University of Oregon, Eugene t Richard Neuberger, Editor Harry Schenk, Manager Sterling Green, Managing Editor EDITORIAL HOARD Thornton Gale, Associate Editor; Jack Bellinger, Dave Wilson Julian Prescott. UPPER NEWS STAFF _\t_- Xr„,„D TTrl I T..Vin C r/.cu T Itornrv Francis Ballister, Copy Ed. Bruce Hnmby, Sports Ed. Parks Hitchcock. Makeup Ed. Bob Moore, Chief Night Ed. Bob Guild, Dramatics Ed. Jessie* Steele, Women’s Ed. Esther Hayden, Society Ed. Ray Clapp, Radio Ed. DAY EDITORS: Bob Patterson, Margaret Bean, Francis Pal lister. Doug Polivka, Joe Saslavsky. NIGHT EDITORS: George Galina, Bob Moore, John HoIJo peter, Doug MacLean, I>ob Butler, Bob Couch. SPORTS STAFF: Malcolm Bauer, Asst. Ed.; Ned Simpson, Ben Back, Boh Avison, Jack Chinnock. FEATURE WRITERS: Elinor Henry, Maximo Pulido, Hazle Corrigan. REPORTERS: Julian Prescott, Madeleine Gilbert, Ray Clapp, Ed Stanley, David Eyre, Boh Guild, Paul Ewing, Cynthia Liljeqvist, Ann-Reed Burns, Peggy Chessman, Ruth King, Barney Clark. Betty Ohlemiller, Roberta Moody, Audrey Clark. Bill Belton, Don Oids, Gertrude Lamb, Ralph Mason, Roland Parks. ASSISTANT SOCIETY EDITOR: Elizabeth Crommelin. COPYREADERS: Harold Brower. Twyla Stockton, Nancy Lee, Margaret Hill, Edna Murphy, Mary Jane Jenkins, Marjorie McNIece, Frances Rothwell, Caroline Rogers, Ilenriette Horak, Catherine Coppers, Claire Bryson, Bingham Powell. ASSISTANT NIGHT EDITORS: Frances Neth, Betty Gear hart, Margaret Corum, Georgina Gildez, Elma Giles, Carmen Blaise, Bernice Priest, Dorothy Paley, Evelyn Schmidt.. RADIO STAFF: Ray Clap]), Editor; Barney Clark, George ('alias. SECRETARIES—Louise Beers, Lina Wilcox. BUSINESS STAFF National Adv. Mgr., Autcn Rush Promotional Mgr., Marylou Patrick Asst. Adv. Mgr., Gr ant Theummel. Asst. Adv. Mgr., Gil Wellington Asst. Adv. Mgr. Rill Russell Anne Clark Circulation Mgr., Ron Hew. Office Mgr., Helen Stinger Class. Ad. Mgr., Althea Peterson Sez Sue, Caroline Hahn Sez Sue Asst., Louise Rice Checking Mgr., Ruth Storla Checking Mgr., Pearl Murphy ADVERTISING ASSISTANTS: Tom Holemun, Bill McCall, Ruth Van nice, Fred Fisher, Erl Lnbbe, Elina Addis, Corrinnc I'lath, Phyllis Dent, Peter Gantenbcin, Bill Meissner, Patsy Lee, Jeannette Thompson, Ruth Baker, Betty Powers, Boh Butler, Carl Heidel, George Brice, Charles Darling, Parker Favier, Tom Clapp. OFFICE ASSISTANTS: Betty Bretsher. Patricia Campbell, Kathryn Greenw >ocl, Jane Bishop. Elma Giles, Eugenia Hunt, Gene Bailey, Marjorie Me Niece, Wilia Bit/., Betty Shoemaker, Ruth Bycrly, Mary Jane Jenkins. EDITORIAL OFFICES, Journalism Bldg. Phone 3300—News Room, Local 355; Editor ami Managing Editor, Local 354. BUSINESS OFFICE, McArthur Court. Phone 3300—Local 214. The Oregon Daily Emerald, official student publication of the University of Oregon, Eugene, issued daily except Sunday and Monday during the college year. Entered in the postoffice at Eugene, Oregon, as second-class matter. Subscription rates, $2.50 a year. The Emerald's Creed for Oregon " ... . There is always the human temptation to forget that the erection of buildings, the formulation of new curricula, the expansion of departments, the crea tion of new functions, ami similar routine duties of the administration are but means to an end. There is always a glowing sense of satisfaction in the natural impulse for expansion. This frequently leads to regard ing achievements as ends in themselves, whereas the truth is that these various appearances of growth and achievement 'can be justified only in so far as they make substantial contribution to the ultimate objec tives of education .... providing adequate spiritual and intellectual training for youth of today the citi zenship of tomorrow. . . . " . . . . The University should be a place where classroom experiences and faculty contacts should stimu late and train youth for the most effective use of all the resources with which nature has endowed them. Dif ficult and challenging problems, typical of the life and world in which they are to live, must he given them to solve. They must he taught under the expert supervision of instructors to approach the solution of these problems in a workmanlike way, with a dis ciplined intellect, with a reasonable command of the techniques' that i re involved, with a high 'feerise of in tellectual adventure, and with a genuine devotion to the ideals of intellectual integrity. . . .” From the Biennial Report of the University of Oregon for 11)31-32. The American people cannot he too