6 at Versailles.
T re a ty o f G hent.
A t Amiens, on March 27, 1802, Eng­
land signed a treaty with Spain,
Frnnce, and the Batavian republic,
(Netherlands), wherein the first Na­
poleonic successes were recognized
and accepted.
Peace preliminaries
had been arranged at London nearly
six months before.
The Treaty o f Ghent, which closed
the second war of the United States
with England, required more than
four months fo r negotiations.
Another Treaty o f Paris had only a
few months before (M ay 30, 1814),
been signed by Frnnce with all the
allies, who had been fighting Bona­
parte. By it all the territorial advan­
tages won by Napoleon, were, given
back. A t the same time provision
was made fo r the calling at Vienna of
a conference to settle the genernl af-
fnirs o f Europe, disorganized and dis-
iraeted by the long yenrs o f war.
The congress of Vienna thus sum­
moned, was the most remarkable as­
semblage o f its kind the world had
ever seen. A ll o f Europe, except Tur­
key, was represented by delegates, the
number o f those who assisted at the
gathering being over five hundred.
Opening on September 30, 1814, It
lasted until June 9, 1815, or more than
eight months.
Crowned heads, In­
cluding .three emperors, were in at­
tendance at various times.
An ex­
traordinary round o f festivities was
provided, and amid it all the master
diplomats o f the epoch (Talleyrand,
Metternlch and Castlereagh) played
their gumes of intrigue. The unprec­
edented decisions o f this congress
dominated the course o f European
statesmen fo r 40 years.
The Crimean war (1854-6) was con­
cluded by another Treaty of Paris,
which admitted the Porte to the Eu­
ropean concert and guaranteed the In­
tegrity o f the Ottoman empire. The
document was signed March 30, 1856,
after nearly five weeks o f negotia­
T h e S ettlem ent of 1871.
brought to an end when preliminaries
o f a peace treaty were agreed to at
Thiers on February 25, 1871.
formal treaty was tuken up by a con­
ference at Brussels on Mureli 28.
Signature o f the compact was accom­
plished at Frnnkfort on May 10, the
negotiations thus lasting six weeks.
A fter Russia’s overwhelming suc­
cess in her war against Turkey in
1877-8, she enforced severe terms by
the Treaty o f San Stefano (March 3,
1878). Thereupon a congress of the
powers was called at Berlin to settle
questions involved In what Austria
and Great Britain regarded ns the un­
due aggrandizement o f the Petrogrnd
This gathering, which
The Aquitania ns she appeared docklug at New York with almost 6,000 troops front Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio and j
Included among Its delegates Salis­ other western states and some notuble personages, lncludl ng half a dozen brigadier generals and Sir Thomas Lipton.
bury, Beaconsfleld, Bismarck, and the noted English yuchtsmnn, portrult o f whom is inserted.
Andrassy, met on June 13, and closed
Its labors just one month later. The
treaty which was signed stripped
Russia of a large share o f the fruits
of her victory.
Settlement o f the Spanish-Amertcan
war in 1898 required negotiations that
lasted two months and nine days.
The first session o f the envoys took
place in Paris on 'October 1. In late
November there seemed to be danger
o f a breaking off o f the parley, but
the difficulty was smoothed out and
the treaty was signed on December 10.
It took 27 days fo r the Russian and
Japanese delegates to reach an agree­
ment at Portsmouth, N. H „ in 1899,
thus ending their comparatively brief
hill' sanguinary war. They held their
first meeting on August 9, and peace
was signed on September 5.
F irs t H ague Conference.
It was in this same year that the
first peace conference was held at
The Hague. A t the instance o f the
czar of Russia 21 Europenn countries
and the United Spates, Mexico, China.
Japan, Persia and Siam sent repre­
sentatives to confer with regard to
concerted nction to maintain general
peace. The first meeting o f this con­
clave, which was hailed nt the time
as a highly promising effort fo r the
banishment o f war, was held on May
18, 1899. Conclusions were reached
and a final act signed on July 29, the
When the navy department called fog more “ eyes” fo r the tyivy, 52,000 patriots responded by lending their field
conference having thus lasted two
glasses, 32,000 o f which were accepted. This photograph shows war workers packing the field glasses in cartons
months and eleven days.
and returning them to the owners. The glasses proved to be of grout value to submarine chasers uud destroyers dur­
Even more impressive In the char­
ing the war.
acter of the personnel and the seri­
ousness o f the'deliberations wns the
second Hague conference, held in 1907
at the call o f President Roosevelt.
Forty-six nations sent diplomats, in­
ternational experts, and political lead­
ers to this gathering, and the conclu­
sions, accepted or rejected by the
various powers In the discussion of
the broad range o f proposals, nimlng
for peace or nt least a mitigation of
war’s evils, have an almost cynical in­
terest In the light o f the gt-eat war.
The conference was In session fo r four
months and three days, opening on
June 15 and adopting a statement of
principles on October 18.
