Oregon daily emerald. (Eugene, Or.) 1920-2012, April 24, 1935, Image 1

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Issue Debated
Read the objections and replies
of Jirn Blais’ and Edmond Labbe’s
programs in today's Emerald.
‘ Resu me
of the
Day’s News
By the Associated Press
—■ -VT" - APRIL 23 —--r
jXVic Taxps Forpspon
WASHINGTON — An unexpec
ted warning that hundreds of mil
lions in new inheritance taxes may
be demanded by the administration
to finance cash bonus legislation
today was raised as a barrier to
veteran demands—clouding even
the future of the Harrison bond
redemption compromise.
Secretary Morgenthau, Presi
dent Roosevelt’s closest financial
4 confidant, personally delivered the
nevvr taxes bombshell to the senate
finance committee, blanketing in
to his statement all bonus bills
under consideration.
Immediately, however, Chair
man Harrison renewed to news
men his contention that the com
promise plan—with its offer to ex
change negotiable bonds for the
bonus certificates—would not re
quire new taxes.
Price of Sili'pr Risps
WASHINGTON — Expectation
of a quick boost in the treasury’s
silver price today was added to
swirls of speculation over possible
administration action to close the
weak spot left in the Roosevelt
monetary system by the supreme
court gold ruling.
Silver talk had its genesis in
mounting world quotations for the
white metal as they edged over
closer to the government's stand
ing offer for newly mined domestic
silver. One treasury official said
it was a logical deduction from
past actions that the price would
be boosted shortly, but all Secre
tary Morgenthau would say was
“Don't bet any money on what we
Paraguayans Halted
BUENOS AIRES — A week of
bitter, bloody fighting- along the
120-mile Chaco front, in which
both Bolivia and Paraguay lost
heavily, tonight saw Paraguay’s
invasion of Bolivia temporarily
Hurling nine regiments number
ing 8,000 men into the Paraguayan
center. General Enrique Penaran
da, Bolivian commander, threat
ened the enemy’s communications
and forced evacuation of Chara
gua, important Santa Cruz prov
ince town which Paraguay cap
tured April 16.
Paraguay, admitting Charagua
had been abandoned for tactical
reasons, asserted its counter-offen
sive launched in the central sector
about Boyuibe inflicted heavy loss
es on the Bolivian forces concen
trated there.
Navy Bill in Congress
WASHINGTON — The biggest
regular naval appropriation bill in
fifteen years was started down
the ways of congress today,
(Please turn to paije 3)
Campus Calendar
Emerald business staff will meet
today at 4 in McArthur court.
Phi Theta Epsilon pledges will
meet today at 4 in the women's
lounge of Gerlinger hall.
Phi Mu Epsilon, mathematics
honorary, will hold an important
business meeting tonight at 8 p. m.
in 206 Deady. All members are re
quested to be present.
Phi Chi Theta will hold an im
portant meeting at 5 p. m. today
in room 106 commerce.
Students to be in publicity pic
tures for the AWS carnival meet
today at noon in front of Friendly
Barker Lauds
Sense of Honor Excelled
By No Other Country,
Speaker Says
Noted Japanese Student to
Teach Here
The Japanese are more efficient,
friendly, and more hospitable than
any other people on the face of the
earth, once you gain their respect,
Burt Brown Barker, vice-president
of the University of Oregon, said
in an address yesterday morning
at 11 before several hundred stu
dents in Gerlinger hall. The speak
er recently extensively traveled in
“There is no nation in the world
which has the sense of honor which
the Jarmnese have,” Mr. Barker
said. While in Japan the speaker
was the guest of honor at many
social events, including one in the
private home of one of the leading
citizens whom he had met in Ore
gon. He was greatly imnressed
with the ease with which the Jap
anese conduct their social duties
while entertaining, even though
they do differ greatly from those
of America.
Perry Method Bold
As the reason that the world at
large did not believe that the Jap
anese were a friendly people, Mr.
Barker advanced the opinion that
Commodore Perry was unnecessar
ily bold in his methods of estab
lishing trade relations. The peo
ple of Japan are very sensitive
and were insulted at the method
used by Perry when he landed at
a forbidden port with 300 officers
and armed negroes as his escort.
Although the Japanese highly re
sented this, they are nevertheless
thankful to the people of the Unit
ed States for opening the door of
their nation to the commerce of
the world.
