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IS SITUATED IN THE NORTHEASTERN PORTION OF THE STATE
A. IV I
COMPRISES ABOUT NINETY TOWNSHIPS OR ABOUT 2,000,000 ACRES OF LAND,
Tlio valleys lire of an nvenige elevation of alout 2,000 feet above sea level, the highest mountain
peaks being nlKitit (1,000 feet and continually covered with enow, which furnishes a water supply for
numerous streams tho year round.
Is dry and healthful, there being a sufficient rainfall to preserve the moisture of the soil and mature
'crops. Know seldom falls to the depth of one foot in tho valleys, and never remains longer than from
two to thrco weeks at iv time.
Tho mean temperaturo for tho winter months is about -0 degrees above freezing point, and for
tho summer months about 70 hIkjvo zero, the heat of the day being onset by cool nights that ensure
refreshing and invigorating sleep and rest for the fatigued
Tho winter season usua.ly begins alwut tho first, of December and lasts till the middle of February
or first of March, when tho husbandman is given an opportunity to prepare for his springs seeding.
From March 1st to July 1st,. the monotony of warm and dry wcatiier is broken by frequent showers
of rain furnishing suficient moisture to the ground and tempering tho atmosphere so as to assure the
farmer an ahuudant.yicld.
During the months of July, August and Septomber, which are the harvesting months in this
county, tho weather is usualy dry and adapted to the successful gathering of crops. Generally
enough rain falls In thu autumn months to moisten tho ground sufficiently to permit tho farmer to
prepare tho same for his fall grain.
There is no country in tho United States more blessed by a healthful climate than Union County,
as the vigor and enterprise of is citizens will prove.
Tho various contagions prevalent in many localities are almost wholly unknown here, and are
usually very mild in their attacks when they do appear. There has only been ono case of Smallpox in
Union County since its settlement, and chills ami fever aro totally unknown. Wo have no tornadoes
or hurricanes to lay waski tho country, destroy proporty and iho lives of people, nor blizzards to
freeze the life out of humanity. Nor ilo we have the fogy and damp atmosphere which is found West
of the Cascadu Mountains.
SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS.
There is 1,407,500 Acres of Surveyed Land In the County ; tho rest is unsurveyed, the unsur
voyed portion being valuable for Timber, Pasture and abounding in Mineral Deposits. Tho valleys
of tho County aro Grande Hondo, Indian, North Powder, Big Creek, Eagle, Pino and Starkey. Tho
soil in theso valleys Is well adapted to tho raising of Wheat, Oats, Barley, Bye, Timothy, Clover and
Alfalfa, Vegetables and Fruits, such as Apples, Plums, Pears, Peaches, Cherries, strawberries, and
in fact all of the smaller varieties grow to perfection.
Tho yield of Wheat is from 25 to 50 bushels to tho aero, Barloy from 40 to 70, OattS about tho same
jih Barloy, with exceptions in some localities, when as high as 100 bushels of oats has been raised to
the acre. Tho Mountains aro covered with a Fino Growth of Timber, consisting of Pino, Tamrack,
Spruce, etc. The most valuable is tho Pine, which is used in tho lumbering industry, also some of
the turgor species of Tamrac, but this class of timber is used chiefly to furnish wood ties, etc., which
is amply sufficient to supply the surrounding country for ages.
The mineral resources of tho County aro only imrtinly developed, but sufficient prospecting and
mining has been done to prove that great ledges of oro interline tho mountain sides, which, when
sufficient capital is employed in their development, will bo a great factor in tho general Biimmary of
t'o wealth of the County. A more detailed account of tho Mines and Mineral Itesources of tho
County will bo found further on.
, The assessment roll of tho county lor tho year 1888, shows that there were U1.740 head of horses,
28,12:1 Head of Cuttle, i5,5o5 Head of Sheep, und 5,57 Head of Swine, showing of itself that tho County
Is a great Sioclc liaising Region. Thousands of head of slock arc yearly shipped, bringing to the owners
thereof a neat profit on their Investment.
