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From the (HondwJoh WawW) Friend of May 1, 184G.
jjy t, arrival of tho U. H. schooner Shark,
lit. Corn. Howi'moii, wo Iiuvo received our re
gular files of N. Y. papers (Mercury and Ex
prcss) ut to Feb. 5; and have also been fa.
v own with tlm perusal of a N. 0. paper as
late oh February 21.
Wc liavo uIho ncen u " Iip" cut from a
Washington paper which brings news "22
days" later from England, or down to thn last
of 'January. (rTho intelligence from tbat
country is of tlm very highest importance, and
henco wo refer our readers to the ubstruct of
MiikHhIi news found below.
From them and letters wliieb bav been
kindly Ntibmittcd to our eriiHal wo glean the
Tub (Jkeuo.n Question. The relations be
tween the United Slates and Great Britain,
in regard to tlm ( )regon territory, have rather
mi ominous aspect, though we cannot think a
uur will grow out oftho present difficulties. In
onlor that our readers may know how the com
stood ut the lust advices, we give the follow,
ing synopsis: Hy a convention between the
two countries on the 20th of October, 1816, it
uus agreed that what is now culled the Ore.
gon territory, with its Imrlxtrx, bays, .Ve.,
should In free uinl open for the term of ten
ycurs, to the vessels, citizens and subjects of
the two nations. In August, 1627, uuother
negotiation on the matter was ...i minuted by
the renewal of the 3d article of the former'
eonvention, and providing for the iiidefmite
eMeiiHiou of ull its provisions, with the agree,
uient that either party might terminate it at
any time it should in thought advisable, by I
giving one year's notice after the 20th of Of
n.l.er, 182S. . I
Attempts ut two or three different times.
Ime been made by nivmliers of congress, to'
pass a bill directing the president of tin- U. I
States to give this notice, but they have lccri
unsuccessful. In the former negotiations In?,
twecn the two countries proposition), have;
U'en made by each party, as lollovvs : (Srcut
Itritum offi'rpd the 1. Suites to run u line '
along the 40th pa ml lei of latitude to the north
1 asternmost branch of the Columbia river,
and thence down that river to the heu, giving
t ( Srcut lintaiii ull the country north, and '
to the I'nited States ull the country south of!
that line, except a Miiall detached territory,
extending on the Pacific und Straits of Fuca,
(mm Biillmch h harbor to I loud cuiiul, w Inch
also wus to be given to the I'. State,. The
I'. S. 011 the other hand, offered to divide the
land bv a line drawn along the parallel of 40
degrees from the Rocky uinuntaius to the sea,
giving Great Britain the free navigation of
tlieColumbiu river. Neither proposition be
ing acceded to, mutters remained in statu
ipio until November, 1812, when the British
government notified the American govern
ment of its wish to enter into negotiations
.cerning the Ixmndary. Nothing, howev
.r, was done of importance until the 23d of
August, 1H 14, when the negotiations com
menced between Messrs. Culhoun ami Pukcn
hum, as plenipotentiaries at Washington. In
addition to the former offers of Great Britain,
Mr. I'akcnham offered to make free any port
or ports which the United States might dc
tire, either on the main land or Vancouver's
Island. This was declined by Mr. Calhoun.
Mr. I'ukcnhum wished then to know what
arrangement Mr Calhoun was prepared to
proKsc. Mr. C. in reply claimed the whole
territory drained by the Columbia river and
its branches. Thus the negotiation rested un
til Januury, 1845, when Mr. Pakcnham pro
posed to settle tho question by arbitration,
which was declined by Mr. Calhoun.
In July, 1815, tho negotiation was again
resumed by Mr. Buchanan, who offered to
Mr. P. tho line formerly ofTcred, viz: along
the 40th degrco of latitude from tho Rocky
mountains to tho Pacific, making frco to Groat
Britain any port or ports on Vancouver's Isl
and, south of that lotitudo. Mr. P. in reply
rejects this offer, and trusts Mr. B. will bo pre
pared to oirer some further proposal, " more
consistent with fairness and equity, and with
the reasonable expectations of tho British
government," dec. Mr. B. complains that his
proposition ha been rejocted without even
a reference to his own government," and with
draws tho proposal.
