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.TUESDAY JTJEY15, 1873
i a am
Report on the Harbor and Sliipping
of the port of Astoria Facte Im
'portant.to the Public
At a meeting of the Astoria Cham
ber of Commerce, held in May last,
a committee was appointed to pre
pare statistics of the harbor and ship
ping of the port of Astoi ia, for use at
the FiirrneVs Convention. Following
is the report in full.
Your committee to whom was referred
the matter of harbor, and shipping intelli
gence, beg leave to offer the follewing:
The water front of Astoria, varying
from a quarter of a mile to a mile in width
affordb over bix miles of fcceure anchorage
for the largest classed vessels, in irom. six to
twelve fathoms of water. No storms have
,yet visited the harbor that effected any
damage to shipping riding at anchor in
the bay, or lying at the wharf.
Should the demands 'of commerce re
quire, About five consecutive miles of dock
ajge may be cheaply constiucted from the
river bank to the edge of the channel,
piling being necessary but a short dis
tance at any given point.
The central jpoition of the harbor is ust
twelve miles inside the Columbia river
bar, on which there is twenty-four feet of
water at extieme low tide, and thirty-four
"at ordinary hicjh tide. Alter crossing the
bar, the depth holds btill greater an the
"way to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
"cross can safely venture to our docks.
About six miles above Astoria, at the com
mencement of Cathlument bay is the
hog's " back, a bar some quarter of a mile
in length, with ten feet of water at low and
eighteen feet at high tide. This is the
most dangerous point on the river, and the
most skillful pilots never attempt its pas
sage in the night, either with sail or steam.
It is formed ot shifting sand, deposited by
the meeting of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlametbayis
ten miles long up and do"yn the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lose their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sandjnto irregular
bars that change their position from year
to year, and make dredging useless.
Steamers are nearly always detained at
Astoria, for tide to cross this bar, and
should one arriye here, say at 12 21. when
high water occurred at 10 o'clock a. m.
she would have to wait until 11 a. m. the
next day, as she could not proceed on the
high tide of the night. This bar has been
known for 3-ears, but as the draft of steam
ers and vessels now coming into the river
is greater than formerly, the difficulties
are becoming more and more apparent.
There is the following named depths of
water at the points mentioned at high
Walker's Island, in ftfor mile below Rainier
Can's Woodyard " " " abovo "
Kalama " " M " -
St Helen 17ftfor "
Mouth Wallainet- . . u . " . .
Post Office 18 V "
Swan Island... 17 "
The channel is often crooked, and diffi
cult of navigation', and the bar at the
mouth of the "Willamette river is subject
to annual deposts of sediment from back
water of the Columbia.
"We find that the carrying trade of
Oregon is now chiefly done by vessels of
light draft and small capacity.
That these are subject to a tax of 8 per
foot draft as pilotage; from four to ten
days' delay, and 300 to 400 towage,
over and above what they would have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo at
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
six hundred tons capacity. Expenses would
then be as follews:
Pilotage 10 feet 54 up S 04
R ltf .. .. aown- (J4
Six days demurrage & $00 3(50
Towage up .. 175
Equivalent to over four cents per bushel
on the cargo of 600 tons outwaid bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
State growing out of present arrangement
of the arrivals anddepatures by sea.
By cureful inspection of the shipping
registers, we find the average draft of aU
vessels now in use, ranging between 1,000
and 1,200 tons, to be 20K feet, and the
average of all larger ones but 2114 feet.
"While a thousand ton ship is full larger
thnn (inn ranch POrtland.or anvnnint nbnvn
Astoria, loaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can always
come to Astoria ? whatever the stage of
water. Thus, with a point higher up on
the river, .the export trade must forever be
carried ore in" small vessels, while from
hcre'tfte shipping of the world may,, com
pete for freights.
A ship of 3,000 tons can carry wheat
from Astora to Liverpool for twenty cents
a bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
do from Portland, as the following figures
A ship of 3,000 tons is worth u $120,000
Interest, at 10 ? cent for four months
(average passage) - r 4,000
Insurance at.12 i cent ,.... 4,b00
Depreciation at 10 i cent 4,000
Captain, three mates, steward, and cook
$150, S75, $00, 30, $4Qr $40 J month... 1,000
Twenty-four seamen $25 -month 2,400
Stores for voyage, 30 men at 50c "ft day, 1,800
POUT CHARGES Uf ASTUSU.