The present assemblage in Paris is
in effect a Hague conference and a
treaty-making body rolled into one.
Twenty-six countries are form ally rep­
resented in the plenary gatherings.
nounced have attained success, he had
the co-operation nnd worked by the au­
thority of llie war department and the
Smithsonian Institution in Washington,
nnd Clark university and the Worces-
ter Polytephnlc institute.
U tre c h t’s Epoch-M aking A greem ent.^
with it, the most powerful implements
The Pence o f Utrejdit wns the next
o f modern w arfare nre rendered Inef­
great agreement between the quarrel­
fective, scientists fam iliar with the in­
some powers o f Europe. It was. In
vention assert.
fact, a series o f agreements between
Under the system o f propulsion
worked out by Doctor Goddard the
rocket could rise to a height above the
earth's atmosphere, where its range
would be increased greatly.
Its propulsive power— which mili­
tary men say Is a new contribution to
! the science o f ballistics— lies In an in­
ternal combustion engine of high pow-
| er, fed either by finely pulverized
smokeless powder or charges o f liquid
j explosive at regular Intervals regulated
by clockwork. Experiments with min­
iature models conducted here have
fu lly demonstrated Its success against
an enemy.
Instead o f requiring a cannon or
mortar to start It, one man from any
spot can launch it without apparatus.
The destructive agency is in the head
o f the rocket, though It can be adapted
fo r photographic work as well, the ap­
paratus being automatically released
from the rocket proper and descending
with a parachute.
In the rocket’s simplest form, manu­
factured at small cost, a foot soldier
would become the equivalent o f a
field cannon fo r a single ghof, fo r he
would carry on his shoulder an Instru­
ment o f destruction, with Its head of
gas or high explosive, and fire it from
The tlrst concrete barge to be launched for the United States navy took any point where his legs would take
to the water at L ittle Ferry, N. J. The barge will be used to carry oil and him. And that would often be where
cannon could not be moved.
coa) fo r ships o f the navy.
Worcester, Mass.— A rocket as an
agent o f w arfare over land or sea,.hav­
ing a perpendicular range o f 70 miles
and a horizontal range o f 200 miles or
more, and capable of carrying power­
ful charges o f explosives or deadly
gases, has been invented here by Dr.
Robert H. Goddard, professor o f phys­
ics at Clark college.
In his experiments, which he an-
Owing to the ila epidemic In England, the Litchfield authorities linvo
On tlie left is Commnnder John H l g - )Ciosef] t|ie Sp|10ols. The headmaster of the King Edward V I grammar school ,
gins, U. S. N., wearing the new regu­ cot permission to carry on his school with out-of-door gumes, parades, drills , ,
lation uniform adopted by the navy etc., to fight the,flu. One o f the methods taken wns to have the boys Inhu e;
department, nnd on the right Ensign disinfectant through their nostrils after cucli exercise was completed.
Milton MacDonald, wearing the old
type. The coat o f the new uniform is
similar to that worn by British nnval
officers, hnylng a low collar and open
front. There is no Insignia on the
cellar o f the new coat, but the insignia
on the sleeve remains the same.
H u m an
N ature.
"So you came in frdtn Honey Shuck
this morning?” we asked. “ T ell us,
what kind o f a place Is it?”
“ The prettiest, neatest, most up-to-
the-minute little town you ever saw,”
he enthusiastically replied, “ Inhabited
by as fine and progressive set o f peo­
ple as can be found anywhere !”
“ Indeed,” we returned.
“ We per­
ceive that you do not live there, but
merely stopped over, possibly fo r a
day. No resident of a small town ever
comes to the city and fails to apolo­
gue for his home village and recite
how dead slow and abysmally dreary
' life is there.” — Kansas City Star.
T h e a te rs in Ocean Liners.
A favorite project o f the late Charles
FMunnn, which he did not live to see
fulfilled, the establishment o f theaters I
A huge pile o f German 17 centimeter nnvnl shells nt the munitions depot
In ocean liners. Is being revived as an ! nt Mulheim, Germany. They nre to be shipped to America to decorate parks
outcome o f entertainments given to and libraries. These shells are considered the best o f all Germany could '
soldiers In troopships. The New York produce.
officials of the Cunnrd line have re­
suscitated the scheme. They nre re­
Women accepted for the police force
ported to be considering plans for the
In London take three months' tralnlngi
cqnstruction o f stages In the saloons of
A mixture o f two or more honeys and If successful they become consta­
their Atlantic vessels with complete
sets o f scenery. In Addition, every sh.p always is darker than any of the
Princess Mary, only dnughter of
ia to carry a stock -company and a di­ original ones.
The horn o f the rhinoceros is not King George and Queen Mary o f Eng­
rector to produce plnys selected from
the latest London and New York suc- joined to the bone o f the head, but land, la colonel in chief o f the Royal
crpriwi on thp skin.