In Japan the honor of the family
is so great the young man knows
if he does anything wrong it will
reflect upon every member of his
family, Mr. Barker said, express
ing a wish that the youth of Amer
ica would think more seriously of
this before committing an act for
which they would be sorry.
Japanese Cultured
The Japanese do not play con
tract bridge for recreation, but
they seek composure in their gar
dens and in books. A Japanese
garden is a reproduction of some
piece of nature which the owner
has learned to love. There are
more book stores in Tokyo than
in any other city. In the speaker’s
opinion, reflecting the profound in
terest and self satisfaction found
in reading by the people there.
While visiting in the island em
pire, Mr. Barker made the acquain
tance of Jiro Harada, one of Ja
pan’s foremost archeologists and
art scholars, who will come to the
campus next fall to study and to
instruct students in Japanese cul
ture. Mr. Harada chose the Uni
versity mainly because he is so in
terested in the Murray Warner
oriental art museum located on the
campus. The scholar is now in
Manchuria and will conduct ar
cheological research in China and
Korea before coming to the Uni
Premier of 'Small Miracle’
Stars Booth9 Baker, and Root
Guild Hall's amateur premier
of “Small Miracle,” recent Broad
way success classified by critics
as “excellent melodrama,” and
scheduled for presentation May 4
and 6 in the University theatre,
presents to the Eugene campus
three University juniors whose in
itial appearance it will be as lead
ing characters in a regular Guild
hall production.
“Small Miracle,” an exciting
drama of interwoven lives, has its
entire action in the lounge of a
Broadway theatre one night while
the performance, a musical com
edv, is on. Before the eyes of the
onlookers is untangled .through a
small, but thrilling miracle, the
mixed-up skein of ten lives in the
audience, including Sylvia Tem
ple, lovely society woman who
“chose theater lounges for her as
signations,” played by Portia
Booth: Helen, the young filing
clerk who comes to the theatre to
save the fellow, to whom she is
engaged, from a serious predica
ment which threatens his career,
played by Leone Baker: and Joe
Taft, a plain-clothes-man. who has
in his custody a convicted mur
derer who has been sentenced to
hang, played by George Root.
Miss Booth, who plays the role
of Sylvia Temple, made her first
University dramatic appearance as
Fern Arthur, chorus girl witness,
in the “Trial of Mary Dugan.”
Miss Booth who is a junior, is mi
noring in dramatics and was act
ive in dramatic work in Grant high
school in Portland before coming
to the University,
Leone Baker, as Helen, appears
for the first time in a Guild hall
production. Miss Baker entered
the University last fall as a jun
ior, having transferred from Mon
mouth where during the past two
years she appeared in and directed
many of the monthly one-act plays
and was president of Crimson ‘O’,
dramatic group. Both Miss Baker
and Miss Booth played the leading
parts in their high school class
This is also the first University
dramatic appearance of George
Root, junior in journalism, who
returned to the University fall
fall term after an absence of two
years. As Joe Taft, the ex-cop
and detective, Root portrays a
kind-hearted executor of the law
whose one generous gesture un
consciously promotes a “small mir
acle” and brings the play to a
thrilling climax.
Matrix Speaker
Gwladys Bowen, society editor
of the Oregonian, will he the main
speaker at the formal Matrix
Table banquet, to be given Thurs
day evening, April 25, by Theta
Sigma Phi, women’s journalism
Noted Women
Will Meet at
f Matrix Table
Speaker, Guest of Honor
Is Oregonian Society
Distinguished women in journal
ism, literature and the arts, from
Eugene, the campus, and other
parts of Oregon, will meet at the
Eugene hotel Thursday, 6:30, at
the formal Matrix banquet given
by Theta Sigma Phi, women’s na
tional journalism honorary.
Miss Gwladys Bowen, society
editor of the Oregonian, will be
guest of honor, and speaker before
approximately 100 of Oregon’s
“elite” in literature and the fine
arts. Miss Bowen, in addition to
being an accomplished writer, has
traveled widely through Europe,
and has also been active in drama,
both as actress and director. She
is a former student of the Univer
sity, was one of the charter mem
bers of Pot and Quill, and won the
Edison Marshall short story con
test, while on the campus.