In fact. Iho stock bnsiitesx lins been and still i tho most paying of any in tho country und it
bids fair to continue to bo such for many years to como. The bunch grass growing upon tho hills and
mountains Is very nutritious, stock fattening In a very short time, ready for market. Usually stock bos
to bo fed liar for from ono to two months during tho winter, but in manv places horses will winter upon
tho bunch grans anil do well. I'ho climate in such that slo -k ralsod is of u hardy and healthful charac
ter, lving2o work horses a strong constitution and powerful muscle.
Th5 milk cow horo attains perfection. Slioep are very healthy and produce heavy lleeccs. Tho
' dairying business In tho last few years has developed Into a largo and profitable one, tho country being
specially adapted to tho business by reason of tho milk producing qualities of the grasses and the ex-
' cellont range, the largo quantity or hay and giain raised per acre, tho health fulness of animals, tho
largo water supply and ttiu quick market of Butter and Cheuso. Tho Jersey, llolstlno and Durham aro
rap Idly tuMng the plscoof the common breed of cattle, and dairymen aro giving considerable attention
to tho breeding of their cows.
It is said more profit can ht realized per year from a milk cow In this country than any other in tho
United Slates, ono Instance being given of u single cow for one year, yielding a net profit to tho owner
of 8175 b'-siiles the cult
Two creameries are In operation at tlio Cove, in this county, whit h make 120,(00 pounds of cheose,
worth 14 cents per pound, and 7i,0( 0 iKiinds butter, worth 25 cents per p- und.
This year a creamery is in operation at La (irnde, with what success remains to bo seen, although
no doubt can be entertained but that It will prove to bo a profitable concern.
ITS MINING RESOURCES.
Tho Mining District1 of Un'on County aro Cornucopia, Sparta and Sanger. Cornucopia District is
in tho Kstcrn portion of the County, and embraces a section about ten miles square, within which thero
are about 000 quartz locutions. The formation In granite and slate; tho ledges running in a Southearterly
and Northwesterly direction. The first locations were made hero in 1881. The quartz contains Gold and
Silver, tho gold predominating. Some of tho lodes uro free milling, but they generally contain base
metal an In consequence will have to bo treated in reduction wnrkB. Assays have been made of oro from
tlio different groups, showing an averago yield of from 2." to 81' 0 per ton When tho proper methods
aro employed to work theso ledges to tho best advantage, Cornucopia will ha considered tho Now
"Kldorado of tho West." , n , r ,...,., , . . ,
Tho Orrgon Gold Mining Company, of Louuvllle, Ky . Is the only company represented in tho dis
trict. It has opened up -evoral of It ledges, which weio obtained at from 810,100 to 820,000 each.
Tho Red Jacket, belonging to this coinpany, Is a well defined lodge, averaging about four feet in
thickness and when struck on tho lowest tunnel, was found to bo a mass of the golden metal. This
company has a 40-Statnp Mill running night and day upon the ore taken front this ledge. Seven thou
sand five hundred iouiul of sulphurets were secured tho first mouth of this spring's operations, besides
Immense quantities of free gold caught upon tho amalgam pans.