In Docember, Mr. P. again proposes to
leave tho whole matter to arbitration, which
is again declined by Mr. B., and thus the
matter rested at our last dates, bo far as the
negotiations are concerned.
On the 0th of February last, resolvee were
passed tho house of representatives directing
" WWwwd the Hlar of Empire take iU way."
Ortfon City, (Oregon Ter.) July 4, 1I4C.
tho president to cause notico to be given to
tho government of Great Britain, that the con
vention shall Ins annulled in one year after
giving said notice, but this notice not to in
terfere with tho right and discretion of tho
proper authorities to renew or pursue nego
tiations for an amicable settlement of the con
troversy. These resolves were passed by a
vote of 109 yeas, to 54 nays. It is very
doubtful, however, whether these resolves
pass the senate, as Mr. Calhoun and many
of tho southern senators are opposed to them.
Out of 50 senators, only 22 are presumed to
be in favor of pussing the resolves. The pre
sident litis informed the senate that the at
tempt to renew the negotiations had failed.
Mexico. The affairs between tho U. S.
and Mexico stfll remained unsettled. The
Mexican government had refused to receive
Mr. Slidell oh minister plenipotentiary from
tiie U. States, and he had left the city of Mex
ico. It is ulso stated that Matamoras and
Taiiipico are blockaded. Tho American
troops in Texas had been ordered to take up
the line of march f;r the Rio Grande or Bra
vo. The Mexican troops had retired from
Mazatlan into the interior; all vessels in the
liar!or had been sent off a day or two before
the Shurk left. Tho Mexican government
had ordered the governors of the states to
furnish the necessary quota of men to fill up
the armv of invasion to the war-complement
of 00,000 men. Tho internal affairs cf Mcx
ico arc by no means quiet. Opposition in
Mine of the states is still made to tho usurpa
tion of general l'arcdcs.
United States. The now tariff prepared
by the secretary of the treasury, proposes ad
valorem duties us follows :
Iron and manufactures of iron, 30 per cent.;
coal.HO; manufacturcsof wool,25; unmanu
factured wool, 20 ; manufactures of cotton,
hemp and flax, 20 ; wines, 30 ; spirits, 75 ;
sugar and molasses, 30; manufacturesof silk,
30 ; do. of worsted, 25 ; cofTee, tea and salt,
The U. S. frigate Congress, was spoken
the 8th Dec. Tut. 2 degs. 25 north, long. 20
(legs. 52 west ; 3B days out and expected to
be in Rio in 15 days. She had not arrived
at Valparaiso on tho 27th February, as we
learn bv a whale, ship at Lahaina.j The
ship " Brooklyn" left New York for the Ore
gon on the 4th of February, with 175 emi
grants, principally farmers and mechanics,
from New England. Two other vessels were
expected to leave Boston and Salem in March.
The ex portf from the U. S. tho past year,
amounted to nearly one hundred and fifteen
millions of Hollars. Imports one hundred and
Dr. White left Washington for the Oregon
on tho 8th of February. Ho was to bo es
corted with all despatch by U. S. dragoons,
through thu Indian territory.
The line of tho magnetic telegraph between
New York and Boston was to Iks completed
in February last. It is to be extended to tho
vatley of the Mississippi.
The Girard College near Philadelphia is
Parliament was prorogued to tho 22d of
January, on which day it mot. Tho Queen's
speech, as well as the tono of tho press, with
regard to tho U. S., was of tho most pacific
character. Expressions of regret were made
on all hands, that the difficulties between that
country and the United States about Oregon,
are yet unsettled.