Honorary to Pledge
One of the chielf features of the
banquet this year will be the
pledging of new members to the
honorary. The names of the
pledges will not be disclosed until
the banquet. Outstanding fresh
man and sophomore women in
journalism at the University, and
also from the two Eugene high
schools will be introduced.
Miss Signe Rasmussen has been
selected as the outstanding fresh
man, and Miss Virginia Endicott
(Please turn to page three)
YW Puppet Show
Finale on Tonight
A packed house at both the af
ternoon and evening performance
yesterday was Eugene's enthusi
astic response to Scott's Merry
Marionettes, group of puppets
which were sponsored by the
freshman members of the YWCA.
Isabelle Miller, chairman of the
shows, announces that there will
be a third and final performance
at 7:30 tonight. Prices are 15 cents
for University students and 25
cents for adults.
The plays “King Midas” and
“The Three Bears” won instant
favor with the audience. Much fav
orable comment was evoked by
the skillful way in which the pup
pets were handled and the realistic
touch that characterized the whole
show. Ballet dances, songs, and
performances upon various musi
cal instruments were featured as
short numbers.
Election of YM Officers
To Be Tomorrow at Hut
YWCA elections will be held to
morrow at the Y hut from twelve
to one-thirty. Fred Giesieke has
been nominated for president, Cos
grove La Barre for vice-president,
Ed Hansen and Charles Paddock
for secretary, and Brittan Ash for
All members are urged to vote.
Eugene Stromberg will be in
charge of the ballot box.
Returns From Portland — Doris
Russi returned to the campus Sun
day after spending the past week
end visiting with her parents at
the home in Portland.
I AW S Carnival
| To Begin Half
Hour Earlier
1 ‘The Nickel to Be King*’;
Dancing, Food, Fun
For One Price
Basket Social Affair New
Interest at Affair
“The annual AWS carnival will
begin at 7:30 and not at 8 o'clock
as announced in posters distribu
ted about -the campus and city,”
Reva Herns, carnival chairman,
said last night.
The posters, which are correct
in all details except the starting
time, depict the circus events of
the gala night scheduled for Sat
urday in the igloo when the
“cream of carnival attractions”
will be offered to students, faculty
and townspeople.
Baskets for Sale
"The nickel will be king,” said
Ralph Schomp, assistant graduate
manager. Jitney dancing, food and
fun, are all to be offered at this
price. Plans for a telegraph ser
vice by which one can send tele
grams to anyone attending the
carnival are under way. An im
portant feature of the affair this
year is the basket social. Eight
baskets containing lunch for two
will be auctioned off at the dance
intermission. Eight girls, whose
names will be announced soon, are
to be the supper partners of the
highest bidders. A carnival display
opens today at the Co-op.
Girls Sell Tickets
Girls who will sell tickets are:
Bernice McDonald, Constance
Kletzar, Margaret Real, Ona-Dee
Hendrickson, Marjory Brainerd,
Colleen Cathey, Kathleen Duffy,
Vivian Emery, Hallie Dudrey, Pa
tricia Neal, Olive Lewis, Winifred
Pembroke, Jane Lagassee, Mar
garet Johnston, Eileen Glaisyer,
Lois Strong, Iris Schmidt, Toni
Lucas, Jane Bogue, Eleanor Adef
son, Margaret Rae, Marietta Conk
lin, Margaret Hay, Dolores Belloni,
Molly White, Virginia Duncan,
Marie Davis, Claire Shanks, Jean
Mavis Moire, Jean Cecil, Virginia
Moore, and Betty Brown. These
girls will meet at 4:30 in the Col
lege Side Inn Thursday.
Helping at the food booths will
be: Elizabeth Turner, Doris Mabie,
Lucille Finck, Olive Lewis, Erma
Huston, Elizabeth DeBusk, Gayle
Buchanan, Bertha Sheppard,
Joanne Perrott, Genevieve Hollin,
Maurine Shearer, Bernice McDon
ald, Betty Jane Casey, Jean Fas
kitt, Ruth Mary Scared, Phyllis
Cory, Aleen Hall, Betty Zentbauer,
Elizabeth Calef, Sue Menzies, Mar
jory Kaker, Betty McGirr, Dot
Eijiht Candidates
Running for Co-op
Board Next Year
McClain Reads Financial
Statement, Reports
Nominations for the Co-op board
for next year were made at the
meeting of the board yesterday af
ternoon. Elections are to be held
simultaneously with the regular
ASUO and class elections Thurs
1 Freshmen nominated for the
sophomore position on the board
are Frank Drew, Lawrence Crane,
■and Richard Pierce. Only one of
these three will be elected. Juniors
who were nominated for positions
jen the board as seniors are Avery
Combs, Robert Vosper. Charles Mc
Girr, Theda Spicer, and John
Two sophomores will be elected
to serve terms of two years each.