Pilotage and towage, 21 feet $10. 230
Stevedores' bill, 3,000 tons (2, 40c :..- 1,200
Dunnage -.. - -
Port stores, etc..,.-.. ......... vu
Pilotage and towage, 23 feet $10.. 230
Stevedore's bill, 8,000 tons 2oc..... o0
H&rbpr foes, tonnage daes and dockage 800
Port stores t JW
Bys,oootons$n.::: "vvrS' r
- Contra 5-
A ship of 1,000 ton3 is worth... $ 00,000
interest at 10 g cet, and Insurance & .
' 12 'Acentrtour months z.JS.& $ &,0O
Depreciation at 1 r cent 2,000
Wages V month; foi Captain 150, two ,
mates $i:5,steward S50,and 12 seamen
at $25 each ,. 2,540
Stores for 10 jneu at 5lc r day . ' 900
POP.' t,HAftltS I vSTORI.
Pilotage and iowage, in feel . $10 190
Port store aiiu Tlunnnsre
Stevedo e'a oill. J,UU0 ton- .Vc
J. MtPOOL t'H tRGES.
Pilotage and towage, I feel .$10
Stovedoic' bill( Jc, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage
Total expenses ..-$ 11,780
By 1,0"0 tons at $15 $15,000 .
Expenses deducted 11,760
JJatonco $ 3,270
Or, a dividend of 19 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as against 5 per cent, on
that of the smaller. Or, to reduce hoth to
5 per cent., the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a third less
than the 1,000 ton vesel; that is 29 cents
against 45 cents per bushel. Add to this
the cost as above figured, incidental to
delays and river expenses of 4 cents per
bushel, and it gives a net gain of 20 cents
per bushel in iavor of Astoria as an ex
porting harbor, and the employment of
such vessels as can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels. Twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for 1873. viz: 5.000.000 bushels, cives the
snug little sum of 1,000,000 that the&rm
er should have for his labor. The above
figures are all substantially correct, and
tell their own story.
It may bo said that several large vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
House records show that of the twenty
vessels named below, comprising all the
vessels of any size that have bailed from
the river with wheat, from a fourth to
over one-half of the cargo was brought
down to Astoria in steamboats and here
put on board. And yet these records are
more favoiable to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, for the reason that
in a number of instances, two or three
hundred tons was cleared from the Port
land Custom House as Jbeing on board
when in fact it was in lighter and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed down
to Astona before being placed on the ves
sel. List of vessels exnortinrr wheat from
Oregon, showing amount otuushels taken I
on at Astoria and Pertland:
Crop pF lb72.
1S71 Ships. II p5
.Annie M. Smull
Uet 1 1 .
Fot waid, Mil's offiourU 1,7!'$
8, W5 21,733
lveli Si iraguo ...".
Again, deep aea vessels never likei to
leave Hie salt water. Coasters are willinsr
tostoaml jat it, but large vessels avoid
steamboat grounds. In Tact, the under
writers do not allow deep sea vessels to
venture Irom their natuial element at
The striking of a vessel on any of the
bars of the river, even if ho immediate
damage is discovered, is sufficient cause to
render null and void the policy of insur
ance, should she take in cargo and pro
ceed to sea without being put on the dry
dock and having her bottom examined.
Should a ship be lost under uch circum
stances, not a dollar of insurance could be
collected on the vessel, and if tho owners
were responsible, the underwriters upon
the cargo would hold them for the value
thereof. Hence large vessels will never
be induced to undertake the navigation of
the bars of the Columbia above Astoria.
Now as to the safety of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting of the whole
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from certain periods during which
the data is complete,, we are enabled to
approximate very closely, and set the
number down at an average of five hun
dred a year for the last twenty-one years,
or since 1852. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses or wrecks that
nave occurred on the bar since 1852, which
year may be considered the beginning of
wisaom as regards the channels, currents,
&c, on or about the bar.
Barks Mendora. and Merrithew2 lost
January 12th, 1853, came in without
pilots, wind Jailed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Bark Oriole, lost September 19th,. 1853.
Brig Detroit, lost Dec. 22, 1855, on outer
snit. Goin er out at nicrht.