Sir Robert Peel in a four hour's speech,
introduced his plan for the fiscal regenera
tion of the country. It was simple and com
prehensive. He announced the reduction of
duty on a number of articles which press up
on the commercial and agricultural interests,
and impressed upon the manufacturers the
necessity of preparing for the advent of free
Sir Robert Peel In his speech spoke highly
of tho report of the American secretary of
the treasury. Said report, at the request of
JLiOrd Monteagle, was ordered to oe reprinted
and placed on the table of both houses of
parliament, an honor which was probably
never awarded to a similar document before.
Tho timber duties ar to undergo a revis
ion. Tho duty on foreign free labor sugar
is to Ijo reduced 3s. 6d. per cwt. The corn
laws he proposes to abolish totally and un
conditionally, on the 1st of February, 1849,
and In the meantime, a modified sliding scale
is to be substituted for the one at present in
existence. The law of settlement is to bo al
tered and the high way rates are to be re
modelled. The alteration of duties propo
sed on American produce are as follows: Ba
con, beef, (fresh and salted,) pork, hay, hides
and mcat,r'. Tallow candles, 6s. per cwt.;
cheese, 5s. per cwt.; hams, 7s. per cwt.; tal
low, Is. per cwt. ; buckwheat, Indian corn
and rice, 1b. per quarter, instead of the for
mer heavy duties. Yankee clocks are to be
admitted at 10 per cent., instead of 50 per
cent, ad valorem.
France. The French Chambers were
opened by the King on the 30th of Decern
her, by a speech from the Throne, which was
very pacific and friendly to England. Mr.
Guizot had noticed the remarks of Mr. Polk's
message relative to war and Texas, express
ing his surprise at the language used, and
stating that he considered it his duty to claim
in reply for France, an entire independence
1 persecutions of their nftirhbors in Illinois.
" ------ -. -gj ... .-.-.-.,
gives tho following, account or the place of
their nrooosed residence :
" Nootka or Vancouver Island, on the north
west coast of North Atrrica, wo have it from
good authority, is to be the final destination
and home of thu Mormon people. This island
is about three hundred miles long, and from
seventy-ftve to one hundred in width. It is
separated from the main land by a long, nar
row strait, and lies between the 47th and
48th and Glst'or 52d degrees of north lati
tude, extending along the coast in a north
west direction. The boundary line between
the American and British possessions will
probably pass across the island. The Eng
lish, we iKjJieve, havo one or two trading posts
on the island, but for tho most part it is in
habited by Indians, of not a warlike disposi
tion. It is a long journey, but can be ac
complished. If the Mormons do emigrate to
that distant land, they will be out of the reach
of harm from white men, and may enjoy their
peculiar notions in quiet, until the devil breeds
his own discords and confusions among them.
Wc understand from the same authority
that companies are rapidly organizing at
Nauvoo, for an early start in tho spring. The
church authorities and leading men will go
out in a very large company, and without
doubt the remainder will follow.
C3The frigate Congress, commodore Du
pont, bearing the broad pennant of commo
dore Stockton, sailed from Norfolk Nov. 4.
Officers and Passengers. Commodore,
R. F. Stockton. Commander, Samuel F. Du
pont. Lieutenants, John W. Livingston, Jas.
F. Sohenck, Theodore P. Green, A. F. V.
Gray, Richard L. Tilghman, E. G. Parrot.
Fleet Surgeon, Charles Eversfield. Purser,
William Speiden. Chaplain, Walter Colton.
Matter, Van Rensalaer Morgan. Commo
dore1 1 Secretary, J. Parker Norris. Comma,
dore's Clerk, Gonstantine Sargent. 1st Lieut.
Marine, J . Zoi tin . Passed Midshipmen, Ed
ward F. Bcilo, Meting Master,) John Guest,
Wm. H. Thompson, James M. Duncan, M.