careful in e/uardiiic) flic freedom of speech and of the press against curtailment as to the discussion of public affairs and the character and conduct of public men. —Carl Hehurs. EDUCATION MUST BE I’UOTECTED pHOM the clays of the old Northwest ordinance down to our present time, there has been no the ory imbedded more deeply in American ideals than that education is one of the primary functions of government and therefore deserving of a high de gree of priority in any program of distributing funds or any reverse program of proportioning the degree of retrenchment among competing public activities. This fact is incontrovertible. Because of it, one might expect that retrenchments in education would show a smaller percentage than in any other func tion of governmental activity not so fundamental nor so deeply intrenched in ihe very foundations of American life. Yet, this most certainly has not been the case. Higher education lias suffered greater reductions than highways, for example. The fallacy of this situation is apparent im mediately. If highway appropriations are abandoned for a few years, the omission can be made up easily upon the return of prosperity. But our young people eome this way lint once. If they are denied the essentials of education, irre parable damage will have been done to them that cannot be repaired upon the return of economic plenty. Our legislators must remember that. Roads and bridges can be built any time. The character and cultural activities of our people can be ad vanced only once. A generation will be wronged if the legislature passes the $570,000 reduction in higher education recently recommended by the ways and means committee. There is neither rhyme nor reason to the fact that higher education, which has offended the least in increasing public expenditures, should be forced to sustain a lion’s share of the burden of retrench ment. Why should this generation shoulder upon the youth of the state the' load of its own poor judgment and misfortune? There is nothing admirable in a willingness to see higher education placed on the dropping block. The state hoard should fight all reductions vigor ously. One of its members K. <’. Sammons has done so. 'lhe chancellor should exert all his influ ence to ward off the c uts. There is neither leader ship nor valor nor wisdom in sacrificing higher education to tuke care of political exigencies. The youth of the commonwealth cannot tight back. If their activities arc cut, they must accept the reductions in silence. Foi the past two years higher education ha- been slushed and trimmed and hacked in this state. Rust weeks expedition of three University students to Salem was the first active student protest ever registered, and it could not begin to compete with the shrewd lobbyists and trained politicians who represent*other interests. R is up to the state of Oregon to protect its youth by defending highei education against fur ther reductions. The press has contributed valu able service so far. especially the Morning Oregon ian, the Journal, and tho e papers published in edit cational centers. It will be gratifying if the news papers can help to prevent additional slashes—for such most certainly would spell the doom of the efficiency of Oregon’s system of higher learning. THE MOB RULES “It seems .... that the ablest men grow stupid when they get together; and that, where you have the greatest number of wise men, there you have the least wisdom. Great bodies always pay so much attention to minor details and idle customs, that essentials are never considered.”—Persian Letters of Montesquieu. OUCH an obvious folly is perhaps the chief diffi ^ culty Oi a mouern democratic system. A sys tem such as is in practice in our country at present, assembles, if not the genii, at any rate the pundits, of the nation. Not only in the national assemblage, but in those of every state do the wise men meet with honorable intentions, only to have their visions obscured and obfuscated by countless eclats of argumentation and by the efforts of innumerable pettifoggers with some cause to wage. It is indeed not surprising, then, to find that our state legislature has made such steps, cloaked under the ubiquitous pretext of economy, that to every clear-thinking man must appear in the light of mistakes. A group of worthy men h*ivc been assembled, each with undoubtedly I he sincerest intentions to uphold the morale of the state, and yet blinded by the inevitable mob