Tills company's expenses In building, machinery, mads, developments, etc., has amounted to over
8!UXI 0 i(l. They have tlio Whitman, which has a shaft sunk over 1,500 feet and shows better as tho work
progresses; tho A1U No. 2, which Is developed sufficiently to indicate n well defined ledge of high grade
ore. Tho present superintendent. Professor Smith, Is hlahly pleased with tho prospect for his company
and predicts a second Leadvlllo of Cornucopia. Many other ledges of tho camp with 100 feet or more
of development work aro showing up well, among which aro tho Simmons group, comprising tho Key
stone. Checkmate, Kmplro and Buckeye, all situated on tho Simmons Mountain and raid to Ihj tho best
group of mines in the camp, flso the Blue Bell, Little Casino and Monte Chri-to, situated on the Mime
mountain and extensions of tho Simmons ledges, showing ramogrado and character of oro. Tho Way
Un northeast of Cornucopia, shows sonio of tho richest oro of any In camp and Is no doubt an extension
of the Blue Bell and Simmons group. Tho Union, Companion, Last Chan o. Robert Kmniot, Forest
Queen, Red Boy, Mav Flower, Cox and Allen, Red Cross, Steen groupe, Stella, Tiger Boy. Climax
and Queen of the "Wo'ht are all sufficiently developed to show them to be good ledges and contain paying
ore hi great quantities. The Cornucopia or Pino Creek district is a rich ono with an unlimited amount
of ore and only lack's capital to prove Its wonderful richness. It Is destined to be one of tlio richest
camps In existence. ,
Tho Sanger mines ore oitcrated by a San l'ranclsco Company, which began Its operations two vears
ago buying the ledges for 817,(Hi0 and now dcanlnKnp on an a vol ape of 870,000 per month. These
" mines are on the road between Union and Cornucopia? about 3') miles east of Union, having a tn-weekly
mall from Union on to Cornucopia, thus being placed In direct communication with Union, their trad.
"K 'FhoSpa'rta mines are about eight miles southeast of Sanger and have been worked for tho past
twenty years, still Yielding large returns. Tho Sparta mines are mostly placer, but quite a number of
ledges have lately lwen found which, as far as developed, indicate good paying ore. A mill Is being
Now to return to tho Agricultural Interests of the County, tho Largest, most Fertile and attractive
Valley of Union County, is the Famous Grande Hondo, whoso beauty is recoming known far and wide,
surrounded by lofty mountains upon which seems to rest the blue vtult above. Wherever tho eye
gazes it cannot help being enchanted by our beautiful scenery. This valley embraces 300,01 0 acres of
as fine Agricultural Land as cn b found on the Pacific Const.
Tho Grande Ilonde River enters its boundary on tho West and Hows Easterly through the center
of the va'Ioy and thence Northerly and out at lis Northern limits; 90x25 miles is its length and bredth
and with Catherine Creek, the largest tributary of the Grande Rondo entering the valley at the South,
Mill Creek entering at tho Fast and Willow Creek entering at the North, with numerous other small
tributaries, make the Grande Ronde Val'ey one of the best watered valleys in Oregon, all of the above
named streams affb'ding abundance of water the eason round.
The soil of this valley is principally a black, rich lotm with clay subsoil, thero being a'out three
Townships of land having a sandy soil, known as the Sand Ridge, all of which produces excellent grain.
The yield of Wheat, Oats, Barley. Rye, Timothy, Alfalfa and Clover Is large, the cereals yielding
from 25 to 60 bufhcW per acre of Wheat 40 to 100 for Oats and Barley, and Hay from 52 to 8 tons per acre;
frequently three crops of Alfalfa being cut In one season.
PRODUCTIONS AND EXPORTS.
Th producing and export of grain and hay from this valley is large and growing In quantity each
year. Besides the production of grain and hay for export, an immense quantity of fruits, including Ap
ples, Plums, Prunes, Pears and smalle fruits, aNo garden vegetables aro raised in great quantities and
marketed in the neighboring sections. Butter and Cheese is also one of our staple productB. Stock
ralBlng Is engaKea In largely and profitably; as tine stock may bo seen upon the farms of Grande Rondo
Valley as any where, stockmen and farmers always securing the best bred animals for breeding pur
poses. Taxes are no higher on fine than poor stock. The lands of this valley have all been taken, but
choice places can be bought at from 815 to 830 per acre, winch is compifca lively cheap. Many large
bodies of land owned by single individuals and of the best quality can be had at very reasonable rates,
which could be divided into several (rood farms.
The hills and mountains arc covered with timber of the best quality for lumbering purposes and
easily reached. But little of the timber land has been entered or taken up.
' RAILROAD FACILITIES.
The O. R. & N. R. R. entering the vallev at the southern portion and following the foothills on tlnj
Southwest, passes out of the valley on the West, traversing the Southwestern boundary of the valley
for a distance of 14 miles.