K. Warrington, Charles H. Baldwin, Mau
rice Simons. Midshipmen, Samuel B. Elliot,
Theodora Lee, Archibald H. Warring, Ben
jamin F. Wells, Josiah S. Byers, William
Mitchell. Gunner, Charles Cobb. Carpen.
ter, John Southwick; Sailmaker, John Peed.
Passengers to the Sandwich Islands, Anthony
Ten Eyck, diplomatic agent, lady and chil
dren, Miss Johnson, and J. Turrill, consul,
ludy and family.
Her principal cruising ground is supposed
to be tho Oregon coast.
The Polynesian of April 26, copies from
the Journal of Commerce, the following as
an extract of a letter, dated
Havana, Jan. 13, 1846.
Lieut. Peel, son of Sir Robert Peel, arri
ved here in tho last steamer from Vera Cruz,
and went to Europe as bearer of despatches
from the Admiral of the Englishsquadron at
the Sandwich Islands.
Sinco his passage a rumor is circulated
that the wholo English force in the Pacific is
making sail for the Columbia river, with or
dors to anchor there.
On tho 12th January, President Jones is.
sued his Proclamation, announcing the re
ceipt of official intelligence of the passage by
the congress, and approved by the President
of the United States, of the Joint Resolution
for the admission of Texas into the Union ;
and directing the members of the legislature
elect to assemble in regular biennial session
at Austin, on Monday, the 16th of February
next, and nraceed tooraanize a State Govern
ment. Polynesian. )
The Quinoy Waif, after statin definite!!
that it is understood that the Mormons will re
tire to Nootka Sound, from the disgraceful
Too True. A dark featuro in the present
age, said the late Dr. Channing, " is the spirit
of collision, contention and discord, which
breaks forth in religion, politics, in private
affairs a result a necessary issue of the self
ishness which prompts the endless activity of
life. The migh y forces which are at this
moment acting in society aro not and cannot
bo in harmony, for they cannot be governed
by love. Thoy jar they are discordant.
Life has now little music ,in it. It is not only
on the field of battle that men fight. They
fight on the exchange. Business is war, is
conflict of skill, management, too often fraud.
Christians forsaking their one Lord, gather
under the various standards to gain a victory
for their sects. Politics is war, breaking the
wholo people into fierce and unscrupulous
parties, which forget their country in conflict
for office and power. The age needs nothing
more' than peace makers; men of serene, com
manding virtue, to preach in life and word
tho gospel of human brotherhood, to allay the
fires of jealousy and hate.
Select Scrap sua fllsutis .
He knows nothing of man, who expects to
convince a determined party-man.
The wrath that on conviction subsides in
to mildness, is the wrath of agenerons mind.
He submit to be seen through a' micros
cope, who suffers himself to be caught In a
fit of passion. ""f
Wc should not say we know' another en
tirely till we have divided an inheritance
With three sorts of men, enter into no se
rious friendship the ungrateful man ; tho
multiloquous man; the coward : the first can
not prize thy favors; the second cannot keep
thy counsel; the third daro not vindicate thy
For men in business, Credit should be spar
ingly givon, and integrity be the basis of it.
Guarantees should only be taken in wri
ting, and a consideration always expressed
Tho honor of an honest man, as far as dol
lars and cents goes, dies when he dies there
fore, honorable conditions in writing.
Lying won't stand, while truth is truth.
Rascals may flourish, but honest men will
Wealth is desirable, if honestly acquired,
and is blest with contentment.
Prudence in promises is a fair guarantee
in tho redemption of them.
A genuine scoundrel is a man who, by his
sanctity, has obtained credit; and, through
religious professions, keeps back property
from his legitimate creditors.
A burglar is a gentleman, compared with
a smootli-fuced merchant-robber, v
Credit or confidence given'to men of doubt
ful integrity, is an injustice done to, all who
hold on to their honesty.
Liberality should never be extended to the
jsajrgaraiy ana deceptive.
'. Risk anything before you risk your repu
tation. ' Truth is a restorative it saves the oorv
science, and keeps up a glow of happiaese
under all the workings of life.