instinct, they have taken seem ing joy in cutting at the roots of that very morale by crippling the higher educational institutions of Oregon. We must not condemn our statesmen and legislators too harshly, then, for an act which they undoubtedly would not have committed if act ing as individuals. TWO FOOTBALL CAPTAINS rNSTEAD of electing the customary one field lead er, the football team chose two captains for 1933 last night. One was named from the backfield and one from the line. This action was taken by the team itself, according to news stories, because of the advisability of having one hale captain on hand if the other was injured. As example, the advocates of the plan point to the numerous games in which injuries kept Eill Morgan on the bench last autumn. Frankly, we arc dubious over the soundness of the experiment. Surely there is one man on Ore gon’s football team outstanding enough to be elected captain, without being forced to divide the honor and responsibility with someone else. Split obligations and responsibility always are unsatis factory. Also, we believe too definite a line of demarcation has been created between the line and the backfield. The next thing we know there will be a captain for every position. Look back over the nation's leading football [ teams for the past decade. Scarcely one of them I ever was led by co-captains. Each had one field leader. The Oregon eleven is breaking away from precedent in selecting two captains. Wc hope the experiment succeeds, but will be pleasantly sur prised if it does. — The first Episcopal church at Tampa. Fin... was organized in 1871. More than 1,600 roadside markets were operated in Ohio in the summer of 1932, a survey has shown. The state senate has refused repeal of the crimi nal syndicalism law. Be careful what you say, lads and lassies. The bogey man'll get you if you don't watch out. The United States buys from the Far East 95 per cent of the raw silk used by America, and 97 per cent of crude rubber. Production of Louisiana sugar cane for all pur poses is forecast by the department of agriculture at 3,591,000 tons. Rumors are current on the campus that the people whose pictures grace the Co-op window are entered in tlie Oregana's contest to select t lie hand somest man and most beautiful woman. To date neither we nor the law school have found eor ; raborative evidence. On Other Campuses ■— - — They Also Seek KesiiUs HIC DIFFICULTY of convincing those in power ol' the necessity of adequate funds for higher education is not California's heritage alone. The University of Oregon particularly at the present time is facing this problem. In a statement to the legislature, K. C. Sam mons, chairman of the finance committee of the state board of higher education, has declared that if further cuts are to be made it will be necessary for tlie legislature itself to point out which depart ment or facilities are to be eliminated. The depart ments maintained at present cannot be operated with efficiency if the budget is cut further. A similar situation faces the University of Cali fornia. In tlie budget submitted by the regents to Goverm r Uolph a minimum of operating expenses were provided for. Yet. the governor demands even lurther reductions. President Sproul has answered that tlie future of tlie university is at stake, and tie is not willing to countenance the maintenance at a mediocre or inferior level of any departments of the university. It would seem then that as in Oregon, if further cuts are to be made by the legislature, the legis lators themselves will have to point out what de partments are to be curtailed; for the president and board of regents have made an honest effort to make all reductions consonant with the high stan dard of tlie institution. Vet such an action on tlie part of the legislature would do violence to educational procedure m this -tale since the founding of the university. The legislative body has traditionally left to the regents the administration of the funds granted. Hence, while direct interference in the university depart ments by the legislators should never be counten anced, if Governor Uolph and the legislature are convinced that further cuts can be made, they should be sure that they know which departments can be curtailed before they take any action which will result ii. the lowering of the university's pres tige.