Bark Desdemona, Tost Dec. 31st, 1856.
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands six
Schooner Woodpecker lost May 10, 1861,
four miles inside.
Bark Industry ,lost March 16, 1865, com
ing in without a pilot.
Bark "W. B. Scranton, lost 3Iay 5th,
Only eight vessels in twenty-one years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of 1,312, or
one-thirteenth of one per cent of the ship
ping coming into the river.
Of this number, four were coming in
without pilots. It mther appears that near
ly every loss during the time under reveiw,
was the result, not of a rough bar, but of
the wind failing after the vessel had crossed
thus-leaving her to drift on the sands. v It
also seems that each loss of vessels coming
in occurred when theere bailing against
the tide, instead of with it.
There being no tug tpgo to their relief,
Vessels mifrked thus () -are known to have
lightered 'nioro tban .the, ampuat credited
of course there could be no rescue. It is
safe to say that, had there been a turat
hand, every vessel thus far lost on thenar
might have beed saved. Since fhe placing
of the tug Astoria upon ihebar, or pilot
gj-ounds in 1869, therehasbeennoloss, and
with proper care on i he part of tug and
pilots, there need be none for many years
to come. These facta warrant u& in mak
ing the bold asseilion, that there is no barr
ed harbor known to commerce, where the
pe cent'age ofloss i-j -omall; and few, if
any, open harbors that can show so fair a
record. The currents and prevailing
winds are such, and the land marks so
well defined, that at a time when it 13 un
safe to cro&s the bar, vessels Outside can
readily keen off. ana wait a suitable time
to enter. And there is good holding
grounds but a few hundred rods inside for
vessels bound out to atfehor, and select
from the sopt their own time to pass out.
Less trouble is experienced from fogs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are not frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt, to the.
presence of atrial currents, resulting from
peculiar physical conformations. The
channel is distinctly bouyed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, wheref is established a
life saving station by Government, with
all the necessary facilities for rendering
aid in case of accident on the bar. Gov
ernment has also made an appropriation
for a lighthouse at Point Adams, and
preparations are going forward or com
mencing the work at once.
The commerce of Oregon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insuarance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pro rata of loss
incident to a given harbor, when such
datais to be had, or guessed at from gen
eral impressions, in the absence of reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above facts are laid before the
various marine underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river bar should not be removed, and our
insurance had at a fair rate, much less
than is now imposed.
Another important point gained by
making Astoria the exporting harbor,
would be the employment of home capi
tal in the river tranportation, instead of
foreign, or outside, as is now done. The
question is now never raised about Sandy
Hook baratthe entrance of New York
harbor, being too shallow and rough for
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yet there-is live feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy Hook at
a corresponding stage of water. But, to
conclude, it is evident that the class of
vessels required to carry the suplus pro
ducts of Oregon to a foreign market, at a
price consistent with the cost of production,
must stop at the mouth of the Columbia
river. Therefore, it is a simple problem of
whether Oregon will build, up and main
tain a seaport town worthy of a great
State, within her own borders; or whether
such a place will be sustained on Pugut
Sound, or California, at an annual cost of
one-fourth the agricultural wealth of the
The committee are under obligations to
Mr. VanDusen, Ir. Hare, Collector of
Customs, and the Pilots, ibr valuable in
formation. Respectfully submitted,
J. H. D. GRAYt A. S. Mercer, W. W.
Astoria, May 31, 1S73.
COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTS!
n. A. SNOW,
P. E. FERCHEN.
C.S. WRIGHT, Agent.
tsw Office Corner of Main and Chenamus
streets, Astoria, Oregon.
Oregon Steam Nav. Co.
TCrOTICE Boats of the 0. S.
N. Company will leave As
toria as follows :
FOR PORTLAND, and intermediate points
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday Mornings,
at U o'clock. Returning, leave Pertland:
FOR ASTORIA, and intermediate points On
Monday, Wednesday and Friday Mornings,
at 6 o'clock. J. C. A1NSWORTH, Pros
The Steam Tug Yaruna
Will leave Astoria evorv
TUESDAY and SATURDAY
. And "UNITY,
Carrying Mails, Passengers and Freight.
