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I V A Hc II I
CrO HE Philippines nro essentially
I heterogenous. Some of the Islands
are inountalnous, and others are
flat; some nre muddy, syanipy, and
feverish, others nro porous limestone,
well-drained and healthy; some nro en
tirely wooded, some are entirely bare.
The Inhabitants present like diverg
ence. The Moras of the south nre war
like, active. Intelligent, with a civiliza
tion as advanced as Turkey's. Tho
Negritos are a diseased and dying pig
my tribe, absolutely animal In their ex
istence, less advanced than any known
people. The term "Filipino" embraces
Mnnila rabble and secluded Islanders,
mountaineers and senmcn, priests and
the cannibals. It Is necessary, there
fore, to use only tho broadest terms In
describing the group collectively.
The archipelago Is a group of 1,200
Islands situated in the Pacllic Ocean,
extending from latitude 21 degrees
north to 4 degrees 45 minutes north
Its length Is thus about 1.000 miles; i;
greatest width Is 040 miles; the totul
land area, aproxlmately, 115,000 square
miles. The nearest mainland Is Asia,
300 miles to the northeast. San Fran
Cisco is S.000 miles to the west. The
archipelago lies wholly within the line
of Capricorn and the equator. Its
characteristics, food products, and peo
ple are tropical.
The climate Is hot and moist; regu
lar observations have been taken only
at Manila, whole the temperature has
been found to vary betweju 00 and 100
degrees. Tho excessive humidity
makes this degree more dlfllcult to en
dure than In the temperate zones. As
one progresses toward the swampy,
low-lying Islands farther south tho
heat, and especially the humidity, in
There are two seasons, the wet and
dry the former lasting from June to
November being the most disagree
able and dangerous to health. Fever
and dysentery nre the diseases most
dreaded by foreigners, but dangerous
localities are known and may be
'J. lie Philippines are the seat of na
ture's passions. Earthquakes are com
mon and violent; the volcanoes are the
most dangerous In the world. Luzon
Is the cradle of that terrible sea storm,
Islands' External History.
On Aug. 10, 1519, there started from
Spain with a fleet of Ave ships Fer
nando Magellan, a Portuguese navi
gator. His object was to discover a
passage from Europe, west to the Pa
cific. Magellan had vainly endeav
ored to Interest the King of Portugal In
his project; had become a naturalized
Spaniard, and had obtained from
Charles I., of Spain the wherewithal to
equip his fleet.
He reached the western coast of
South America In December and
turned south. As the season became
harsher and the weather colder the
snips' commanders mutlned, desiring
to winter on shore. One was executed,
another marooned. However, one ship
did desert and another was wrecked.
With three ships the great explorer con
tinued south, and on Oct 2S, 1020.
passed through the Straits of Magel
lan to the waters of the Paclflc. He
now shaped his course west by north,
and In midsummer, 1521, reached Min
danao, of which he took possession In
the name of the King of Spain. He
next landed at Cebu, in August, 1521,
and was welcomed by the king of the
Island. This monarch was baptized
and took the oath of allegiance to
Spain. Shortly nfter Magellan be
came Involved in a factional quarrel
between two native chieftains and was
killed. Many members of the expedi
tion had died, but the remainder, with
two ships, ngnin sailed west and dis
covered Palawan. Later one of tho
two was lost, but the other plucklly
continued Its way and made the first
complete Journey around the world.
In 1505, under the direction of Philip
II., tho second Spanish expedition
leached the Islands. The object was
the saving of native souls; Inquisition
methods were employed, and conver
sions, though not valuable, were nu
merous. In 1571 Manila was seized
and proclaimed the capital of tho
islands, to bo called henceforth tho
Islns Filipinos, In honor of King Philip.
The Chinese Emperor resented tho
Intrusion Into celestial domains. Be
tween 1573 and 1575 ho sent forth ten
expeditions to oust, the Spaniards.
Severe battles followed, but the Euro
peans managed to keep their foothold.
