Campus Authority Contends Whitman Started Free Verse', Writers Differ in (Frep verso, of which so much can be found in the current maga zines and in the books of new poet ry, is not a new movement, but a very old one, according to Miss Julia Burgess, professor of rhetoric, who says in the following article that it originated with Walt Whitman in 185.8, who in turn adapted his free verse from the Bible. Miss Burgess is n firm exponent of this form of poetry, and believes that if it were read in the right mood there would be a greater appreciation and under standing of it than is prevalent among a great number of readers.) By MISS JULIA BURGESS. In Boston there is a church called “The New Old South”; it would be ap propriate to speak, in a similar way. of The New Old Poetry. For, though the term “vers libre” originated in France in the late 19th century, free verse itself did not originate there, but here in America in 1855 with the publication of “Leaves of Grass” by Walt Whitman. And where did Whitman’s own free verse come from? From the long continued familiarity to his ear of the rhythmical cadences of (lie translations of the poet ical books of the Bible and other Orient al scriptures. So it is a very old new poetry indeed. ITis own desire was to write a Bible of Democracy, and this hook celebrating freedom among equals in the broad land of “These States,” must not be itself fettered and cramped; it must be all em bracing in subject and ever varying form. Whitman wished that this fluidity of form should suggest both the living, growing spirit of democracy and com radeship, nnd also the vastness of the nature in which it was set. with the motion and music of the wind in the tree tops and of the ocean waves. And he didn’t care if some parts were plain prose to symbolize the workaday aspects of the common life. Whitman Influence Spreads. By a curious course Whitman’s in fluence traveled first to England, where lie found interpreters in William Ros seti, Swinburne, and others; then to France, where the form received more attention; and from France back to the United States, where he had waited long for successors. Carl Sandburg is one of these success ors. He celebrated Chicago as Whitman did Manhatta. He, like Whitman, is a humanitarian; he has taken part in labor movements and is doubtless urging sanity in such reform, when he writes rather inelegantly, “I Can Keep My Shirt On.” He acts upon Whitman’s suggestion when he uses the subjects of industry and commerce; the railroad, steel construc tion, etc. Take, for example, his “Pray ers of Steel”: “Lay me on an anvil, O God. Beat and hammer me into a crowbar. Let me pry loose old walls; Let. me lift and loosen old foundations Lay me on an anvil, O God. Beat me and hammer me into a steel spiKe; Let me be the great nail holding a sky scraper through blue nights into white stars." Or this one, entitled “A Fence”: “Now the stone house on the lake front is finished and the workmen are be ginning the fences. The palings are made of iron bars with steel points that can stab the life out of any man who falls on them. As a fence it is a masterpiece, and will shut off the rabble and all vagabonds and hungry men and all wandering children lookiiig for a place to play. Passing through I he bars and over the steel points will go nothing except Death and the Pain and Tomorrow.” Sandburg Writes For Images. But Sandburg often writes for the an image, as mere pleasure of creating in “Fog”: “The fog comes On little cat feet. Tt sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on." Arturo Giovannitti, far more radical than Sandburg, uses free verse power fully to set forth tlie wrongs of all who suffer injustice. His “Walker, ta P’1 oner in his cell), is a masterpiece of dramatic description. .Tames Oppenheim is another follower , f Whitman—the cosmic Whitman. e does not write of industry but of relig ion: bis religion is a mystic optimism like Whitman’s, but modern in J’sy etiological interpretation. It m juhi'a - faith expressing itself in self-radiant action and in laughter. Imagists Use Free Verse. There is another group of free 'pr. writers—the Imagists-who do not pa - take of Whitman’s spirit. The> been influenced much by such ' f . poems as Coleridge’s Ancient '■ by the Irish poems of Yeats, and b> the French symbolists and impressionists. The futurists, under Marinette, rep resent a more extereme but less im portant movement. Amy Lowell is the princess of the Imagists. Another in teresting set. of ancient origins in un covered in this school. For H. D. and Richard Aldington are their inspiration to poetic ideas of Greek mythology, anil Lzra Pound is the ardent exponent o! the pure color and delicate but clear image of early Chinese poetry, which lie lias made known to the western world by translation. Amy Lowell uses both Chinese and Japanese forms in her recent book. “Pictures from the Floating World.” An illustration of the brief Japanese liokku is found in “The Fisherman’s Wife.” “When I am alone. The wind in the pine trees Is like tile shuffling of waves l pon the wooden sides of a boat.” Another example is the “Ephemera.” "Silver-green lanterns tossing among windy branches: So an old mai thinks Of the loves of his youth.” Or. as a satire upon wisdom: “A wise man. Watching the stars pass across the sky, Remarked: ‘In the upper air the fireflies move, slowly.’ ” Amy Lowell is Praised. As free verse is a revolt, against, hampering and monotonous form, im agism is a revolt against commonplace diction. Its insistence upon originality sometimes leads to the bizarre, but it lias also produced many new and beau tiful figures, as in Amy Lowell's well known “Patterns,” or in her lines to a lady: “You are beautiful and faded Like an old opera tune Played upon a harpsichord. In your eyes Smoulder the fallen roses of outlived minutes. My vigor is a new minted penny Which I cast at your feet.” Ezra Pound describes a slow tenta tive movement, “as if the snow should hesitate and murmur in the wind,” and Aldington reproaches his beloved. “You had the ivory of my life to carve.” Imagism almost always gives a sense of life and vigor: “Our meeting was like the upward swish of a rocket In the blue night. T do not know when it. burst; But now I stand gaping In a glory of falling stars.” Figures of Imagism Vary. Sometimes the figure is large and noble, as in John Fletcher’s, “Lincoln.” “Like a gaunt, scraggly pine Which lifts its head above th*. mourn ful sand hills: And patiently, through dull years of bitter silence, Untended and uncared for, starts to grow. Ungainly, laboring, huge, The wind of the north lias twisted and gnarled the branches; Yet in the heat of midsummer days, when thunder clouds ring the hori zon A nation of men shall rest beneath its shade.” The imagists, like all these poets, are (Continued on Page 4.) Clean Up Sale One assortment of tennis rackets. Balls and mils. One assortment of base ball gloves, mitts bats and shoes. Bathing suits $4 to $10 Shoes and caps. Men’s women’s leather outing boots. Fishing tackle, guns and ammunition. Hauser Bros. Gun store Outfitter to Athletes aucl Sportsmen. 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