One of the candidates will be cho
sen to serve for one year. John F.
(Please turn to page three)
Students Seeking;
Jobs for Summer
To Meet in Villard
Forest Service Program
May Include Students
Students seeking summer jobs
should come to Villard assembly at
7:15 this evening without fail
when Fred N. Miller of the Univer
sity health service will outline ten
tative plans for Forest Service
camps designed to give summer
work to students.
All plans are still indefinite,
says Dr. Miller, but if a large
number or boys turn out to the
meeting a n d sign application
blanks there is a good chance that
they will be granted forest jobs.
The plan, as Dr. Miller has dis
cussed it with Regional Forester
C. J. Buck and other officials, is
to set up camps of 50 or more
boys to do part of the work that
will go into the enlarged programs
of Uncle Sam’s forests this year.
Dr. Miller warns that such work
is not easy and that Forest Service
officials do not invite vacationers
to take these responsible jobs.
Students who are willing to work
to enable themselves to return to
school, however, can increase the
probability of this work being
granted by making application for
Several hundred students are ex
pected to file applications for jobs,
Dr. Miller said, since unemploy
ment is more acute among stu
dents than any other class of
people. Every student wishing to
assure himself of a summer job
should be at the Villard meeting
Labbe, Blais Debate Issues
Labbe Objections
It is necessary that I take two
important exceptions to your state
ment of policy as appeared in yes
terday's Emerald.
1. Your Support of the present
political system.
2. Your “plan” as embodied in
your desire to place an independent
student upon the executive council
of the associate students.
First, in your statement in Tues
day’s Emerald, you said that “the
condition portrayed in the slogan
(Take patronage out of politics)
does not exist in the minds of the
students of the University of Ore
gon.” I challenge you to reconcile
this attitude with the express edi
torial statement of the Oregon
Daily Emerald decrying the pres
ent system of "mob” politics and ,
issuing a demand for a construc
tive plan to eradicate the selfish,
out-moded, collusive spoils system.
Your statement yesterday seems
to place you in the position of
champion for the cause of such an
order—as a champion of the
spoils system.
Can you be sincere in contending
that in past elections the candi
dates for student body president
have been free of all alinements
brought about by the means of po
litical collusion ? I hardly think
that you can. It is well known, as
exemplified by the statement made
by the Emerald, that there is an
imperative need for severing the
roots of the campus bugaboo—-the
spoils method of conducting politi
cal campaigns.
Second, in your statement yes
terday, you advocated, as the prin
cipal point in your program, rep
resentation of the independent
groups on the executive council. I
fail to be able to view this plan in
any other light than a futile and
incomplete effort to secure the fa
(Please turn to page 3)
Blais Objections
Speaking for myself and ticket
we do not think selfish interests
and mob hysteria have swayed the
casting of ballots by Oregon stu
dents in years past. We think more
of Oregon students’ intelligence
than placing it on that basis. The
opposition refers to the appoint
ments of committee chairmen as
“plums.” We of the opposing ticket
consider these positions as student
offices to be filled by capable
people and not intimate friends of
the person making the appoint
ments. We have stood on thi3 lat
ter statement since the start of
the campaign.
We think that the votes to be
cast at the present coming election
should not hinge upon appoint
ment power of toe president but
on the tickets' merits and personal
qualifications. vVe state that in so
far as our ticket is concerned we
are not relying on political pat
ronage securing us votes.
We further state that the plan
offered by the opposition is no'
practical and is merely thn forma
tion of a new committee which
cannot be kept clear of political
influence because of the fact that
its membership will be in a large
measure made up of those people
whom the students on the execu
tive council desire to be seated.
A group places six people in of
fice in the ASUO and with the
former junior finance man retain
ing his vote in executive council as
the seventh vote we see that the
students elected have seven vots to
six for other members of the ex
ecutive council.