The Hunt Railroad system will be extended during the next year from Wal'a Walla, W. T., through
tho Blue Mouutans to Summerville, in the northern portion of tho valley and will then traverse tho en
tiro length of the valley through Its center to Union. Upon the building of this road the valley will
have the best, railroad facilities.
I'uget Sound, W. T., is the terminal point of this line, putting Porta nd, Or., and the rities of the
Solnd in competition for tho trade of the Valley, the importance of which is evidenced by t lie building
of this second line of road. In concluding tills description of Grande Rondo Vsllcy. it cri be said with
out fear of contradiction, that no better opportunity is ofl'ered anywnere in the Northwest for the home
seeker er capitalists than in Grande Rondo Valley and its vicinity. Tho resources of the valley and its
tributary sections will sustain manufacturing industtioH of nearly every kind, of which we now have
but very few. It will sustain ten times the population It now has In the farming and dairying I usiuess.
offering in this line advantages not to ho found but in very few places. Tho raising of thorough bred
stock is a profitable business and there is hardly an individual here solely in that business at present.
To visit Grande Ronde Valley snd see it and to investigate Rh advantages, is to locate here. In no
ii'stance have people, who have visited this valley given It other than tho best of reputation in regard to
climate, soil and everything that goes to constitute a gjod country.
The Grande Ronde Valley has several considerable towns and villages: Union in the southern end
of the valley, La Grande at the base of the mountains on the northwest Summerville in tho northern
end of the valley, Covo about midway on the east side, and Elgin in the extreme northern part of the
The County Seat of Union Oouuty, is situated lu the southern portion ol the Fertile Grande Hondo Valley, and has
the beet Natural Locution for a City of any town lu Kastern Oregon. Situated, just Ht the base of rolling hills ou both
sides of Catherine Creek, a beautiful, sparkling stream, whose waters aru pure as nature ever distilled and held
suspended in her mountain reservoirs, furnishing immeuse waterpower just waiting to be utilized by the hand of
man for all kinds of manufacturing Industries. In fact the water power is amply sulllcicut to make Union the Lowell
of Oregon if the attcutlou of her enterprising citizens were turned in that direction, which will be the case when new
blood and Kastern capitalists come in. This is one of tho best places in Oregon for the erection of mnuufacturies.
A woolen mill is greatly needed now, aud soio energetic capitalist who Is engaged in such business would find
here the chosen spot for such an enterprise, right In the heart of a great wool-growing section of the country. No
high freights to pay, water-power In abuudauce, aud lu fact everything that such a business would consume is pro
daced here lu tho valley. g
The preseut population of Union Is about 1,200, hut when the O. fc W. T. railroad reaches here she will double her
population luslde of six months. Eager eyes are watching to take advantage of the preseut low prices In property aud
procure for themselves a home where they may live In peace aud plenty. Waterworks can be put in at very little ex
pense by running apart of Catherine creek Into a large reservoir on the hill back of town. This will give all the fall
wo want from 160 feet up; uo expense of keeping a steam pump and the necessary repairs. This mountalu stream
can be; made to run directly Into the reservoir and all the waste can be utilized In .furnishing power for machinery
When onco waterworks are completed there will be uo need for wells, springs, etc., for uo purr drinking water can be
IUU BUUUUI III IIHBCIU I9UIUHUU llltAJ illlll LUill(JIUUNCUlB nil IUUI Ullkj ,1 ftilUUUUt CtlllieillH UU COmPietlUlf lllH Til,
.n.l lw.il nnuran nf et.wli mitnli'n a 1 fl i.n f . in thot ntfn.it An n.1.1 Itl.Mi in tli.t nm.uiil .... lw.nl I... 1 1.1 1 ... . n . i
tlou, also several hundred dollars worth of apartments is soon to bo added, 1
Morally and socially, Union Is unexcelled aud her hospitality Is widely known throughout the surrounding coun
try. We have four churches, all in a nourishing condition. There are six secret societies, dolug much good to hu
manlty. Wo have a number of stores of different kinds, all doing a profitable business, as thev supply a great agricul
tural district aud the numerous mining camps in tho uear vicinity. We are also supplied with several saloons bar
bershons, blacksmlthshops, etc., one principal hotel and several restaurants, so that the most fastidious tastes o'f tho
cplcuriau cau be fully satisfied. We uro also supplied with two first-class livery and feed stables so that strnntrers
coming to this town will have uo trouble lu procuring a first-class team and taking a drive out Into the exhllleratlu?