They never, however, forgave the Chi
nese these attempts. At various times
fits of resentment against Chlncso
blood would sweep over tho Spaniards
and crusades were organized In order
to kill or drive them out. In 1C03 23,
000 were murdered, and In 1039 35,000.
In 1702 England took Manila from
Spain, but peaco was soon proclaimed,
and the Islands were returned.
The natives have been opt to revolt
at any time. When they did so Spain
used flro and sword liberally, not only
to subdue, but to punish after surren
der. Resources of the Islands,
The resources of tho Islands are
jrarlcd Itlce was Introduced from
i i v yir lis. vt.HKii1!!)' nt
' c m Of 4 jil 0 C. S. A H '
sf vvJSa V'Wf-Rs'vt rV&Usif jr"v limn
' C E 3 H 3
1 Of Ii, 1
Heulptor Iiiin mhi .
the hero on tlu fi.-i.i r llIim
IllH (lIVlHlOII III II i lmrr.. . " """I
lug IiIh ini'ii during ,
varying hiu'ii'hm i.v
Potomac. Tint "1
"r.. ,,f i ... l
" H reprrm-iil, , r. )ni.(lS
COMPItEHENSIVE MAP OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
China centuries ago. It has since be
come the staple food of the natives on
account of the ease with which It 13
produced. Tho quality Is excellent At
present all the rice produced Is con
sumed In the Islands, but much good
land is not cultivated.
Sucar cane Is grown extensively
throughout the archipelago. Of late
years beet sugar has cut Into the profits
of this business, but with the removal
of the various Spanish export taxes,
with the supersedence of buffalo power
by steam, and with the opening up of
the back country by railroads, or at
least highroads, the Philippine planta
tions will reduce tho present Have
Abaca, or hemp, Is grown widely.
The gathering of nbaca Is an operation
necessitating considerable care and
conscientiousness, unc natives pos
ccss neither of these qualifications,
and, employing primitive methods, ruin
the finer liber of the plant Observers
say that machinery capable of prcserv
lng these delicate fibers Is feasible. In
that case abaca could bo used for gar
ments, napkins, sheets, and even hand
kerchiefs. At present tho hemp Is
used chiefly for sails, doormnts, and
rope. Tho Philippines will probably
retain a practical monoply of this
crop; Its cultivation has been attempt
ed in many other places, but never suc
cessfully except In tho extreme north
em part of Borneo.
Native tobacco has always been In
digenous to Luzon, but the quality Is
strong and bitter. Early In tho seven
teenth century missionaries Introduced
tho Mexican plant with great success.
Tobacco plantations multiplied; the
business became more and more pros
perous until in 1781 it was made a state
monopoly. Laws were enacted that all
sales should bo to the government. A
planter might not smoke a cigar of his
own make under penalty of $7 fine.
Tho government was not always
prompt to pay for goods received; na
tives refused to cultivate their land
and lied to tho mountains; soldiers fol
lowed and killed whom they found; at
night tho natives returned again and
fired tho crops In the field. In this way
Mlndoro's once flourishing business has
been annihilated. Spain now took an
other step; not only must all tobacco
raised bo sold to tho state buyers (on
credit), but every family should own
and caro for at least 4,000 tobacco
plants. Tho abuses resulting from
this last statute becamo so horrible
that even Spanish officials protested
to the homo government; tho Castlllan
statesmen, realizing tho spongo was
squeezed dry, repenled tho monopoly j
laws in lbb-'. Even under such aus
pices tho tobacco remnlned excellent,
Since the business has been open It has
Increased tremendously. Mnnila mim
hers scores of factories native, Chi
nese, and Spanish; several of tliein
have over 500 operatives.