D3- Other days of tho week she will, bo ready
to go anj'whero that business may justify. Is
prepared to lighter cargoes, freight, hay, cattle
and wood. J. H. D. G11A1' Agent, Astoria.
V. "W. BOUTON, '
Is prepared to build Roats of all sizes and
descriptions oithor of EASTERN or HOME
At Xess than San Francisco Prices I
Freight deducted Orders left at tho Astoria
Office, or addressed to tho undersigned, will re
ceive attention V W ROUTON, Unity, W T
From "and after July lstl?T3,tho A No 1, fast
sailing Sloop 7x
BLUE RACER, .
EUGENE BROCK .-;.- .Master
Will ply regularly between Astoria and Klas
Kamno, leaving every Tuesday and Saturday.
figr Office at tho Union House, Astoria.
The Fast Sailing
Sloop, IONE, -
R. CYRUS SHiyEL Y .-.-. ..,....Mastorv
Is 'now in-readiness Chartor fnr
Pleasftre Parties, PreiffHt or Passengers
J iioattquarters'at tlasoTs Landing.
ASTORI A ADVERTISEMENTS,
EstablislieilJuAtOciK ia 1349.
NEW SQOPS;. r CHAP GOODS.
Wholesale and Retail Doaler in
Corner of Main and Chenamus streets,.
IS NOW OFFERING FOR SALE ONE OF
the largest and most complete assortments
of General Merchandise ever before brousht
to the country, and to buyers
For Cash will offer the Most flattering Inducement
In the line of
HATS, AND CAPS,
' BOOTS AND SHOES
LADIES' DRESS GOOD&,
A Complete Stock of Every Article.
TOO NUMEROUS TO MENTION.
BSf Givo mo a call, and be convinced that
my goods are of tho best quality, and as cheap
as can be bought of any house in the State.
' A. VAN DUSEN.
MRS. A. S. MERCER,
Teacher of Prof. E. A. RoBBrNs, ' .
American MBthofl for Piano Forte
-Alse: Harmony andThoroughbase!
. AST The ONLY CONCISE SYSTEM which
will stand Artistic Criticism, and furnish tho
material upon which every educated Teacher
can base their own peculiarities of instruction,
it presents in a now light, based upon Natu
ral Laws, the art of Execution, and Science x)f
Music JS"llooms at Residence, Astoriartt
Dr. S. KINSEY,
DRUGGIST ASTD APOTHECARY
PHYSICIANS AND FAMILY PRESCRIP
tions filled from tho PUREST DRUGS,
either at day or night A fulLstock of
WINES AND LIQUORS,
EOR 3IEDICAL USE,
13. Orders from the Country solicited, and
carefully and promptly filled
A.J.DONALDSON. ' GRANVILLE REED.
DONALDSON & REED,
Dealors in all kinds of
ERESH AND CURED-MEATS,
CANNED ERUITS, VEGETABLES.
FRESH BEEF, PORK, MUTTON. VEAL,
HAMS, BACON "AND LARD,
MESS BEEAND PORK,
A&5 Constantly on hand.
VST" Special attention paid to supplying ships.
Holladay's wharf, Astoria. .
H. B. PARKER,
.Importer and Dealer in..
Wines, Liquors, Cigars
PROVISIONS, Etc., Etc.
CST Holladay's Wharf, Main street, Astoria.
J. W. GEARHART,
Chenamus street, Astoria
Wholosalo and Retail Dealer in
Hay, Grain and Feed !
A GENERAL ASSORTMENT of Grocories,
FLOUR, BACON, HAMS,
SHOULDERS, LARD, BUTTER,
CHEESE, EGGS, Etc.
Motto" Small Profits on Cask Sales." Con
Main St., (Holladay's Wharf,) Astoria, Oregon.
CHARLES BINDER, Proprietor.
FRESH BREAD, CAKES. PIES, CRACK
ersand Pilot Bread, always on hand.
?f A RESTAURANT
Is kept in 'connection with the Bakery, whore
meals can bo procured at all hours.
KMT Oysters in every stylo in tho season.!
Corner of Main and Cass streots, Astoria.
HENRY JACOBS..-. ..-.-.Proprietor.
READ, CRACKERS, PILOT BREAD.
Cakos.Groceries and Provisions of aU kinds
always gn hand, bhip stores furnished.
res- Connected with the establishment is a
Reading Rooin. Cigars and Lager Beer served.