—U. C. L A. Daily Drum ___;_:_i We Need This - - By KEN FERGUSON . - t - ' —---' - TSBB j The Sword Over Education (Editor’s note: This ia one of three articles sent to the Emerald by Glenn Frank, president of the University of Wisconsin, following the trip of three Oregon students to the state legislature' protesting against indiscriminate j cutting of higher education in general and faculty salaries in particular.) j By GLENN FRANK (F'resident of the University of Wisconsin) I A SWORD hangs over education in Wisconsin and throughout the nation. To prevent that sword from sinking to the vitals of the j whole enterprise of education, ( budded of the blood and sacrifice ! of pioneers, will demand the ut imost of statesmanlike co-operation j between tiie leadership of school and the leadership of society. This' ! sword is but sign and symbol ofi the peril that confronts all of the (social and cultural enterprises of our common life in this phase of profound economic depression | through which we and the world (arc passing. | I want to state, with the utmost (brevity, just what this peril is and ! to define, if I can, the problem it puts alike to the leadership of school and the leadership of so ciety. The sword that hangs over edu i cation and the other social enter prises of government is tlie sword of imperative retrenchment forged in the fires of an irrational depres sion. The peril lies not so much in the existence of the sword as in the way we may wield it. That economy drastic beyond anything we have been accus tomed to think, is imperative in the conduct of local, state, and na tional affairs no intelligent man will question. Since 1929 our in come has gone steadly down and ! our outgo has gone steadily up. ! The expenditures of local, state, and national government, when re lated to the toboggan slide down I which the national income has j raced, have bent the back of the American people. Either the bad; : must be strengthened or the bur den must be lightened. For a na ] tion cannot long endure a consis tently falling income and a con sistently rising outgo. * * is 1 It is confessedly a critical situa tion t lint confronts us. A year ago (Americans were putting slightly less than one out of every four dol lars they earned into the enter prises and obligations of local, (state, and national government. ; When tDo books of the current , year are balanced, we may find that we have surrendered one on', of every three dollars of income to the enterprises and obligations of government. According to the publications of tlie Wisconsin Tax payer's Alliance, in 1928 approxi mately 11 per cent of the national income went into taxes to carry the enterprises and obligations of government. In the current year. 1932. it is estimated that approxi mately 33 per cent of the national income will go into taxes to carry the enterprises and obligations of government. There are those who would have us believe that this dramatic leap of the tax draft on national income from 11 per cent to 33 per cent in four years is due solely to an unintelligent and un justUied development of the pub lic services of organized govern ment. That misconception must be exposed at the outset unless public thinking on the scientific, social, and educational enterprises of gov ernment is to be gravely muddled and grossly misled. The man in the street, hearing! of this rise in the tax draft on na tionnj income from 11 per cent to iv>,*> per ceul 111 lour year?, is all . too-likely to think that the cost of J the public service of government has trebled in that time. Obviously that is not true. Had the national income remained steady at the j 1928 level, the tax draft on nation i al income would today be about 18 per cent instead of 33 per cent. The factor that lifts it to 33 per cent is the dramatic drop in the national income due to the eco nomic muddling that landed us in the current depression. sj« i* I am quite aware that this does not remove the stubborn fact that a 33 per cent tax draft on national j income is a serious matter with ' which political, social, and econom j ic leadership must wrestle. It does, I however, suggest that the blame for the large proportion of the na I tional income now going into taxes i cannot justly be placed upon the shoulders of political, social, and educational leadership, but must, to a very material degree, be placed squarely upon the shoulders of the economic leadership that proved incapable of steering our economic ship past the shoals of depression. Unless this fact is kept clear we shall sec an uninterrupted increase : in a type of propaganda that will brand, with insulting scorn, self- j sacrificing public servants as greedy and grasping payrollers, a now popular sort of propaganda which if persisted in, will divert men of capacity and self-respect from public service for a genera tion to come. And it will be our children who will pay the price of this diversion. Do not misunderstand me. Upon the fact of the imperative neces- j sity for economy in public expendi tures there can be no disagree ment. I insist only that the situa tion challenges us to effect that economy with statesmanlike fore sight for the future of community, state, and nation. It is possible to be quite as short-sighted in admin istering economy as in allowing extravagance. And just because there is this possibility of short sightedness n the administration of necessary economy a grave na tional danger lurks in our current., concern with economy. We can so easily economize blindly or let lim i-— ited interests dictate the schedules of retrenchment. We dare not be gullible. Alongside the foresight, intelligence, and sincerity behind the insistence that we establish a sounder relation between our in come and our outgo, there is much blindness, blundering, self-interest, and sheer insincerity in the almost hysterical campaign against pub lic expenditures now sweeping the nation. By all means let us give prudence a permanent seat in our public counsels. By all means let us stop waste. But let us be sure that it is real waste that we are stopping. Real economy may mean national salvation. Bogus econ omy may mean national suicide. (To be continued tomorrow) Jim Emmett selects: David Eyre, because he considers him one ol the ten best dressed men on the campus. This column is hereby dedicated to all those brave souls who dared the elements, the time of day, the trouble, and went to Dime Crawl. Thin dimes squandered for a good cause; a biting wind; snow whipping about your legs; slippery streets; slippery steps; ice glit tering on the branches and twigs of all the trees. V n Time war. when the co-eds dressed for the crawl. Nowadays they don't. The Alpha Chi Omega house . . . dictinctly collegiate, short slight girls. Most of them have bobbed hair. They use little make-up. They dance as if they enjoy it. Distinctly nice. The kind of girls who do the kind of things, Emerald Of the Air Today, and henceforth every Thursday at 12:15, Jessie Steele women's editor of the Oregon Daily Emerald, will supplement the regular news program with a complete coverage of the newly inaugurated women's and society page. Hearken, ye co-eds. in the midst of your meal to the words of the women's editor! Assault and Battery -Parks Hitchcock I-----:_ IT IS reported that a certain * radio station in the Middle West was overheard the other night to make this announcement: “The next number by Billy . and his orchestra will be a special request for the girls of Kappa Alpha Theta at the University of Colorado, ‘Theta Lips, May You Never Grow Cold." Snap it up. boys!” IP » » Ml s|( HONOKAKl H1.AKS lNrsTKl CTOIt (Headline. Ore. Daily Emerald) How quaint. We've been heal ing a few ourselves. ip * ** We select for Lemonade: Phoebe Thomas, be ause she ,ean eat so much. We understand that the zoology department ha ; ordered *amc dog fish sharks from California. Pos sibly they intend to put them in competition with such men as the illustrious law school quintet. Eva. Langtry, Huston, Yerkovich, and Me Noble. Now that all this ruckus about the gym system has come up, we think it appropriate to mention the brand new swinging doors they’ve put in on the men's show ers. Looks like the entrance to a . aloon. W e don’t want to encour age that sort of stuff. Maybe somebody like Jake Stahl or Jim Dutton might stumble into the swimming pool oy mistake some dark night. ON THE POLICE BLOTTER: Jim (Java) Smith bragging about Great Britain’s possessions. Paul Washke smiling. . . . Gail McCredie giving us the old swag gti ... Will Wick wrestling, . . . Bud Pozzo looking 'em over. act the way you expect college girls to act. Particularly note: Helene Ferris in a cross-barred frock of rose wool crepe with big puffy sleeves to the elbow. She wore brown kid slippers, had short bobbed hair. A lot of fun. Helen Barclay in a jade green blouse. Orville Thomp son appeared in his grey polo coat, j | * * * The Pi Phi house: more sophis-j ication here . . . more long hair' lone high off the forehead. Sev ral silk