Coffee Is grown to a considerable ex
tent; the quality Is unusually good
Little, however, finds Its way out of
the archipelago. The cocoa plant was
Introduced from Central America early
In the seventeenth century. Philippine
chocolate Is always spoken of well by
Various minerals nro found In paying
quantities. Especially Is this true o
Luzon and Mindanao. Gold and sul
phur will prove of value to prospec
tors; silver, mercury, copper and tin
have furnished returns, but the extent
of the deposits Is a matter of Investlga
On many Islands the ax hns never
been raised against the Immense virgin
forests; in few have Its depredations
been extensive. Over a hundred differ
cut varieties of wood have been clnssl
fled. Among them we find teak; nnga,
resembling mahogany; tlpolo, for mu
steal Instruments; lanltnn, for guitars
and violins; boxwood, ebony and bam
The Inhabitants of these Islands nre
a strangely mixed lot. Malay charac
teristics generally prevail throughout,
The many attempts to classify the peo
ples into various district tribes nnd
races have failed, for the reason that
pure blood of any sort Is rare.
It Is safest to divide the native Fill
plnos Into Chrlstlonlzed Malays, pagan
jiniays, anu Mohammedan Malavs
The first named comprise five and n
half millions of the total population of
cigut minions. They resemble our no,
grocs in many wnys. They are music
lovers, fond of the sunshine, sunorsii.
nous, xuougn usually good-naturoii
they are subject to fits of murderous
passion, mature In tho tronlcs Is n
Industrious that man need not nsslst
her to any great extent In order to livo
comfortably. The Filipino will not work
as long as ho Is not about to stnrvo
When he has mndo enough to live on
for a month or two tho ex-laborer re
tires to his thatched hut. smokos Ma
cigarettes, fights his gamecock, strums
his guitar, and sings lovo soncs in
wlfo or sweetheart
Tho natives of tho northern islniula
nro called Tagalos. They arc the small
est and least brave, but also most
treacherous and trlckr of the irainiHn.
and always havo been reckoned as tho
poorest fighters; havo always been
most completely under Spain's domlna-
tlon, nnd have suffered mom accord
ingly. The central group of lulnmls U term
ed the Vlwtyn group. The Inhnliltantn
called Vlwiyos-are Homewlmt larger,
stronger, more Independent than lh
xngniog. 'j he difference, however. I
far less marked than Imtween our dlf
ferent Indian trlbed. Trnveh-rn. In or
dor to strengthen the fore of their
distinctions and coinpnrloiiii. are hj
to push them n little far. The -sharply
drawn distinction between the Tush
10s and the Vlsayoss Ik not Juntllhil.
The Moras or Molinininwliiu Malay
aggregate less than a million. They
iiinanit tne sum group at the south u
me archipelago, parts of Mindanao,
anil the southern third of Palawan
one hultan, whose residence Is K11I11
iicMiowii'dged throughout these Im
anus, ihe Mores are a fierce, fanat
...ii . .
m-iiiuiiiiK race, who were never
conquered by Spain. It H uiisafo for
a wane man to venture among them
10 kiii uiriHtlnns Is part of their re
The aborigines of the Mauds nro ti.
.-Negritos, a puny, nilwrulilc, dwarf
race, as tne .Malays swept up through
..... u.iuiiiuiuuu lliu .NlfirrilfiM u-iini
uinen into tne most remote ami un,.,.v
eted parts. Though not of true negro
niuuu, uiey are much blacker than the
.uuiiijH, anu tneir Into cenco l t
lower. Tho total number Is .mti,ni
. fit i, r, r. ......
Iftliiin! of Luzon,
Lliznn lu tlm !.. .
... wv IIIIKl'flL. IIH1HI imnniniia
.1 . " l l'".uo
mvai u-c-vuopeu, ami most civilized of
iiiu 1 nuiimines. It IMS fin nmn m
T i'"u nines, or over one-third dm
Kituiu iwuif. 01 110 nn-ii in. n.f ..1
live-eighths of the wlu.i,. .7. 1
thn Olllv rnllo.l .. . .
leu. it Is the scat of the .ni.u..i .......
winlnln. nn.. -..., im 11
jjiiv lining fig in.,,,,, ,......
crs as all the rest of the Islands put to
gether. Luzon Is snimna,Mi . 1 . .. .
r. nnn . . .. I" (IIIIMIUII
IT'Z1 Of these, 80 per
t l" " ccm, tent.