atmosphere and feasting his eyes upon the grandeur of our mountain Bcencry, and breathing in the life-glvlug exvceu
that can be found nowhere so pure us in L'nion Comity. To the Hasten v. who is uot used to mountain scenery when
flrat bcholdlngour beautiful locution, his lirst and Involuntary oxolamutfou Is, "Paradise Found at Last,"
Our school facilities are unsurpassed, we have lu our public school, a High School Grade. The school is supplied
ith every possible convenience. Everything is furnished by our liberal huuded citizens, who bollevn In i-ivd,,. t,i-
reu a first-class education and that they can be educated in no better way than by having a No. 1 School at homo
uur I'uuui) iiuuri jiuupv ta nru uiiiouuii in cut pui-ucuiur, mm iug n lurgu auu commouious nail, amply sufficient
to accommodate any and all audiences. It also has in connection a Jail built by the t'auley Bros., with ill their latest
Improveed cells, thus mklng things secure agalnnf the escape of any prisoners that may bo confined tborelu Our
Otiera House Is one of the lanrest this Side ol Portland, with haudsomelv decorated piirtnlna un.i a..i.i, i .'.....l
style. Ono largo and commodious Flouring Mill, full roller process, with all modern improvements, Is situated adfoin.
ing tho town. Also several saw mills lu the near vicinity. The lumbering interest is bound to become uultoafen.
ture in our Industries. '
Taken all In all. Union is ono of the best towns In Eastern Oregon. Heretofore she has been kept back on account
of poor railroad facilities, but when the Hunt System of lUllroad Is completed Into Union, Its latent resources will bo
developed and It will take its place amoug the thriving cities of our laud. We have one of tho loveliest towns In
Oregon, and a great deal of wealth Is here already. All that is now needed is for people to come and take advantan
of the greut inducements soou to be thrown at tho feet of every energetic man possessing either bruins or muscle
The pleasure-seeker or tho invalid can fliul no better place to whilo away the summer mouths Ouly throo'tnllns
away can be found Hot Springs aud Lakes reveling lu medical rirtuus uud curative powers tho famous ''Kansas itnt
Springs," Hheutnatlsm and Biich complaint disappearing as if by the hand of some magician. Lovers of the niscatnrtHl
art will find the bcauulful sparkling waters of Catherine creek atlvu with tho gamy mountalu and brook trout In thi
edge of the mountains larger game may bo fouud, while out lu tho valley along the Grande Koudo river Hrarwsi.
swau aud ducks In ubundanco. lu the the grain field prairie, chlckeus aro quite plentiful. Taking all theso nfitiirai
advantages for pleasure aud business, wo think people looking for a home cau flud uo pluce supplying all their wan
better than the beautiful city of Union. b " lut,r waut
blnce the much talked of Hunt Itallroad is an assured fact, proporty Is beginning to ailrauce lu prices thnm.h .
tho preseut time city lots aud blocks may bo had at very reasonable rates. ' ' ",uuiu '
THE UNION REAL ESTATE ASSOCIATION
Now has in its possession tracts of land suitable for small farms, or they could be laid off into blocks. This asso
ciation has started in on a firm basis, having within its power the means of handling property to a better advantage
than any firm in Union County. They already have numerous tracts adjoining the city; farms, loc, etc. to
be sold on very reasonable terms or for cash.
Parties desiring information of Union County can do no better than interview or address the managers of this
WILSON & HACKETT
Who will cheerfully furnish (hum with all tho information desired.
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