frocks; ear-rings. People warming here, there. The Phi Oelts noticeable . . . Phil Ham nond dancing with M a r j e r y Ichaeffer; Harley Coleman, new | oledtre. Particularly note: Mary Eliza-, beth Lacey, very charming, tali, slender, in a powder blue boucle j trimmed in white with big glass j buttons running down the front of the blouse. Jean McConnel, wear-1 ing one of the new spring frocks of soft grey rabbit’s wool with a bodice of sherbet pink. # * * Alpha Gamma Delta: Lamps turned down, music from the den. figures whirling in front of me. quiet laughter . . . Guy Stoddard, Cupoletti.'Mike Mikulak all dressed up and looking strangely happy. Particularly note: Lane Opsund, tall blond, superb figure, graceful dancer . . . wearing a knitted sweater of white, a skirt of blue tweed, a pair of golf shoes. Looked like Miss 1933. Delta Zeta: Here were dinner dresses . . . long sleeved informals. j Most of the girls wore their hair curled, long bobs. Mostly bru-; ' nettes. Particularly note: Maxine Mor tcnsen, study in browns, nonchal antly leaning against the piano listening to the music. Wore a frock of Havana brown with wide leather belt, slim-heeled brown kid slippers. ai * sis Delta Gamma: sport clothes, plenty of room, lots of light. De lightful air of informality and hos- I pitable graciousness. Charming I place to entertain, warm recep- j tion. Everyone appeared to be en I joying himself. Particularly note: Dainty Vir-j ginia Proctor, becomingly garbed, in sport dress of brown, the top and sleeves woven in zebra stripes of orange and yellow. Louise Car penter in hyacinth blue. Jake! Stahl dancing with Ramona Gros-: ser, Bob Seufert in evidence. ❖ * * Alpha Omicron Pi: most home- j like sorority house on the campus. Every one in school clothes. A very clean and scrubbed look about everything. No one especially ex cited . . . treated the men like “the j boy next door.’’ Particularly note: Ned Kinney; and Marion Vinson talking instead of dancing: Violet W’alters, blond, sinuous, wearing a colorful sweat er of red, blue, and white, bi zarrely striped; the infectious smile and orange tie of Peggy Mc Kie, the silver-white hair of Mrs. Lucy Abrams. * * * We Select for Promenade : George Reischmuller, because he wears immaculate cords and an English tie pf brown and white pin-checked wool. I _ Questionnaire By BARNEY cr.ARie Following are the answers to the series of legal questions sub mitted by Wayne L. Morse in the regular “Questionnaire" column Tuesday. Did you click on any of them ? 1. Section 9-1911 o. the Oregon Code 1930 provides in part that in impeaching a witness “it may be | shown by the examination of the ! witness or the record of the judg ! ment that he has been convicted of a crime." However, the Oregon | supreme court in 58 Or. 116 hasI held that a conviction under a mu nicipal ordinance is not a convic tion of a crime within the meaning 1 of section 9-1911 providing the manner of impeaching a witness.! The court states; “The constitu tion of Oregon makes provision that in criminal laws there shall! be uniformity . . . The ordinance under which the criminal proceed ings were brought is unquestion ably not a general criminal law of the state, but a local law, and an infringement of its provisions is i necessarily punished in a sum mary manner. A conviction under a municipal ordinance, therefore, jis not a conviction of a crime with-, in the meaning of section 863, L. O. L. (sec. 9-1511, Oregon Code 1930'." Therefore X would not be guilty of perjury because he did not swear falsely. -• Technically, the plan would be in violation of the laws against lottery. In 42 Or. 318 the Oregon I supreme court states: "The terra i “lottery has not technical legal meaning, but the courts adopt the generally accepted definition in popular use. Webster says that it is “a scheme for the distribution of prizes by lot or chance; esp., a j gaming scheme in which one or j more tickets bearing particular! numbers draw prizes, and the rest1 j °f the tickets are blanks" ' j In all these cases as well as in the definitions to be found in the books, it will be observed that one essential ingredient of a lottery is Ithe element of chance, by which 1 'U1UC Prize or other thing of value! in excels of that paid for by the A Decade Ago From Daily Emerald February 9, 1923 Prairie Poet Carl Sandberg will be welcomed o the campus February 23. * * * Oh, Susanna! Crisply brown flapjacks of forty liner fame were flipped out to the hungry crowd that watched the costumed initiation stunt of the :wo neophytes of G. & M., the na ionnl geological society. 