Consequently with non-faculty
interference of the other six votes
the executive council, student
members would select those whom
they desire to be seated on the
newly created appointment body,
so the same group that elected
(Please turn to page 3)
Non-Members of ASUO May
Receive Class Card Refunds;
Campaigns End in Flourish
Filial Program Criticisms
Registered in Today s
Both Men Are Sure
Principles, Issues Center
Of Polilieal Conflict
Launching into a vigorous last
minute scramble for votes, both
candidates for next year’s office
of associated student president
last night laid elaborate plans for
today's activities. Both tickets
prepared for the final appeal for
support among living groups on
the campus.
In answer to a request by the
"Emerald for objections and refu
tations of the opposition’s pro
gram, the two candidates last
night submitted to the paper the
statements appearing elsewhere in
the paper. This material is the last
that may be printed in the paper
on the views of the contestants,
in accordance with the time limi
tation placed on the publication
with regards to election proga
These statements climax a move
on the part of the paper to place
before the student obdy the ideas
and opinions of the contestants
for next year’s offices. Both can
didates were requested to minimize
dealing in personalities and deal
with facts and proposals.
This year’s campaign has been
characterized b y attempts b y
both candidates toward offering
something constructive in the way
of a program. Edmond Labbe
first appeared with a plan entitled
"Patronage Out of Politics." This
plan appeared last Saturday.
James Blais followed yesterday
with his plan entitled "Hypocrisy
Out of Slogans.”
The campaign has this year,
more than in previous years, re
volved about principles and issues
rather than political procedure.
Labbe’s plan presents the principle
of broader representation in stu
dent activities through removing
from the hands of the president
the power of appointment. Blais’
plan stresses revision of the con
stitution and stresses the im
practicalibility of removing from
the hahds of the president the
power of appointment.
The race promises to be hot.
Spanish Students
Choose Pledges
Newly-elected members of Sig
ma Delta Pi, national Spanish hon
orary, were announced yesterday
by Antone Yturri, president. Uni
versity students chosen are Cath
erine M. Poppleton and Adrian Van
Moock, graduate students in Ro
mance languages; Marie Sacco
manno, senior; Jeanne Hankins
and Stanley Robe, juniors.
Five students at Oregon State
college were also invited to mem
bership in the local group. These
nre Mary M. Allen, Carmen S. Ful
kerson, Dorothy R. Keep, William
.T. Walsh, and Victor Murdock.
For election to Sigma Delta Pi,
a student must be at least a junior,
must have taken third year Span
ish literature, must have a 2.0 av
erage Spanish grade, and a general
GP\ of 1 9.
Dr. Leavitt O. Wright, faculty
sponsor of the chapter, requests
that all newly elected members
meet him in his office n 102 Ore
gon today at 3 p. m.
Lance Hart to Lecture
On Art Tonight at 7:30
Lance W. Hart, assistant profes
sor of drawing and painting, will
speak this evening at 7:30 in room
12, Friendly hall. The topic of his
lecture will be “Some Reflections
on Contemporary Art.”
This is one of a series of lectures
under the sponsorship of the com
mittee on free intellectual activi
ties. Following the lecture the
meeting will be open to discussion.
The public is invited to attend.
Guest of Alpha Phi — Gretchen
Gregg from Portland was a week
end guest at the Alpha Phi house.
Miss Gregg is a former University
student and an affiliate of the so
, rority.
Praises Japan
Burt Brown Barker, vice-presi
dent of the University, who spoke
at yesterday’s student assembly
on his experiences in Japan.
Voters to Decide
Constitution Fate
In Poll Test
Only Change in Revision
Concerns Independents
Adoption or rejection of the pro
posed revision of the constitution
of the associated students faces
tlie voters at the yearly election
tomorrow. Joseph Renner, ASTJO
president., said last night that all
hut a few of the changes made in
the constitution have been effec
tive previously, the whole thing
merely being simplified by incor
porating the various amendments
passed since the adoption of the
The only change made is Article
X which provides for representa
tion of the independent men and
women on the executive council,
this being suggested to stimulate
the interest of independent stu
dents in campus affairs. The com
plete constitution, as it would read
if the proposal is passed, has been
printed in the Emerald for the
last two issues, in order to give
students a chance to compare it
with the former document. This
change will be voted upon separ
The proposed revision, which
will provide better working and
a more simplified form than the
old constitution, was prepared for
revision by Thomas Tongue’s re
vision committee to apply under
the compulsory fee set-up. Tongue
was student body president last
year. The other change made this
year was the provision to make
the laws workable under both
compulsory and optional fee plans.