Corner; of' Main and Jefferfeon streets', Astoria.
CLOTHING OF Afi L "KINDS1 CUT1 AND
mrfdo torder. Cleaning and r,epairiiHr.
. jl .r x a u i. u a s. - -
Wholesale and-Rt&ul Dealer In 'f
. ' .
Df Goods, Clothing, Crai&-'PrM$!oa$, Koiions,'
Ainr Geitejral 3Irchandise,
WISHES TO ANNOUNCE -TO oSe'PUB
lic that he has a, very superior and well
selected Stock of Goods in'tho abovejino, fee-
t-iuus wmuu muy uu iuuuu in great variety, ino
best quality of . . ' 1
CROCKERY, GLASSVAE, "l
hats A3st Caps ,
BOOTS AND SHOES, . ,.'
BLANKETS, EliAETNELS, &c.,
.w Which is being offered i.uu.i.
Cheap FOR CASH or PRODUCE'!
r - ' - - - -
BST Having had years Of experience I think
I know the wants of the people, and as this
stock is nearer coinnlotoi and embraces a
GREATER VARIETY than any other stock
in Clatsop cbuhty I .will guarantee that yoa
will dp as well, if not better,, by trading with
me than at any other dstablisnmont.
l2"" Hiving redu6ed my expenses materially
of late I propose to give, my customers tho
bonotit of tho reduction, and any1 person who
doubts whether 1 will sell as 'cheap as any one
i OR CASH! can he convinced by giving me a
call at Headquarters, " Case's Corner," Chena
mus street, Astoria. 1 I.W.C. ,
S. N. ARRIQON1,
Occident Hotel Blofiky Astoria ,
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Choice Brand liquors!
The Eiriest in the Market
Which willi bq gold in lots to suifc purchasers
&. Nv ARRIGONI :.Lv..j....Proprietor.
THE BEST FURNISHED; MOST CONVE
nient and in every respeot popular hotel in
Oregon- Owing to its location it is considered
A Very Delightful Srazxnner Hesbrt.
fiSSMagnificent Sulta of Room's for families.
The table is supplied with the choicest delica
cies of tho seHohr'inVlind'TBilliard Room
attached to the Hotel. .!!
Hot, Cold, and Shower Baths !
AT OCCIDENT HOTEL, '
HAIR DRESSING SALOON.
"Wlp Uhlenhart 4 Proprietor.
C" Special attention paid to LADIES'
CHILDREN'S HAIR CUTT1NQ
JEJSTPrivato Entrancofor Ladies 'tKi
Jrom Astoria to Clatsop Beacli !
East HORSES! Good CARRIAGE!
EAVES ASTORIA EVERY TUESDAY,
Thursday and Saturday Mornings. '
Arrive Samo Mornings ht tho
OCEAN" HOUSE, ' .', t'W
GRIMES HOUSE, " ' ' " tt
SUMMER HOUSE, ' ."
And SEA SIDE HOUSE.
RETURNING Loaves those Houses every
Monday, Wednesday and Jb riday , connecting
with steamer to Portland each way.
"Distance twenty-four miles, fare SI, 50.
H. Ji. PARKER, Proprietor.
A.VING ALL THE MACHINERY NEC
essary for first class work, skillful lirower
and using none but tho best quality of mateii
als, tho Proprietor is prepared to
Manufacture LAGER BEER !
In any quantity, from a Single Rottle to a
BARREL, AND PUT IT UP in good con
dition for Shipment or Immediate use. ami
lies and. keepers of Public Houses promptly
and regularly supplied. M MEYER, Pi op r
Astoria Market. '
Chenamus Street Astoria.
HOB.SON & WARREN..
Wholesalo and Retail Dealers in all kinds of
Fresh and Cured Meats!
Butter, Eggs, Cheese,
Hams, Bacon and Lard!
Canned Fruits and Vegetables,
Constantly on hand.
BS3r Ships supplied at lowest fates.
' h: A. SHAW & SON, .
House, Sign and Steamboat Painters
Graining,Paper-liarigin and Glazirig
Done to Order with Neatness and Dispatch.
Hemlock TANNERY !
H. BROWN, Profriktors.
ff&" Manufacture all kindf of Leather "a-a
-. NHtn .