4* 4s Fire Hazard No papers and castaway mate dais below stairs at fraternity louses is a new safety rule made ifter a recent campus inspection by Deputy State Fire Marshall Horace Sykes.. * * * Don't Dunk The interfraternity council has favored the curtailment of the doughnut sports program. Some time ago the Emerald brought up the objection that intramural sports were taking up too much time from the individual members it the houses. purchaser is distributed to the holder of a ticket or other desig nated person by some means, the result of which human foresight or sagacity cannot foretell . . . There cannot, therefore, be a lottery without this element of uncertain ty or chance. If the power of rea son or will is exercised upon the selection, then there is no lottery.” Therefore, inasmuch as the plan set out in the question is based upon lot and chance rather than upon skill and reason, it would constitute a lottery scheme. 3. Oregon statutes provide that a private person may without a warrant arrest a person,—1. For a crime committed or attempted in his presence; 2. When the per son arrested has committed a fel ony, although not in his presence; 3. When a felony has in fact been committed, and he has reasonable cause for believing the person ar rested to have committed it. See Sections 13-2116 and 13-2111, Ore gon Code 1930. Therefore A is not only guilty of an assult upon B, but is also guilty of resisting a lawful arrest. 4. The student would not be guilty of bribery and the profes sor would not be guilty of accept ing a bribe. Section 14-405 of the Oregon Code 1930 provides that “if any person shall corruptly give, offer, or promise to give any gift, gratuity, valuable consideration, or thing whatever, or shall corruptly promise to do or cause to be done any act beneficial to any judicial, legislative, or executive officer” he shall be guilty of bribery. A professor is neither a judicial, leg islative or executive officer within the meaning of this statute. At common law the crime of bribery was at first restricted to the ad ministration of justice and then extended to the administration of government. A liberal interpreta tion might extend it, possibly, into other fields. Interesting enough, sections 14 412, 4-413, 14-414, and 14-415 of the Oregon Code 1930 specifically provide for the statutory crime of bribery of baseball players, um pires, managers, and directors. 5. X would be under no legal ob ligation to assist B who was in jured by A’s automobile, neither would he be under any legal obli gation to give chase to A and at tempt to arrest him. In such situa tions the law deems that X is un der only a moral obligation. It is true that every criminal law legal obligation is based upon a moral obligation, but every moral obli gation is not also a legal obliga tion. If X, however, proceeded to help B and then failed to act as a reasonable man would act under like or similar circumstances, he would become liable for any negli gence. 0. If B died from scarlet fever rather than from the wound, X would be liable only for wounding B and not for his death. The test usually applied in such cases is a question of remoteness. It is true that B probably would not have died from the scarlet fever if he had not been wounded by X and sent to the hospital, but on the other hand the courts consider that the direct cause of the death in such cases is the intervening cause, scarlet fever. Suppose, though, that B had died from pneu monia instead of scarlet fever then probably X would be liable because it would be demonstrated that the wound was a direct cause of the pneumonia and the death was thereby a direct result from the wound. If, instead of dyin" from scarlet fever B's condition vvas aggravated by a second wound inflicted by Y, both X and Y might be liable for the death of B. The cases are in dispute. It is submit ted though that the better rule is ‘hat if both X and Y inflicted mor tal wounds, though one wound was inflicted subsequent to the other, both X and Y should be held liable for homicide, because the life of the deceased did not cease to ebb away merely because a second wound also ebbed it away. It is true that a man cannot be killed twice but. as courts have said, two men can kill another. France campaigns against dirt 1 > consuming 24.000 metric tons l cleaning and scouring powders annually.