Trade Club Will Meet;
Pictures to Be Shown
Moving pictures of the sugar in
dustry in Cuba, and one reel of
the electric ship will be shown at
the regular meeting of the foreign
trade club Thursday evening at
7:15 in the men’s lounge of Ger
All members are urged to attend
as a short business meeting will
follow the program.
__ _.. . _ . .
Students Must Hold Both
Memberships to Vote
For Class Jobs
Decision Is Official
Admissions Used to Date
Will Be Deducted
In nn opinion of the judiciary
committee, printed on the editor
ial page, is the announcement
that students holding class mem
bership cards will not be allowed
to vote in the coming class elec
tions unless they also have an
ASUO card.
Joseph Renner, president of the
ASUO, said last night that all stu
dents not holding ASUO cards,
but holding class cards and want
ing the money for these class
cards refunded, may receive their
money if the cards are presented
at the associated students offices
at McArthur court. Money will be
refunded those students, who have
atetnded class functions where ad
mission was charged, and used the
class card as admittance to those
functions, but these students will
have to pay the admittance prices
of those functions.
The reason for this situation
was assigned to the fact that this
year’s class cards were printed
under the same conditions as ex
isted last year when membership
in the ASUO was compulsory.
This year under the optional plan
of ASUO membership, those stu
dents holding class cards but not
holding ASUO cards are prevented
from voting by the clause in the
constitution stating that both
membership cards were necessary.
The necessary alterations in the
tickets were not made.
New YW Cabinet
Hosts to National
Secretary Here
Miss Sorensen Is Available
For Interviews
The new officers and cabinet
members of the YWCA held their
first meeting Monday night, Mrs.
Stella Skerlock, national traveling
YW secretary, talked to the group.
The new officers and cabinet
members are Elaine Sorensen,
president; Mary Nelson, vice-pres
ident; Phyllis Adams, secretary;
Margilee Morse, treasurer; Glen
dolene Vinyard, frosh discussion
groups; Loy Reeder, bungalow;
Theda Spicer, Eugene girls; Le
nore Wood, office girls; Doris
Mabie, social chairman; Clara
Nasholm, world fellowship; Elaine
Cornish, industrial; Ruth Weber,
Seabeck; Patsy Neal, membership;
Eileen Donaldson, vocations; Alice
Ann Thomas, social service; Lil
lian Warn, current events; Lillian
England, modern art; Frances
Schaupp, frosh commission; Lois
Luvaas, Diil Pickle club.
Elaine Sorensen will be in the
YW office each day at 9:00 for
the purpose of interviewing any
girl who is interested in working
in the YW.
Amos Burg to Show Movies
Of Voyage in South America
Amo.s Burg, Oregon’s own ex
plorer and adventurer who recent
ly returned fro ma daring trip in
a small boat to the tip of South
America, will tell the tale of his
voyage to students of the Univer
sity and others interested May 2
and 3 at the Colonial theater. The
appearance, which will include a
matinee and evening performance
each day, will be under the auspic
es of the associated students. AS
UO members will be admitted
free. Burg has just returned from
a tour of the East, where he made
five appearances. In Washington,
D. C., he presented his talk and
motion pictures for the National
Geographic society before a crowd
of 5,000 people in Constitution hall.
Writing after the Washington
apparance President Grosvenor of
the National Geographical society,
said: “It is a pleasure to tell you
how much we appreciated your
lecture entitled 'Voyaging Bucginn
Seas to Cape Horn.' The material
you collected in the territory at
the tip of South America, which
is visited only by the hardiest
travelers, is extraordinary. Your
motion pictures and lantern slides
are very beautiful and interest
Burg will present six reels of
pictures taken in this desolate, un
usual land, and will supplement
this with the projection of a num
ber of still pictures, the first ever
taken in that region in natural
The explorer appeared here last
term with his pictures of a round
the-world trip, which were unusu
ally well received by a large num
ber of people. This appearance
differs from the first, however,
since it incorporates many thrill
ing scenes of dangerous adven
tures in the rough South Ameri
can seas.