--. . i..ilu..m J)UiCon tliotiirli the
most advanced of dm i.mi . ?." 1, 0
dlSfrrnonf.,11., I ." . " " "I'l'mcs, 1
" "'"-'"varti. There Is mm
undly managed rnllrnn.!. in
io highroads, twen
?HK IIAIlrllAM T loxi,Sr
native town mnld tin- i-latnlii, (,;,
iKipulace, who Mtn-u 11,1. v.ay t
laurel nnd with palm Tin cu'
the Holiller priM iiilun mm j,9
Hwerlng the h I illation of ilc ,.Jl&.
the motion of his hand cjauj&'ifij
cap In nrriHtted at tin ml of thetim
that lifted It from hU land
GREATEST DEAUTY OF PARil
I.eavr 11 Mualc Mull to lltccut Ui
llrhlc of it I'roml Ku.ln l'ratt
The lnot jn-U-d ai.d a ' j -
Ix-nuty In Pari. I.n t .n il.. r it ti
prlllCfUH. I'or limmlm ( ti I'i,; (.,
IntliiNkl, n young Hum- ,o .f a L j
family and of grtat w. jii ; a -i
wooing the pnny Pars
IIHIL'H in innrrtli
iv m i,, r" , i,,u "'Biiroads, twen
y miles Inland, nro either lacking alto,
try land n n.iVi lt" 1,10 co"
iry landilnorfn m
A coincUlencfHfr . . .
of the plagiarist uul'eu pica
I. A AVAl 11 I I
flnnlly won her luunl and tuart. if1'!
their marriage the couple WiSi u
Prince Barlntlnskl romm of a fintf
that Is now mid hint long htcn I
prominent In ICiihmIii. The llartiil
nklx are now very rich and oe
tlen, eMtates, mines and other rM'
tl(M throughout UuhmIii.
The PrlneeHM IlarlailiiHkl, who W
hitherto been known by 110 othir nn
than La Cavallerl. Is u rare I"'
For a long time the PnrUlnM
been raving over the btauiy of im
woman. Ah a singer she wiw not ma
of a miceewi, but her rcnuirliiible !
ty always nttrneted a lnrge concourH
to the hall where she appeari'il.
No Long-DlHtiineo Woorr.
Itudynrd Kipling's muternal fnf
father was Itev. (leorge K. Mtmo
It Is related of him that In
u-lii.M lw. miu onnrdnir die hub" v"ott
he afterward miirrkil the father-In Ii-to-bo-an
aged MethodlHt. wllli 5'
triimnlf iilrl,. iinMiilIM III regit 111 I011"
propertles-wiiH Injinllilous cnoapb a
one occasion to enter the pn nor
giving any warning of h.s iippnv
mm... ,...u 11, ..I ii fouml IM
4 iiu uiiiint-iiuuiiLr v,i" -- . ..
HweethearlH occupylnK single cua -
lt......tw I... Ii lu MllOC'tllClC, l"'
old man solemnly said: ".Mr. Slw
aid, when I was courting Mrs. ,r" ,
she sat on one side of the room n
on tho other." Macdonald s rem
'That's what I should have uouv
had been courting Mrs. Hrowu.
A Sheridan (Mo.) photographer m
ho has discovered a process uy
of which a proof of a photogrnpu w
bo taken within 11 few momonts
tho sitting. ,
Wl.nt ,na l.nonilin flf tllO Old-fO"110 ,
Ml wnmnn who laid iisldo tllCCaKCS".,
fruit Bho rccolved at ft porty to
homo to her children?
If a man leaves no debts to bis 1
flron ho Jenvcs au Inhorltaiico